Relative humidity is the ratio of the partial pressure of water vapor to the equilibrium vapor pressure of water at a given temperature. Relative humidity depends on the pressure of the system of interest; the same amount of water vapor results in higher relative humidity in cool air than warm air. A related parameter is that of dewpoint; the relative humidity of an air–water mixture is defined as the ratio of the partial pressure of water vapor in the mixture to the equilibrium vapor pressure of water over a flat surface of pure water at a given temperature: ϕ = p H 2 O p H 2 O ∗. Relative humidity is expressed as a percentage. At 100 % relative humidity, the air is at its dewpoint. Climate control refers to the control of temperature and relative humidity in buildings and other enclosed spaces for the purpose of providing for human comfort and safety, of meeting environmental requirements of machines, sensitive materials and technical processes. Along with air temperature, mean radiant temperature, air speed, metabolic rate, clothing level, relative humidity plays a role in human thermal comfort.
According to ASHRAE Standard 55-2017: Thermal Environmental Conditions for Human Occupancy, indoor thermal comfort can be achieved through the PMV method with relative humidities ranging from 0% to 100%, depending on the levels of the other factors contributing to thermal comfort. However, the recommended range of indoor relative humidity in air conditioned buildings is 30-60%. In general, higher temperatures will require lower relative humidities to achieve thermal comfort compared to lower temperatures, with all other factors held constant. For example, with clothing level = 1, Metabolic rate = 1.1, air speed 0.1 m/s, a change in air temperature and mean radiant temperature from 20 degrees C to 24 degrees C would lower the maximum acceptable relative humidity from 100% to 65% to maintain thermal comfort conditions. The CBE Thermal Comfort Tool can be used to demonstrate the effect of relative humidity for specific thermal comfort conditions and it can be used to demonstrate compliance with ASHRAE Standard 55-2017.
When using the adaptive model to predict thermal comfort indoors, relative humidity is not taken into account. Although relative humidity is an important factor for thermal comfort, humans are more sensitive to variations in temperature than they are to changes in relative humidity. Relative humidity has a small effect on thermal comfort outdoors when air temperatures are low, a more pronounced effect at moderate air temperatures, a much stronger influence at higher air temperatures. In cold climates, the outdoor temperature causes lower capacity for water vapor to flow about, thus although it may be snowing and the relative humidity outdoors is high, once that air comes into a building and heats up, its new relative humidity is low, making the air dry, which can cause discomfort. Dry cracked. Low humidity causes tissue lining nasal passages to dry and become more susceptible to penetration of Rhinovirus cold viruses. Low humidity is a common cause of nosebleeds; the use of a humidifier in homes bedrooms, can help with these symptoms.
Indoor relative humidities should be kept above 30% to reduce the likelihood of the occupant's nasal passages drying out. Humans can be comfortable within a wide range of humidities depending on the temperature—from 30% to 70%—but ideally between 50% and 60%. Low humidity can create discomfort, respiratory problems, aggravate allergies in some individuals. In the winter, it is advisable to maintain relative humidity above. Low relative humidities may cause eye irritation. For climate control in buildings using HVAC systems, the key is to maintain the relative humidity at a comfortable range—low enough to be comfortable but high enough to avoid problems associated with dry air; when the temperature is high and the relative humidity is low, evaporation of water is rapid. Wooden furniture can shrink; when the temperature is low and the relative humidity is high, evaporation of water is slow. When relative humidity approaches 100 percent, condensation can occur on surfaces, leading to problems with mold, corrosion and other moisture-related deterioration.
Condensation can pose a safety risk as it can promote the growth of mold and wood rot as well as freezing emergency exits shut. Certain production and technical processes and treatments in factories, laboratories and other facilities require specific relative humidity levels to be maintained using humidifiers and associated control systems; the basic principles for buildings, above apply to vehicles. In addition, there may be safety considerations. For instance, high humidity inside a vehicle can lead to problems of condensation, such
Berhet is a commune in the Côtes-d'Armor department of Brittany in northwestern France. Inhabitants of Berhet are called Berhetois in French; the municipality launched a linguistic plan through Ya d'ar brezhoneg on May 26, 2006. Communes of the Côtes-d'Armor department INSEE French Ministry of Culture list for Berhet
Verrerie of Brehat
The Verreries de Bréhat, the Glass Studios of Bréhat, are located in the Citadel, an old fortress on the Île-de-Bréhat, a small island a few hundred yards from the north coast of Brittany
André César Vermare
André-César Vermare was a French sculptor, born in Lyon in 1869. Vermare was the son of the sculptor Pierre Vermare, he studied under Charles Dufraine. In 1891 he moved up to Paris and studied there under Alexandre Falguière, Alfred-Désiré Lanson and Laurent Marqueste. 1892 saw his first submission to the Paris Salon de la Société des artistes français. He was to get an "honourable mention" and in 1894 he carried off the "Chevavard" prize for his composition entitled Giotto enfant. 1897 saw his Orphée et Eurydice voted the runner-up in that year's Prix de Rome competition and in 1899 his La douleur d'Adam et Eve devant le cadavre d'Abel won that prestigious prize which took him to Rome's Villa Médicis from 1900 to 1903. On returning to Paris he worked with his father and created several statues for churches and as his reputation grew he received numerous commissions and received national recognition, he built a summer house there. For many years he lived in Auteuil before retiring to Bréhat where he died on 7 August 1949.
A listing of his main works, with brief details of these works, is given below. One of his earliest recorded works, this Vermare sculpture dates to 1894; this monument, with Vermare's sculptures of 1895 cast in bronze by the Denonvilliers foundry, is located in a public garden in Saint-Chamond, Loire. A bust of Sadi Carnot sits on top of a pedestal in front of. One is a woman who reaches up to the bust holding a sprig of laurel and the other is a youngster, representing the metallurgical industry, who sits on an anvil and before a large metal press. Next to the woman, Vermare has placed a loom used for another local industry; the Musée de beaux-arts in Lyon hold this composition in plaster, Vermare's entry for the Prix de Rome in 1897. Vermare was the runner-up; this work, dating to around 1897, was cast in bronze by the foundry Thiebaut frères. Every year the Ếcole nationale supérieure des beaux-arts in Paris would set a subject for a sculptural composition and the winner was awarded the "Prix de Rome", which allowed the winner to study in Rome at the Villa Médicis.
In 1899 the set subject was "La douleur d'Adam et Ève devant le cadavre d'Abel" and Vermare's submission won him the prize. The school still hold the plaster relief in their collection of the major works of ex pupils; this relief by Vermare can be seen in Lyon's place des Cordeliers. Vermare submitted this to the Salon of 1902 and the marble version in Lyon was erected in 1907. In Poitiers there are two copies of this work in the Musée de Poitiers. One is just the head of the figure representing the Rhône; the Rhône in Vermale's composition is a muscular and naked man, depicting swimming against the force of the water. The Saône river is represented by a woman swimming just below the man, it is a most dramatic piece of sculpture. There is a paster copy of Le Rhône et la Saône in Villefranche-sur-Saône's Musée Paul-Dini. There is a signature on the work showing, it was purchased by the French state from the Salon in 1902. A 1907 marble version of Le Rhône et la Saône is held in Lyon's Chambre de commerce et d'industrie.
In the photograph Vermare's relief can be seen between the two sets of stairs leading to the building's main entrance. This marble study by Vermare was executed by him whilst a student in Rome, it is held by the Musée d'Orsay and the plaster version is held in Nemours at the Château-Musée. Manufacture de Sèvres brought out an edition in biscuit; the work was shown at the 1905 Salon de la Société des artistes français. It seems that it was passed to the town hall in Courpalay but passed to the Paris museum. Vermare was the sculptor of the huge Saint Étienne monument honouring those men of the Loire region who gave their lives for France in the Franco-Prussian war; the monument was inaugurated on 29 May 1898 in the presence of the French president Félix Faure. A competition had been launched to select the architect/sculptor to be given the commission to design and erect the monument and the maquette of the architect Varinard des Côtes and Vermare, entitled Alerte, was chosen. In Vermare's composition, a winged female figure stands over the body of a soldier, mortally wounded and has collapsed against a canon and some broken fencing and rubble.
Now living and working in Bréhat qualified Vermare to be commissioned to add a sculpture to the Paimpol war memorial. He depicted a woman in mourning clothes looking down at the grave of a soldier who had fallen in the 1914–1918 war; the sculpture is in limestone. The inscription reads "AUX ENFANTS DE PAIMPOL / MORTS POUR LA FRANCE / 1914 – 1918" The woman wears the embroidered hat worn in the Trégor-Goëllo region called the "toukenn". In Goëllo the hat is worn with its points at the back whilst the women of Trégor have the points at the front thus showing which of the two regions the wearer is from, it is a Breton tradition. In Dol-de-Bretagne's Saint-Samson cathedral is a 1920 relief by Vermare showing Christ appearing before a kneeling soldier; the inscription reads "A LA GLOIRE DES ENFANTS DE DOL MORTS POUR LA FRANCE. In 1909 Pope Pie X had declared Vermare's sculpture as the official sculpture to be used in the celebration of Joan's beautification; the sculpture was given to the Lacour-d'Arcenay commune by the comte de Lauzière whose son had died in the war.
This was another commune to use Vermare
Goudji, born Elguja Amashukeli is a French sculptor and goldsmith, born in Georgia. Goudji spent his youth in Batumi with his family, his father was a doctor and his mother was a Professor of natural science. He had an elder brother, by two years, he studied sculpture at the Art school of Tbilissi between 1958 and 1962. He left Georgia in 1962 for Moscow, where he started a career as a sculptor, while dreaming of becoming a goldsmith. In 1969 he married Katherine Barsacq, he moved to France in January 1974 after five years of personal intervention on his behalf by President Georges Pompidou. He became a French naturalized citizen in 1978. In Paris he made jewelry and decorative objects for art galleries, his artwork combines the technique of the dinandery with hard stone incrustations in metal. His first work consisted of torques, he went on to create canthares, rhytons and animal figures. He hammers thin sheets of metal. In 1976 he created the academician's sword for Félicien Marceau, he has created other swords for Raymond Barre and Maurice Allais.
His works are exhibited in France and abroad. They have been offered by the French Presidents of the Republic, François Mitterrand, Jacques Chirac or Nicolas Sarkozy, to Foreign Presidents; the majority of the civil pieces are preserved in private collections. Several museums have some: Museum of decorative Arts of Paris, Museum Mandet de Riom, Dobrée Museum of Nantes, Museum of decorative Arts of Lyon, Museum of the Castle of Blois in France, Kunsthaus Dr. Hartl in Freising in Bavaria or Vatican Museums. In 1985 he created a Baptismal Font and a Pascal candlestick for the Abbey of Epau and the National Committee of Sacred Art, which now resides in the Notre Dame de Paris. Between 1992 and 1996 he designed twenty five works for the Notre-Dame Cathedral of Chartres, all registered in the Inventory of Patrimony. In 2008 he created twenty-five new works, which make Chartres's collection one of the most important collection of Goudji liturgical works in France, he has provided work for several cathedrals and churches: Luçon Cathedral.
He creates baptismal fonts: Notre-Dame de Paris, Saint-Jean de Montmartre, Saint-Pierre de Champagne, of large monstrances of procession: Lourdes, Puy in Velay, sticks of abbot and bishop: abbot of Saint-Maurice de Clervaux, abbot of Triors, Champagne abbot on the Rhone, Mgr Jean-Louis Bruguès, Mgr Herve Giraud, reliquaries: Abbey of Sept-Fons, St Philibert at Tournus, Cathedral of Cahors, the crowns of light: St Philibert at Tournus, collegial Saint-Liphard of Meung-sur-Loire, eucharistic doves: Chartres, Vendôme, chalices: Notre Dame du Haut de Ronchamp. In 1999 he produced the reliquary of Padre Pio, a gift of the Minor Brothers Capuchins to the pope John Paul II on the occasion of the beatification of Padre Pio; the Pope carried this on his cape at the opening of the holy door of St Peter's Basilica of Rome. Other works for the Minor Brothers include sacred vessels, the cross of procession, the monstrance, the lantern, the censer and its shuttle with incense, as well as the cover of the "évangéliaire".
In 2008 Goudji created the crystal mounting of the reliquary for the translation of the saint on April 24, 2008 in San Giovanni Rotondo in Pouilles in Italy. 1987, par Malcolm Lakin et Théo Kok, Préface de Janine Rensch, Textes de Félicien Marceau et François Mathey, Editions ASB Gallery, Londres 1989, par François Mathey, Editions Galerie Claude Bernard, Paris 1991, orfèvre contemporain, par Marie-Josée Linou, Editions Musée Mandet de Riom 1991, Textes de Goudji et de François Mathey, Editions Galerie Claude Bernard, Paris 1992, sculpteur-orfèvre, par Graham Hughes, Edition "The Fine Art Society, London, in association with ASB, Zürich" 1993, De pierre, de métal et de feu, orfèvre contemporain, par Jacques Santrot, Préface de Robert Turcan, Editions Musée Thomas Dobrée de Nantes 1993, par Marc Hérissé, Préface de Félicien Marceau, Editions de l'Amateur, Paris 1993, Goudji au Louvre, par Michel Laclotte, et Jacques Santrot, Réunion des Musées Nationaux, RMN, Paris 1993, par Jean Paget, Editions Galerie Claude Bernard, Paris 1993, Histoire d'un art, par Jacques Santrot, Kunsthaus Dc Hartl, Freising 1999, par Stéphane Barsacq, Galerie Capazza, Nancay 1999, orfèvre, par Chantal Fernex de Mongex et Stéphane Barsacq, Editions Musée des Beaux-Arts de Chambéry 2002, Goudji, Stéphane Barsacq, Bernard Berthod, Préface d'Hélène Carrère d'Encausse, Editions de l'Amateur, Paris 2007, Goudji, le magicien d’or, Jacques Santrot, Préface de Daniel Rondeau, Postface d'Elisabeth Latrémolière, Editions Gourcuff & Gradenigro, Paris 2011, des mains d’or et de feu, par Salah Stétié, Lucien Jerphagnon, Bernard Berthod, Manuelle Anne Renault-Langlois, Éditions Thalia, Paris Official website
In meteorology, precipitation is any product of the condensation of atmospheric water vapor that falls under gravity. The main forms of precipitation include drizzle, sleet, snow and hail. Precipitation occurs when a portion of the atmosphere becomes saturated with water vapor, so that the water condenses and "precipitates", thus and mist are not precipitation but suspensions, because the water vapor does not condense sufficiently to precipitate. Two processes acting together, can lead to air becoming saturated: cooling the air or adding water vapor to the air. Precipitation forms as smaller droplets coalesce via collision with other rain drops or ice crystals within a cloud. Short, intense periods of rain in scattered locations are called "showers."Moisture, lifted or otherwise forced to rise over a layer of sub-freezing air at the surface may be condensed into clouds and rain. This process is active when freezing rain occurs. A stationary front is present near the area of freezing rain and serves as the foci for forcing and rising air.
Provided necessary and sufficient atmospheric moisture content, the moisture within the rising air will condense into clouds, namely stratus and cumulonimbus. The cloud droplets will grow large enough to form raindrops and descend toward the Earth where they will freeze on contact with exposed objects. Where warm water bodies are present, for example due to water evaporation from lakes, lake-effect snowfall becomes a concern downwind of the warm lakes within the cold cyclonic flow around the backside of extratropical cyclones. Lake-effect snowfall can be locally heavy. Thundersnow is possible within lake effect precipitation bands. In mountainous areas, heavy precipitation is possible where upslope flow is maximized within windward sides of the terrain at elevation. On the leeward side of mountains, desert climates can exist due to the dry air caused by compressional heating. Most precipitation is caused by convection; the movement of the monsoon trough, or intertropical convergence zone, brings rainy seasons to savannah climes.
Precipitation is a major component of the water cycle, is responsible for depositing the fresh water on the planet. 505,000 cubic kilometres of water falls as precipitation each year. Given the Earth's surface area, that means the globally averaged annual precipitation is 990 millimetres, but over land it is only 715 millimetres. Climate classification systems such as the Köppen climate classification system use average annual rainfall to help differentiate between differing climate regimes. Precipitation may occur on other celestial bodies, e.g. when it gets cold, Mars has precipitation which most takes the form of frost, rather than rain or snow. Precipitation is a major component of the water cycle, is responsible for depositing most of the fresh water on the planet. 505,000 km3 of water falls as precipitation each year, 398,000 km3 of it over the oceans. Given the Earth's surface area, that means the globally averaged annual precipitation is 990 millimetres. Mechanisms of producing precipitation include convective and orographic rainfall.
Convective processes involve strong vertical motions that can cause the overturning of the atmosphere in that location within an hour and cause heavy precipitation, while stratiform processes involve weaker upward motions and less intense precipitation. Precipitation can be divided into three categories, based on whether it falls as liquid water, liquid water that freezes on contact with the surface, or ice. Mixtures of different types of precipitation, including types in different categories, can fall simultaneously. Liquid forms of precipitation include drizzle. Rain or drizzle that freezes on contact within a subfreezing air mass is called "freezing rain" or "freezing drizzle". Frozen forms of precipitation include snow, ice needles, ice pellets and graupel; the dew point is the temperature to which a parcel must be cooled in order to become saturated, condenses to water. Water vapor begins to condense on condensation nuclei such as dust and salt in order to form clouds. An elevated portion of a frontal zone forces broad areas of lift, which form clouds decks such as altostratus or cirrostratus.
Stratus is a stable cloud deck which tends to form when a cool, stable air mass is trapped underneath a warm air mass. It can form due to the lifting of advection fog during breezy conditions. There are four main mechanisms for cooling the air to its dew point: adiabatic cooling, conductive cooling, radiational cooling, evaporative cooling. Adiabatic cooling occurs when air expands; the air can rise due to convection, large-scale atmospheric motions, or a physical barrier such as a mountain. Conductive cooling occurs when the air comes into contact with a colder surface by being blown from one surface to another, for example from a liquid water surface to colder land. Radiational cooling occurs due to the emission of infrared radiation, either by the air or by the surface underneath. Evaporative cooling occurs when moisture is added to the air through evaporation, which forces the air temperature to cool to its wet-bulb temperature, or until it reaches saturation; the main ways water vapor is added to the air are: wind convergence into areas of upward motion, precipitation or virga falling from above, daytime heating evaporating water from the surface of oceans, water bodies or wet lan
Paimpol is a commune in the Côtes-d'Armor department in Brittany in northwest France. It is a tourist destination during the summer months when people are attracted by its port and beaches. Inhabitants of Paimpol are called paimpolais in French; the municipality launched a linguistic plan through Ya d'ar brezhoneg on 29 September 2008. In 2008, 11.8% of primary school children attended bilingual schools. The Gare de Paimpol is connected by trains to Gare de Guingamp with the Paris-Montparnasse–Brest line. Blue and white striped-jumpers are visible in the streets and are seen to reflect not only their pride in all things to do with the sea, but in their région, Brittany; the town centre leads from the port down to the coast, through cobbled streets filled with restaurants, cafés and bars. The town centre includes the Quartier Latin, it was at La place du Martray that Pierre Loti chose to put the house of Gaud, the heroine of his novel Pêcheur d'Islande. The attractions of the town are a major theme of Guy Ropartz's opera Le Pays and Théodore Botrel's song La Paimpolaise.
Other popular tourist sights include: the Abbaye de Beauport dating back to 1202, the chapels of Lanvignec, Ste Barbe and Kergrist. L'île de Bréhat is a rocky archipelago 10 minutes by ferry from the coast next to Paimpol, it is made up of two large islands connected by a bridge, numerous smaller ones. Other places of interest in the area include the Moulin de Craca and Circuit de falaises in Plouézec, as well as Pors-Even and the Tour de Kerroc'h in Ploubazlanec; the Monument to Théodore Botrel in Paimpol is by Pierre Charles Lenoir The monument aux morts has sculpture by André César Vermare Tourists are well catered for with regular events such as the Tuesday morning street market, night-markets, "Mardi du port" – where tourists can enjoy diverse world music beside the port. Paimpol is home to the bi-annual "Festival du chant de marin" which attracts thousands of visitors over three days in August; the following towns are twinned with Paimpol: Grundarfjörður, Iceland Romsey, United Kingdom Vermilion, United States Communes of the Côtes-d'Armor department INSEE Official website Sea shanty festival 2011 Paimpol.net French Ministry of Culture list for Paimpol