Collège de France
The Collège de France, founded in 1530, is a higher education and research establishment in France. It is located in Paris, in the 5th arrondissement, or Latin Quarter, across the street from the historical campus of La Sorbonne; the Collège is considered to be France's most prestigious research establishment. As of 2017, 21 Nobel Prize winners and 8 Fields Medalists have been affiliated with the Collège, it does not grant degrees. Each professor is required to give lectures where attendance is open to anyone. Professors, about 50 in number, are chosen by the professors themselves, from a variety of disciplines, in both science and the humanities; the motto of the Collège is Docet Omnia, Latin for "It teaches everything". The Collège has research laboratories and one of the best research libraries of Europe, with sections focusing on history with rare books, social sciences and chemistry and physics; as of June 2009, over 650 audio podcasts of Collège de France lectures are available on iTunes.
Some are available in English and Chinese. The Collège de France's website hosts several videos of classes; the classes are followed by various students, from senior researchers to PhD or master students, or bachelor students. Moreover, the "leçons inaugurales" are important events in Paris intellectual and social life and attract a large public of curious Parisians; the Collège was established by King Francis I of France, modeled after the Collegium Trilingue in Louvain, at the urging of Guillaume Budé. Of humanist inspiration, the school was established as an alternative to the Sorbonne to promote such disciplines as Hebrew, Ancient Greek and Mathematics. Called Collège Royal, Collège des Trois Langues, Collège National, Collège Impérial, it was named Collège de France in 1870. In 2010, it became a founding associate of PSL Research University; the faculty of the Collège de France comprises fifty-two Professors, elected by the Professors themselves from among Francophone scholars in subjects including mathematics, chemistry, history, linguistics, oriental studies, the social sciences and other fields.
Two chairs are reserved for foreign scholars. Notable faculty members include Serge Haroche, awarded with Nobel Prize in Physics in 2012. Notably, 8 Fields medal winners have been affiliated with the College. Past faculty include: Institut de France Raymond Couvègnes Collège de France website, English home page Alphabetic list of all professors since establishment in 1530
Arabic is a Central Semitic language that first emerged in Iron Age northwestern Arabia and is now the lingua franca of the Arab world. It is named after the Arabs, a term used to describe peoples living in the area bounded by Mesopotamia in the east and the Anti-Lebanon mountains in the west, in northwestern Arabia, in the Sinai Peninsula. Arabic is classified as a macrolanguage comprising 30 modern varieties, including its standard form, Modern Standard Arabic, derived from Classical Arabic; as the modern written language, Modern Standard Arabic is taught in schools and universities, is used to varying degrees in workplaces and the media. The two formal varieties are grouped together as Literary Arabic, the official language of 26 states, the liturgical language of the religion of Islam, since the Quran and Hadith were written in Arabic. Modern Standard Arabic follows the grammatical standards of Classical Arabic, uses much of the same vocabulary. However, it has discarded some grammatical constructions and vocabulary that no longer have any counterpart in the spoken varieties, has adopted certain new constructions and vocabulary from the spoken varieties.
Much of the new vocabulary is used to denote concepts that have arisen in the post-classical era in modern times. Due to its grounding in Classical Arabic, Modern Standard Arabic is removed over a millennium from everyday speech, construed as a multitude of dialects of this language; these dialects and Modern Standard Arabic are described by some scholars as not mutually comprehensible. The former are acquired in families, while the latter is taught in formal education settings. However, there have been studies reporting some degree of comprehension of stories told in the standard variety among preschool-aged children; the relation between Modern Standard Arabic and these dialects is sometimes compared to that of Latin and vernaculars in medieval and early modern Europe. This view though does not take into account the widespread use of Modern Standard Arabic as a medium of audiovisual communication in today's mass media—a function Latin has never performed. During the Middle Ages, Literary Arabic was a major vehicle of culture in Europe in science and philosophy.
As a result, many European languages have borrowed many words from it. Arabic influence in vocabulary, is seen in European languages Spanish and to a lesser extent Portuguese, Catalan, owing to both the proximity of Christian European and Muslim Arab civilizations and 800 years of Arabic culture and language in the Iberian Peninsula, referred to in Arabic as al-Andalus. Sicilian has about 500 Arabic words as result of Sicily being progressively conquered by Arabs from North Africa, from the mid-9th to mid-10th centuries. Many of these words relate to related activities; the Balkan languages, including Greek and Bulgarian, have acquired a significant number of Arabic words through contact with Ottoman Turkish. Arabic has influenced many languages around the globe throughout its history; some of the most influenced languages are Persian, Spanish, Kashmiri, Bosnian, Bengali, Malay, Indonesian, Punjabi, Assamese, Sindhi and Hausa, some languages in parts of Africa. Conversely, Arabic has borrowed words from other languages, including Greek and Persian in medieval times, contemporary European languages such as English and French in modern times.
Classical Arabic is the liturgical language of 1.8 billion Muslims, Modern Standard Arabic is one of six official languages of the United Nations. All varieties of Arabic combined are spoken by as many as 422 million speakers in the Arab world, making it the fifth most spoken language in the world. Arabic is written with the Arabic alphabet, an abjad script and is written from right to left, although the spoken varieties are sometimes written in ASCII Latin from left to right with no standardized orthography. Arabic is a Central Semitic language related to the Northwest Semitic languages, the Ancient South Arabian languages, various other Semitic languages of Arabia such as Dadanitic; the Semitic languages changed a great deal between Proto-Semitic and the establishment of the Central Semitic languages in grammar. Innovations of the Central Semitic languages—all maintained in Arabic—include: The conversion of the suffix-conjugated stative formation into a past tense; the conversion of the prefix-conjugated preterite-tense formation into a present tense.
The elimination of other prefix-conjugated mood/aspect forms in favor of new moods formed by endings attached to the prefix-conjugation forms. The development of an internal passive. There are several features which Classical Arabic, the modern Arabic varieties, as well as the Safaitic and Hismaic inscriptions share which are unattested in any other Central Semitic language variety, including the Dadanitic and Taymanitic languages of the northern Hejaz; these features are evidence of common descent from Proto-Arabic. The following features can be reconstructed with confidence for Proto-Arabic: negative particles m *mā.
François Jullien is a French philosopher and sinologist. An alumnus of the École Normale Supérieure and holder of the agrégation, France's professorial degree, François Jullien studied Chinese language and thought at Peking University and Shanghai University from 1975 to 1977, he received his French university doctorate in 1978 and his French research doctorate in Far East studies in 1983. Since Jullien has been head of the Antenne Française de Sinologie in Hong Kong, a guest of the Maison Franco-Japonaise in Tokyo, president of the Association Française d'Etudes Chinoises, director of the East Asia department of Paris Diderot University–Paris VII, president of the Collège International de Philosophie, professor at Paris Diderot University, director of both the Institut de la Pensée Contemporaine and the Centre Marcel-Granet, he was a senior member of the Institut Universitaire de France from 2001 to 2011 and is the current Chair of Alterity at the Fondation Maison des Sciences de l'Homme.
Jullien has edited several anthologies for the Presses Universitaires de France and for the Agenda de la Pensée Contemporaine, the latter published first by PUF by Éditions Hermann. Several conferences dealing with his philosophy have been held in France and abroad. Among the most recent are: "Dérangements-aperçus: autour du travail de François Jullien", at Paris Diderot University and the Bibliothèque Nationale de France "Dialogue au sommet" with Chung-ying Cheng, at the Beijing Normal University "Des possibles de la pensée, l'itinéraire philosophique de François Jullien", in Cerisy-la-Salle A conference at the Academia Sinica, Taiwan Jullien received the Hannah Arendt Prize for Political Thought in Germany in 2010 and the Grand Prix de Philosophie of the Académie Française for his body of work in 2011. Marcel Gauchet has summed up François Jullien's work in the following terms: "The work of François Jullien seems to me to follow the grand lines of the unwritten but oh-so-influential program of what I shall call the twentieth-century anthropological school.
But not French, this school came to fruition in the work of Durkheim, Granet, Lévi-Strauss, a few others as well. It is, in a word, the school of Western decentralization; these various undertakings have made it possible for us to conceive of an "outside", to borrow a felicitous term from François Jullien. But François Jullien is not content to contribute to this most difficult of enterprises, he has brought the decentralization to its fulfilment. In particular, he has done this in the field of philosophy, something no one had done before, by taking on China's alterity, which, it must be said, provided a privileged standpoint, he has thus carried decentralization further than his predecessors. He has shown us how to look from'elsewhere' at our most theoretical and abstract thought, dealing with the fundamental categories that allow us to apprehend any object spontaneously, he has become the ethnologist of our conceptual universe."When Jullien was awarded the Grand Prix de Philosophie of the Académie Française, Angelo Rinaldi presented his work as follows: "The variety of subjects this philosopher-sinologist has taken on could lead one to imagine a scattershot oeuvre.
On the contrary, there is in François Jullien's work a strong unity of thought and a clear progression. Pierre Nora sums it up in a phrase: the thought that lies between Greece; the purpose, indeed, is to consider the unthought-of in our thought, which has arisen on the foundations laid by Greece. To this end, China offers an oblique way in, a chance to redirect our gaze upon ourselves and see ourselves from without; the priority for François Jullien is to constitute this exteriority, the remainder of his work consists of a reevaluation of the foundations of European thought. Awaiting us at the far end of this road are the general questions that interest us all directly: does'the universal' exist, what might we hold in'common,' what is the meaning of'unity,"difference,' or'conformity'? What we now call the'dialogue of cultures' is at the center of this philosopher's concerns, it is this ever-present theme that makes him relevant for us today." François Jullien is among the most translated of contemporary thinkers, with works appearing in some twenty-five countries.
More than twenty of his essays have been translated into German and Spanish, a dozen have been translated into English, Chinese and Portuguese. Since first establishing what he refers to as his philosophical construction yard to explore the écart between Chinese and European thought François Jullien has been organizing a vis-à-vis between cultures, rather than comparing them, so as to map out a common field for reflection, his work has led him to examine such various disciplines as ethics, aesthetics and the systems of thought of both History and nature. The aim of this "deconstruction" from without is to detect buried biases, in both cultures, as well as to elucidate the unthought-of in our thought, it serves to bring out the resources or fecundities of languages and cultures, rather than consider them from the perspective of
Argenteuil is a commune in the northwestern suburbs of Paris, France. It is located 12.3 km from the center of Paris. Argenteuil is a sub-prefecture of the Val-d'Oise department, the seat of the arrondissement of Argenteuil. Argenteuil is the second most populous commune in the suburbs of Paris and the most populous one in the Val-d'Oise department, although it is not its prefecture, shared between the communes of Cergy and Pontoise. Argenteuil shares borders with communes in 3 departements others than Val d'Oise: the Yvelines, Hauts-de-Seine and Seine-Saint-Denis departements; the name Argenteuil is recorded for the first time in a royal charter of 697 as Argentoialum, from a Latin/Gaulish root argento meaning "silver", "silvery", "shiny" in reference to the gleaming surface of the river Seine, on the banks of which Argenteuil is located, from a Celtic suffix -ialo meaning "clearing, glade" or "place of". Argenteuil was founded as a convent in the 7th century; the monastery that arose from the convent was destroyed during the French Revolution.
A rural escape for Parisians, it is now a suburb of Paris. Painters made Argenteuil famous, including Claude Monet, Jean-Étienne Delacroix, Auguste Renoir, Gustave Caillebotte, Alfred Sisley and Georges Braque. Fabien Ateba, basketball player Franck Beria, footballer Georges Braque, 3 May 1882, Co-founder of cubism and sculptor Ingrid Chauvin, French actress Chevalier d'Argenteuil, French soldier; the French transport system is straightforward to navigate, so Argenteuil is an ideal city where there is an extensive public transport system with stations in Argenteuil and Val d'Argenteuil, where the train stops at Transilien Paris. Saint-Lazare. Since redeveloped by STIF and SNCF, Argenteuil has been equipped with a new Paris-Saint-Lazare-Ermont-Eaubonne line; the new line was launched in 2006, adding the Paris-Saint Lazare / Cormeilles-en-Parisis - Pontoise / Mantes-la-Jolie service to Paris for about ten minutes. By Bus*:361 Gare d'Argenteuil à Gare de Pierrefitte - Stains RER; the commune has: 30 public preschools and one private elementary school with a preschool 26 public and 2 private elementary schools 11 junior high schools - 10 public and 1 private 6 senior high schools/sixth-form colleges:Lycée Georges Braque Lycée Cognacq-Jay Lycée Julie-Victoire Daubié Lycée Jean Jaurès Lycée Fernand et Nadia Léger Ecole nationale des professions de l'automobile Paris 13 University serves as the area university.
The Conservatoire à rayonnement départemental de Musique, Danse et Théâtre is located in Argenteuil. André Bon is one of its former students. By Claude Monet:Autumn at Argenteuil, Regatta at Argenteuil, Red Boats, The Bridge at Argenteuil, The Port at Argenteuil, The Seine at Argenteuil, View of Argenteuil-Snow, Bords de la Seine a Argenteuil, Snow at Argenteuil. By other painters:Argenteuil and Seine near Argenteuil by Édouard Manet, Regatta at Argenteuil by Pierre-Auguste Renoir, The Bridge in Argenteuil by Gustave Caillebotte. Communes of the Val-d'Oise department INSEE Association of Mayors of the Val d’Oise Official website Official facebook
The public domain consists of all the creative works to which no exclusive intellectual property rights apply. Those rights may have been forfeited, expressly waived, or may be inapplicable; the works of William Shakespeare and Beethoven, most early silent films, are in the public domain either by virtue of their having been created before copyright existed, or by their copyright term having expired. Some works are not covered by copyright, are therefore in the public domain—among them the formulae of Newtonian physics, cooking recipes, all computer software created prior to 1974. Other works are dedicated by their authors to the public domain; the term public domain is not applied to situations where the creator of a work retains residual rights, in which case use of the work is referred to as "under license" or "with permission". As rights vary by country and jurisdiction, a work may be subject to rights in one country and be in the public domain in another; some rights depend on registrations on a country-by-country basis, the absence of registration in a particular country, if required, gives rise to public-domain status for a work in that country.
The term public domain may be interchangeably used with other imprecise or undefined terms such as the "public sphere" or "commons", including concepts such as the "commons of the mind", the "intellectual commons", the "information commons". Although the term "domain" did not come into use until the mid-18th century, the concept "can be traced back to the ancient Roman Law, as a preset system included in the property right system." The Romans had a large proprietary rights system where they defined "many things that cannot be owned" as res nullius, res communes, res publicae and res universitatis. The term res nullius was defined as things not yet appropriated; the term res communes was defined as "things that could be enjoyed by mankind, such as air and ocean." The term res publicae referred to things that were shared by all citizens, the term res universitatis meant things that were owned by the municipalities of Rome. When looking at it from a historical perspective, one could say the construction of the idea of "public domain" sprouted from the concepts of res communes, res publicae, res universitatis in early Roman law.
When the first early copyright law was first established in Britain with the Statute of Anne in 1710, public domain did not appear. However, similar concepts were developed by French jurists in the 18th century. Instead of "public domain", they used terms such as publici juris or propriété publique to describe works that were not covered by copyright law; the phrase "fall in the public domain" can be traced to mid-19th century France to describe the end of copyright term. The French poet Alfred de Vigny equated the expiration of copyright with a work falling "into the sink hole of public domain" and if the public domain receives any attention from intellectual property lawyers it is still treated as little more than that, left when intellectual property rights, such as copyright and trademarks, expire or are abandoned. In this historical context Paul Torremans describes copyright as a, "little coral reef of private right jutting up from the ocean of the public domain." Copyright law differs by country, the American legal scholar Pamela Samuelson has described the public domain as being "different sizes at different times in different countries".
Definitions of the boundaries of the public domain in relation to copyright, or intellectual property more regard the public domain as a negative space. According to James Boyle this definition underlines common usage of the term public domain and equates the public domain to public property and works in copyright to private property. However, the usage of the term public domain can be more granular, including for example uses of works in copyright permitted by copyright exceptions; such a definition regards work in copyright as private property subject to fair-use rights and limitation on ownership. A conceptual definition comes from Lange, who focused on what the public domain should be: "it should be a place of sanctuary for individual creative expression, a sanctuary conferring affirmative protection against the forces of private appropriation that threatened such expression". Patterson and Lindberg described the public domain not as a "territory", but rather as a concept: "here are certain materials – the air we breathe, rain, life, thoughts, ideas, numbers – not subject to private ownership.
The materials that compose our cultural heritage must be free for all living to use no less than matter necessary for biological survival." The term public domain may be interchangeably used with other imprecise or undefined terms such as the "public sphere" or "commons", including concepts such as the "commons of the mind", the "intellectual commons", the "information commons". A public-domain book is a book with no copyright, a book, created without a license, or a book where its copyrights expired or have been forfeited. In most countries the term of protection of copyright lasts until January first, 70 years after the death of the latest living author; the longest copyright term is in Mexico, which has life plus 100 years for all deaths since July 1928. A notable exception is the United States, where every book and tale published prior to 1924 is in the public domain.