In sport, a cap is a metaphorical term for a player's appearance in a game at international level. The term dates from the practice in the United Kingdom of awarding a cap to every player in an international match of association football. In the early days of football, the concept of each team wearing a set of matching shirts had not been universally adopted, so each side would distinguish itself from the other by wearing a specific sort of cap. An early illustration of the first international football match between Scotland and England in 1872 shows the Scottish players wearing cowls, the English wearing a variety of school caps; the practice was first approved on 10 May 1886 for association football after a proposal made by N. Lane Jackson, founder of the Corinthians: That all players taking part for England in future international matches be presented with a white silk cap with red rose embroidered on the front; these to be termed International Caps. The act of awarding a cap is applied to other sports.
Although in some sports physical caps may not now always be given the term "cap" for an international or other appearance has been retained as an indicator of the number of occasions on which a sportsperson has represented a team in a particular sport. Thus, a "cap" is awarded for each game played and so a player who has played x games, for the team, is said to have been capped x times or have won x caps; the practice of awarding a physical cap varies from sport to sport. It may be awarded prior to a player's debut or for national teams, a commemorative cap may be awarded after a player reaches the 100th cap; as an example, the England men's association football teams still awards physical caps. Players are awarded one cap for every match they play — unless they play in a World Cup or European Championship finals tournament, they are given a single cap for the competition — with the names of all their opponents stitched into the fabric of the cap itself. For example, when David Beckham made his one hundredth appearance for England, because a number of his appearances had been at World Cup and European Championship final tournaments for which he received only one cap, he received only his 85th physical cap.
The world record holder for the highest number of international caps as of 5 November 2010 is retired American player Kristine Lilly, who has 354 caps. In men's association football, the record belongs to former player Ahmed Hassan of Egypt; the first footballer to win 100 international caps was Billy Wright of England's Wolverhampton Wanderers. Wright went on to appear 105 times for England, 90 of them. FIFA rules state that any club that refuses to release a player for national team duty is barred from using the player for two matches, a rule, intended to discourage clubs from pretending that the player is injured. However, it is a player's choice to refuse to retire from his or her national team; some current leading holders of association football caps are: 184 – Ahmed Hassan, Egypt 178 – Hossam Hassan, Egypt 178 – Mohamed Al-Deayea, Saudi Arabia 177 – Claudio Suárez, Mexico 178 in Mexican records 169 – Gianluigi Buffon, Italy 168 – Iván Hurtado, Ecuador 167 – Iker Casillas, Spain 166 – Vitālijs Astafjevs, Latvia 164 – Cobi Jones, United States 163 - Sergio Ramos, Spain 163 – Mohammed Al-Khilaiwi, Saudi Arabia 161 – Adnan Al-Talyani, United Arab Emirates 158 – Bader Al-Mutawa, Kuwait 157 – Landon Donovan, United States 354 – Kristine Lilly, United States World record holder 311 – Christie Rampone, United States 275 – Mia Hamm, United States 272 – Julie Foudy, United States 259 - Christine Sinclair, Canada 256 – Abby Wambach, United States 239 – Joy Fawcett, United States 231 – Heather O'Reilly, United States 214 – Birgit Prinz, Germany 214 – Therese Sjögran, SwedenBold denotes players active in international football.
In cricket, there are two types of caps. Firstly, there is the international type; some countries award a domestic type known as a "county cap". The latter system is most applied in English county cricket. Most counties do not automatically award caps to players on their first appearance. Indeed, one can play at the highest domestic level for several years, have a quite significant career in first-class cricket, without winning a cap; the world record for the number of caps in Test cricket is held by Sachin Tendulkar of India, who has, over the course of a 22-year career, collected 200. Tendulkar holds the record for One Day Internationals, with 463 caps. In rugby union, 35 players have reached 100 international caps as of 5 June 2012. Players from England, Scotland and Ireland are eligible for selection to the British and Irish Lions touring squad. Lions matches are classed as full international tests, caps are awarded; the Pacific Islanders team, composed of players from Fiji, Tonga and Cook Islands have a similar arrangement, although no players involved have so far reached 100 caps.
Players still active at Test level are in bold type. Richie McCaw, New Zealand — 148 Brian O'Driscoll, Ireland — 141 George Gregan, Australia — 139 Gethin Jenkins, Wales, 131 — Ronan O'Gara, Ireland — 130 Keven Mealamu, New Zealand — 125 Victor
City of Manchester Stadium
The City of Manchester Stadium in Manchester, England known as the Etihad Stadium for sponsorship reasons, is the home of Manchester City and, with a domestic football capacity of 55,097, the fifth-largest in the Premier League and tenth-largest in the United Kingdom. Built to host the 2002 Commonwealth Games, the stadium has since staged the 2008 UEFA Cup Final, England football internationals, rugby league matches, a boxing world title fight, the England rugby union team's last match of the 2015 Rugby World Cup and summer music concerts during the football off-season; the stadium proposed as an athletics arena in Manchester's bid for the 2000 Summer Olympics, was converted after the 2002 Commonwealth Games from a 38,000 capacity arena to a 48,000 seat football stadium at a cost to the city council of £22 million and to Manchester City of £20 million. Manchester City F. C. agreed to lease the stadium from Manchester City Council and moved there from Maine Road in the summer of 2003. The stadium was built by Laing Construction at a cost of £112 million and was designed and engineered by ArupSport, whose design incorporated a cable-stayed roof structure, separated from the main stadium bowl and suspended by twelve exterior masts and attached cables.
The stadium design has received much praise and many accolades, including an award from the Royal Institute of British Architects in 2004 for its innovative inclusive building design and a special award in 2003 from the Institution of Structural Engineers for its unique structural design. In August 2015, a 7,000 seat third tier on the South Stand was completed, in time for the start of the 2015–16 football season; the expansion was designed to be in keeping with the existing roof design. Plans to build a new stadium in Manchester were formulated before 1989 as part of the city's bid to host the 1996 Summer Olympics. Manchester City Council submitted a bid that included a design for an 80,000-capacity stadium on a greenfield site west of Manchester city centre; the bid failed and Atlanta hosted the Games. Four years the city council bid to host the 2000 Summer Olympics, but this time focusing on a brownfield site 1.6 kilometres east of the city centre on derelict land, the site of Bradford Colliery, known colloquially as Eastlands.
The council's shift in focus was driven by emerging government legislation on urban renewal, promising vital support funding for such projects. For the February 1993 bid the city council submitted another 80,000-capacity stadium design produced by design consultants Arup Associates, the firm that helped select the Eastlands site. On 23 September 1993, the games were awarded to Sydney, but the following year Manchester submitted the same scheme design to the Millennium Commission as a "Millennium Stadium", only to have this proposal rejected. Undeterred, Manchester City Council subsequently bid to host the 2002 Commonwealth Games, once again proposing the same site along with downsized stadium plans derived from the 2000 Olympics bid, this time were successful. In 1996, this same planned stadium competed with Wembley Stadium to gain funding to become the new national stadium, but the money was used to redevelop Wembley. After successful athletics events at the Commonwealth Games, conversion into a football venue was criticised by athletics figures such as Jonathan Edwards and Sebastian Coe as, at the time, the United Kingdom still lacked plans for a large athletics venue due to the capability of installing an athletics track having been dropped from the designs for a rebuilt Wembley Stadium.
Had either of the two larger stadium proposals developed by Arup been agreed for funding Manchester would have had a venue capable of being adapted to hosting large-scale athletics events through the use of movable seating. Sport England wished to avoid creating a white elephant, so they insisted that the City Council agree to undertake and fund extensive work to convert CoMS from a track and field arena to a football stadium, thereby ensuring its long-term financial viability. Sport England hoped either Manchester City Council or Manchester City F. C. would provide the extra £50 million required to convert the stadium to a 65,000 seater athletics and footballing venue with movable seating. However, Manchester City Council did not have the money to facilitate movable seating and Manchester City were lukewarm about the idea. Stadium architects Arup Sport believed history demonstrated that maintaining a used athletics track does not work with football – and cited examples such as the Stadio delle Alpi and the Olympic Stadium with both Juventus and Bayern Munich moving to new stadiums less than 40 years after inheriting them.
The stadium's foundation stone was laid by Prime Minister Tony Blair in December 1999, construction began in January 2000. The stadium was designed by Arup Associates and constructed by Laing Construction at a cost of £112 million, £77 million of, provided by Sport England, with the remainder funded by Manchester City Council. For the Commonwealth Games, the stadium featured a single lower tier of seating running around three sides of the athletics track, second tiers to the two sides, with an open-air temporary stand at the northern end; the first public event at the stadium was the opening ceremony of the 2002 Commonwealth Games on 25 July 2002. Among the dignitaries present was Queen Elizabeth II who made a speech, delivered to her in an electronic baton, and'declared the Commonwealth Games open'. During the
Association football, more known as football or soccer, is a team sport played with a spherical ball between two teams of eleven players. It is played by 250 million players in over 200 countries and dependencies, making it the world's most popular sport; the game is played on a rectangular field called a pitch with a goal at each end. The object of the game is to score by moving the ball beyond the goal line into the opposing goal. Association football is one of a family of football codes, which emerged from various ball games played worldwide since antiquity; the modern game traces its origins to 1863 when the Laws of the Game were codified in England by The Football Association. Players are not allowed to touch the ball with hands or arms while it is in play, except for the goalkeepers within the penalty area. Other players use their feet to strike or pass the ball, but may use any other part of their body except the hands and the arms; the team that scores most goals by the end of the match wins.
If the score is level at the end of the game, either a draw is declared or the game goes into extra time or a penalty shootout depending on the format of the competition. Association football is governed internationally by the International Federation of Association Football, which organises World Cups for both men and women every four years; the rules of association football were codified in England by the Football Association in 1863 and the name association football was coined to distinguish the game from the other forms of football played at the time rugby football. The first written "reference to the inflated ball used in the game" was in the mid-14th century: "Þe heued fro þe body went, Als it were a foteballe"; the Online Etymology Dictionary states that the "rules of the game" were made in 1848, before the "split off in 1863". The term soccer comes from a slang or jocular abbreviation of the word "association", with the suffix "-er" appended to it; the word soccer was first recorded in 1889 in the earlier form of socca.
Within the English-speaking world, association football is now called "football" in the United Kingdom and "soccer" in Canada and the United States. People in countries where other codes of football are prevalent may use either term, although national associations in Australia and New Zealand now use "football" for the formal name. According to FIFA, the Chinese competitive game cuju is the earliest form of football for which there is evidence. Cuju players could use any part of the body apart from hands and the intent was kicking a ball through an opening into a net, it was remarkably similar to modern football. During the Han Dynasty, cuju games were standardised and rules were established. Phaininda and episkyros were Greek ball games. An image of an episkyros player depicted in low relief on a vase at the National Archaeological Museum of Athens appears on the UEFA European Championship Cup. Athenaeus, writing in 228 AD, referenced the Roman ball game harpastum. Phaininda and harpastum were played involving hands and violence.
They all appear to have resembled rugby football and volleyball more than what is recognizable as modern football. As with pre-codified "mob football", the antecedent of all modern football codes, these three games involved more handling the ball than kicking. Other games included kemari in chuk-guk in Korea. Association football in itself does not have a classical history. Notwithstanding any similarities to other ball games played around the world FIFA has recognised that no historical connection exists with any game played in antiquity outside Europe; the modern rules of association football are based on the mid-19th century efforts to standardise the varying forms of football played in the public schools of England. The history of football in England dates back to at least the eighth century AD; the Cambridge Rules, first drawn up at Cambridge University in 1848, were influential in the development of subsequent codes, including association football. The Cambridge Rules were written at Trinity College, Cambridge, at a meeting attended by representatives from Eton, Rugby and Shrewsbury schools.
They were not universally adopted. During the 1850s, many clubs unconnected to schools or universities were formed throughout the English-speaking world, to play various forms of football; some came up with their own distinct codes of rules, most notably the Sheffield Football Club, formed by former public school pupils in 1857, which led to formation of a Sheffield FA in 1867. In 1862, John Charles Thring of Uppingham School devised an influential set of rules; these ongoing efforts contributed to the formation of The Football Association in 1863, which first met on the morning of 26 October 1863 at the Freemasons' Tavern in Great Queen Street, London. The only school to be represented on this occasion was Charterhouse; the Freemason's Tavern was the setting for five more meetings between October and December, which produced the first comprehensive set of rules. At the final meeting, the first FA treasurer, the representative from Blackheath, withdrew his club from the FA over the removal of two draft rules at the previous meeting: the first allowed for running with the ball in hand.
Other English rugby clubs followed this lead and did not join the FA and instead in 1871 formed the Rugby Football Union. The eleven remaining clubs, under
Norwich City F.C.
Norwich City Football Club is a professional football club based in Norwich, England. The club participates in the Championship, the second tier of English football, having been relegated from the Premier League in 2016, they were first promoted to the top flight in 1972. Norwich have won the League Cup twice, in 1962 and 1985; the club has never won the top flight, but finished third in 1993. The club was founded in 1902. Since 1935, Norwich have played their home games at Carrow Road and have a long-standing and fierce rivalry with East Anglian rivals Ipswich Town, with whom they have contested the East Anglian derby 134 times since 1902; the fans' song "On the Ball, City" is the oldest football chant in the world, written in the 1890s and still sung today. The club participates in characteristic yellow and green kits and are nicknamed The Canaries after the history of breeding the birds in the area. Norwich City F. C. was formed following a meeting at the Criterion Cafe in Norwich on 17 June 1902 and played their first competitive match against Harwich & Parkeston, at Newmarket Road on 6 September 1902.
They joined the Norfolk & Suffolk League for the 1902–03 season, but following a FA Commission, the club was ousted from the amateur game in 1905, deemed a professional organisation. That year Norwich were elected to play in the Southern League and with increasing crowds, they were forced to leave Newmarket Road in 1908, moving to The Nest, a disused chalk pit; the club's original nickname was the Citizens, although this was superseded by 1907 by the more familiar Canaries after the club's chairman dubbed his boys'The Canaries' and changing their strip to yellow and green. During the First World War, with football suspended and facing spiralling debts, City went into voluntary liquidation on 10 December 1917; the club was reformed on 15 February 1919 – a key figure in the events was Charles Frederick Watling, future Lord Mayor of Norwich and the father of future club chairman, Geoffrey Watling. When, in May 1920, the Football League formed a third Division, Norwich joined the Third Division for the following season.
Their first league fixture, against Plymouth Argyle, on 28 August 1920, ended in a 1–1 draw. The club went on to endure a mediocre decade, finishing no higher than eighth but no lower than 18th; the following decade proved more successful for the club with a club-record victory, 10–2, over Coventry City and promotion as champions to the Second Division in the 1933–34 season under the management of Tom Parker. With crowds continuing to rise, with the Football Association raising concerns over the suitability of The Nest, the club considered renovation of the ground, but decided on a move to Carrow Road; the inaugural match, held on 31 August 1935, against West Ham United, ended in a 4–3 victory to the home team and set a new record attendance of 29,779. The biggest highlight of the following four seasons was the visit of King George VI to Carrow Road on 29 October 1938; the club was relegated to the Third Division at the end of the season. The league was suspended the following season as a result of the outbreak of the Second World War and did not resume until the 1946–47 season.
City finished this and the following season in 21st place, the poor results forcing the club to apply for re-election to the league. The club narrowly missed out on promotion under the guidance of manager Norman Low in the early 1950s, but following the return of Tom Parker as manager, Norwich finished bottom of the football league in the 1956–57 season; the 1958–59 season saw Norwich reach the semi-final of the FA Cup as a Third Division side, defeating two First Division sides on the way: Tottenham Hotspur and Matt Busby's Manchester United. In the 1959–60 season, Norwich were promoted to the Second Division after finishing second to Southampton, achieved a fourth-place finish in the 1960–61 season. In 1962 Ron Ashman guided Norwich to their first trophy, defeating Rochdale 4–0 on aggregate in a two-legged final to win the League Cup. Sixth place in the league was the closest the club came to promotion to the First Division again during the 1960s, but after winning the division in the 1971–72 season under manager Ron Saunders, Norwich City reached the highest level of English football for the first time.
They made their first appearance at Wembley Stadium in 1973, losing the League Cup final 1–0 to Tottenham Hotspur. Relegation to the Second Division in 1974 came after Saunders had departed and been succeeded by John Bond, but the board of directors kept faith in Bond and were rewarded. A successful first season saw promotion back to the First Division and another visit to Wembley, again in the League Cup final, this time losing 1–0 to Aston Villa. Bond departed to Manchester City in autumn 1980 and the club were relegated six months but bounced back the following season after finishing third under Bond's successor Ken Brown. Norwich had been the beneficiaries of one of English football's first million-pound transfers when they sold striker Justin Fashanu to Nottingham Forest in August 1981; the 1984–85 season was of mixed fortunes for the club. In the final, they beat Sunderland 1–0, but in the league both Norwich and Sunderland were relegated to the second tier of English football; this made Norwich the first English club to win a major trophy and suffer relegation in the same season.
2007–08 in English football
The 2007–08 season was the 128th season of competitive football in England. In October 2007, Arsenal equalled the UEFA Champions League record victory with a 7–0 win over Slavia Prague at the Emirates Stadium; the record was broken the following month. All four English clubs competing in the Champions League reached the quarter-finals, resulting in three all-English ties during the competition's latter stages. Liverpool eliminated Arsenal in the quarter-finals, but lost the semi-final to Chelsea, who went on to meet Manchester United in the final in Moscow. United completed the European Double, winning the Premier League two points ahead of Chelsea and winning the UEFA Champions League, again against Chelsea 6–5 on penalties to lift the European Cup for the third time; this was a unique occurrence – the first time two English clubs had met in the final of the European Cup/Champions League. It was a repeat of the opening game of the season, the FA Community Shield, which finished 1–1 and saw a United win on penalties, 3–0.
In the UEFA Cup, none of the English teams taking part reached the quarter-final stage. Blackburn Rovers, who had qualified for the competition via the Intertoto Cup, were beaten in the first round by Larissa; the three other English clubs progressed through the group stages, with Bolton Wanderers losing to Sporting CP, while Tottenham Hotspur and Everton were both eliminated on penalty shootouts in the round of 16, by PSV Eindhoven and Fiorentina respectively. The 2008 UEFA Cup Final was held at the City of Manchester Stadium, the first time that the UEFA Cup Final had been held in England since being reduced to a single match; the event was marred by riots in Manchester city centre prior to the game. In the match itself, Zenit Saint Petersburg beat Rangers 2–0 to lift the trophy. Manchester United retained the Premier League title, winning the competition for the tenth time and becoming champions of England for the seventeenth time in all; the title was decided on the final day of the season as United's 2–0 win at Wigan Athletic saw them crowned champions and consigned Chelsea to the runners-up spot regardless of their result at home to Bolton Wanderers.
Arsenal and Liverpool qualified for the UEFA Champions League 2008–09 third qualifying round by finishing third and fourth while Everton's fifth position gave them a place in the 2008–09 UEFA Cup first round. Reading, Birmingham City and Derby County were relegated. Derby became the first team in Premier League history to be relegated before the end of March, they finished on the lowest points tally amassing only 11 points, including just one victory all season. The Premier League underwent a major rebranding. After the disappointment of a play-off final defeat the previous year, West Bromwich Albion won the Football League Championship title and returned to the Premier League. Stoke City secured the other automatic promotion spot, after a 23-year absence from the top flight. Hull City followed them by winning the play-off final, beating Bristol City 1–0 at Wembley Stadium in the final to reach the top division of English football for the first time in their 104-year history, it was the first time that Hull had played at rebuilt Wembley Stadium.
Despite impressing on their Championship debut in 2006–07, Colchester United finished bottom this season and were relegated back to League One. Scunthorpe United's first journey into the Championship since the 1960s proved short-lived, they went back down; the biggest story however was Leicester City's relegation, as a lack of stability at the club proved their undoing and sent them down to League One for the first time in their history. In a season mired by controversy and points deductions at both ends of the table, Swansea City were the clear champions in League One. In terms of results, Leeds United were the best team behind Swansea, but had started the season on –15 points following their failure to reach an agreement with HM Revenue & Customs on their Creditors Voluntary Arrangement; this was the first time in the league's history. Nottingham Forest therefore took the second automatic promotion spot on the final day of the season after a late surge of form, culminating in Forest defeating Yeovil 3–2.
Doncaster Rovers won promotion to the Championship by beating Leeds United 1–0 at Wembley Stadium in the League One play-off final, thus returning to the top two tiers for the first time since 1958. At the opposite end of the table, Port Vale were in fact the worst team going by results, but Luton Town went into administration and lost ten points causing them to finish bottom, though they would have been relegated without this penalty. Bournemouth received a ten-point deduction for going into administration, in their case it did prove fatal, sending the club down to League Two. If the points deduction did not occur Crewe would have gone down. Gillingham were the other team to suffer relegation. Milton Keynes Dons won their first honours as a club, winning the League Two title and the Football League Trophy; the other clubs automatically promoted were runners-up Peterborough United, who had pushed the Dons close for most of the season, Hereford United, who returned to the third level of English football for the first time in 30 years.
Stockport County won promotion to League One by beating Rochdale 3–2 at Wembley Stadium in the League Two
Football Club de Sion known as FC Sion or Sion, is a Swiss football team from the city of Sion. The club was founded in 1909, play their home matches at the Stade Tourbillon, they have won the Swiss Super League twice, the Swiss Cup in 13 of their 14 appearances in the final, the most recent being in 2015. The first team of the club was known as their incorporated name Olympique des Alpes SA. FC Sion were founded in 1909 by Robert Gilliard, who became club captain, played their first match the same year, a 3–2 win against FC Aigle; the club grew thanks to contributions from locals, played their first competitive league fixture in 1914, again a 3–2 victory, against FC Monthey. In 1919, Sion formally organised its managerial structure, with Gilliard becoming vice-president and Charles Aymon taking the presidency. From 1932, Sion played in the fourth tier of Swiss football, where they spent much of the next 20 years interrupted by promotion to the third tier in 1944 followed by relegation in 1946.
In 1952, Sion returned to the third tier. Five years Sion gained promotion again to the National League B, followed five years by promotion to the National League A in 1962. 1965 saw. The 16,263 capacity Stade Tourbillon was opened in August 1968, but the club was relegated in 1969. Sion returned to the National League A at the first attempt and secured a second victory in the Swiss Cup, winning 3–2 against Neuchâtel Xamax in 1974. Sion would go on to perform well in the Swiss Cup, with victories in 1980, 1982, 1986 and 1991; this period of success saw the renovation and expansion of the Tourbillon in 1989, was crowned with Sion's first Swiss League Championship in 1992. More success in the Swiss Cup followed, winning the tournament in three consecutive years from 1995 with victories over Grasshopper and Luzern, their win against Luzern in 1997 secured Sion their only domestic double, having won the Swiss League. However, the club fell into financial trouble, having narrowly avoided bankruptcy due to its purchase by Gilbert Kadji, the club suffered relegation in 1999.
Despite returning to the top division the following season, financial problems plagued the team, culminating in relegation in 2001, the departure of Kadji and a denial of a professional license in 2003. The club was saved by architect and former footballer Christian Constantin, they were re-instated into the second division in October 2003. Constantin spent the following seasons rebuilding the club, with the club going through 20 managers in the following eight years, including taking the role himself twice, in a bid to financially stabilize, he was rewarded in 2006 with promotion back to the Super League, as well as a victory in the Swiss Cup, becoming the first second tier team to achieve this, with a 5–3 penalty shoot-out victory over Young Boys after a 1–1 draw. In 2008, controversy came to Sion when they signed Essam El-Hadary, leading to a two-year "registration period" ban for Sion from June 2009, an international playing ban for El-Hadary for four months, due to El-Hadary still being under contract at his former club Al Ahly.
Sion appealed this action, but the Federal Supreme Court of Switzerland confirmed the FIFA, DRC and Court of Arbitration for Sport decisions in 2009 and 2010 respectively. However, the lengthy legal battle meant the ban was only instituted beginning in the winter transfer window of the 2010–11 season. Although gaining a place in the qualifying round of the 2011–12 UEFA Europa League by winning the previous season's Swiss Cup, Sion were excluded from the Europa League by UEFA after fielding ineligible players in their play-off victory against Celtic. On 2 September, the Swiss Football League rejected the registration of Brian Amofa. On 30 September 2011, the SFL decided to provisionally qualify the six new signings, namely Stefan Glarner, Billy Ketkeophomphone, Mario Mutsch, Pascal Feindouno, José Gonçalves and Gabri, to comply with the ongoing legal process. Sion sued the SFL and UEFA in the Tribunal Cantonal de Valais and the Tribunal in Vaud, however both actions were dismissed; the club's earlier appeal was dismissed by UEFA Appeals Body on 13 September.
Sion sued the SFL and UEFA in the CAS, but withdrew the former claim. The hearing of the latter claim was set on 24 November. On 25 October, the Discipline Commission of SFL suspended, it was reported that each player filed their legal claim in civil court instead of using the Swiss FA and CAS "sports court" system, which the ban was requested by FIFA. On 27 October, as a "provisional and super-provisional measures", UEFA invited Sion to a match schedule consultation once UEFA lost the legal battle. On 31 October 2011, Sion sent a complaint to the European Commission. FIFA won the legal battle in civil court in November; the civil court of Martigny and Saint-Maurice ordered FIFA to confirm the signing of those six players on 3 August, a consequence of lawsuit brought out by the players. On 16 November, the SFL appeal was upheld in the Valais canton court. On 15 December, the CAS upheld the complaints by UEFA, affirming its right to discipline Sion according to previous agreements; the CAS lifted the provisional measures ordered by the Tribunal Cantonal of Vaud on 5 October 2011.
After the ruling, FIFA threatened to suspend Swiss national and club teams from international competition if Sion were
Plymouth Argyle F.C.
Plymouth Argyle Football Club is a professional football club based in the city of Plymouth, England. The club competes in League One, the third tier of the English football league system, following promotion from League Two in the 2016–17 season, it is one of two clubs in Devon competing in the Football League, the other being Exeter City, Argyle's local rivals. Since becoming professional in 1903, the club has won five Football League titles, five Southern League titles and one Western League title; the 2009–10 season was the club's 42nd in the second tier of English football. The team set the record for most championships won in the third tier, having finished first in the Third Division South twice, the Third Division once and the Second Division once; the club takes its nickname, "The Pilgrims", from an English religious group that left Plymouth for the New World in 1620. The club crest features the ship that carried the pilgrims to Massachusetts; the club have predominantly played in green and white throughout their history, with a few exceptions in the late 1960s and early 1970s when white was the colour of choice.
A darker shade of green, described as'Argyle green', was adopted in the 2001-02 season, has been used since. The city of Plymouth is the largest in England never to have hosted top-flight football, they are the most westerly League club in England. Much speculation surrounds the origin of the name Argyle. One explanation is that the club was named after the Argyll and Sutherland Highlanders, an army regiment with a strong football side of its own. Another theory is given by the local geography–suggesting the name comes either from the nearby public house, The Argyle Tavern, where the founder members may have met, or from a local street Argyle Terrace; the club adopted its current name when it became professional in 1903. The club was founded in 1886 as Argyle Football Club, the first match taking place on 16 October 1886; the club was disbanded 1894, before being resurrected in 1897 as one part of a general sports club, the Argyle Athletic Club. The club joined the Southern League the English 3rd tier, in 1903 becoming professional in the process.
Argyle won the Southern League in 1912-13 in 1920-21 entered the Football League Third Division as a founder member along with most of the Southern League, where they finished 11th in their first season. Between 1921–22 and 1926–27, Argyle finished second in the new Third Division South six seasons in a row, thereby missing promotion. Argyle won promotion to Football League Division Two in 1929–30, when they topped the Third Division South, with attendances that season reaching 20,000. Manager Bob Jack resigned in 1937. Argyle's 20-year stay in Division Two came to an end in 1949-50 after finishing 21st, - two points short of survival, they were back in Division Two before long, after winning the Third Division South in 1951-52. The closest they came to playing in the Football League First Division was in 1952–53, when they reached fourth place in the Football League Second Division, their highest finish to date, they were relegated again just 3 points behind Notts County. The Pilgrim's reputation as a'yo-yo club' continued after they won Division Three–by now a national league–in 1958-59.
Argyle returned to Division Three after relegation in 1967-68. After spending six years in Division Three, Argyle returned to Division Two in 1974–75, however they were back down again in 1976-77. Since the team has wavered between the 2nd and 3rd tier, before being double relegated in 2010-11, directly due to insolvency as they were deducted the 10 points that they needed for survival; the club returned to the 3rd tier after finishing second in 2016-17. On 14 August 2018 it was announced that shareholder Simon Hallett had purchased part of James Brent's stake in the club and had become the new majority shareholder and owner of the club, while former director David Felwick would return to the club as Chairman, with Brent set to step down on 31 October 2018. On 10 October 2018 however it was reported that David Felwick was unable to take over as chairman, citing personal reasons, so on 1 November 2018, Hallett became both majority owner and chair of Plymouth Argyle; the original ground of the professional club at Home Park was destroyed by German bombers during the Blitz on Plymouth in World War II.
Having been rebuilt after the war, Home Park was demolished as part of an extensive process of renovation, the first phase of a new stadium built by Barrs plc was completed in May 2002. The new Devonport End was opened for the 2001 Boxing Day fixture with Torquay United; the other end, the Barn Park End, opened on the same day. The Lyndhurst stand reopened on 26 January 2002 for the game against Oxford United. Plans are under discussion regarding the completion of the refurbishment of the ground with the replacement of the Mayflower stand; the ground is situated in Central Park near to the residential area of Peverell. Towards the end of the 2005–06 Championship season, the club decided to buy the stadium for £2.7 million from Plymouth City Council, releasing the ground from a 125-year lease. This purchase was concluded in December 2006. In the summer of 2007, the club, having failed to persuade the UK authorities of the case for retaining a standing terrace, decided to add 3,500 temporary seats to the Mayflower enclosure, dropping the capacity to just under 20,000 from 20,922.
In December 2009 it was announced that the stadium was to be one of 12 chosen to host matches during the World Cup 2018, should England's bid be successful. The Ar