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Île-de-France

Île-de-France is the most populous of the 18 regions of France. It is located in the north-central part of the country and called the région parisienne because it includes the city of Paris. Île-de-France is densely populated and economically important: it covers only 12,012 square kilometres, about 2% of France's territory, but has an official estimated population of 12,213,364 and accounts for nearly 30% of the French Gross Domestic Product. The region is made up of eight administrative departments: Paris, Hauts-de-Seine, Seine-Saint-Denis, Seine-et-Marne, Val-de-Marne, Val-d'Oise and Yvelines, it was created as the "District of the Paris Region" in 1961 and renamed in 1976 after the historic province of Île-de-France, when its status was aligned with the other French administrative regions created in 1972. Residents are sometimes referred to an administrative word created in the 1980s; the GDP of the region in 2016 was €681 billion. It has the highest per-capita GDP among regions in France and the third-highest of regions in the European Union.

In 2018 all of the twenty-eight French companies listed in the Fortune Global 500 had their headquarters in the Paris Region. Besides the landmarks of Paris, the region has many important historic sites, including the Palace of Versailles and the Palace of Fontainebleau, as well as the most-visited tourist attraction in France, Disneyland Paris; the poverty rate in Île-de-France was 15.9% in 2015, compared with 12.3% in 2006. The region is increasingly unequal. Housing prices have pushed the less affluent outside Paris. Although the modern name Île-de-France means "Island of France", the etymology is in fact unclear; the "island" may refer to the land between the rivers Oise and Seine, or it may have been a reference to the Île de la Cité, where the French royal palace and cathedral were located. The Île-de-France was inhabited by the Parisii, a sub-tribe of the Celtic Senones, from around the middle of the 3rd century BC. One of the area's major north–south trade routes crossed the Seine on the île de la Cité.

The Parisii minted their own coins for that purpose. The Romans began their settlement on Paris's Left Bank, it became a prosperous city with a forum, temples, an amphitheatre. Christianity was introduced in the middle of the 3rd century AD by Saint Denis, the first Bishop of Paris: according to legend, when he refused to renounce his faith before the Roman occupiers, he was beheaded on the hill which became known as Mons Martyrum "Montmartre", from where he walked headless to the north of the city. Clovis the Frank, the first king of the Merovingian dynasty, made the city his capital from 508; as the Frankish domination of Gaul began, there was a gradual immigration by the Franks to Paris and the Parisian Francien dialects were born. Fortification of the Île-de-la-Citie failed to avert sacking by Vikings in 845, but Paris's strategic importance—with its bridges preventing ships from passing—was established by successful defence in the Siege of Paris. In 987, Hugh Capet, Count of Paris and Duke of the Franks, was elected King of the Franks.

Under the rule of the Capetian kings, Paris became the largest and most prosperous city in France. The Kings of France enjoyed getting away from Paris and hunting in the game-filled forests of the region, they built palatial hunting lodges, most notably Palace of Fontainebleau and the Palace of Versailles. From the time of Louis XIV until the French Revolution, Versailles was the official residence of the Kings and the seat of the French government. Île-de-France became the term used for the territory of Paris and the surrounding province, administered directly by the King. During the French Revolution, the royal provinces were abolished and divided into departments, the city and region were governed directly by the national government. In the period after World War II, as Paris faced a major housing shortage, hundreds of massive apartment blocks for low-income residents were built around the edges of Paris. In the 1950s and the 1960s, Many thousands of immigrants settled in the communes bordering the city.

In 1959, under President Charles De Gaulle, a new region was created out of six departments, which corresponded with the historic region, with the name District de la région de Paris. On 6 May 1976, as part of the process of regionalisation, the district was reconstituted and increased administrative and political powers and renamed the Île-de-France region. Île-de-France is in the north of France, neighboring Hauts-de-France to the north, Grand Est to the east, Bourgogne-Franche-Comté to the southeast, Centre-Val-de-Loire to the southwest, Normandy to the west. Île-de-France has a land area of 12,011 km2. It is composed of eight departments centred on Paris. Around the departmental of Paris, urbanisation fills a first concentric ring of three departments known as the petite couronne; the former department of Seine, abolished in 1968, included the city proper and parts of the

Anne Shirley

Anne Shirley is a fictional character introduced in the 1908 novel Anne of Green Gables by Lucy Maud Montgomery. Montgomery wrote in her journal that the idea for Anne's story came from relatives who, planning to adopt an orphaned boy, received a girl instead. Anne Shirley's appearance was inspired by a photograph which Montgomery clipped from the Metropolitan Magazine and kept, unaware of the model's identity as the 1900s Gibson Girl, actress Evelyn Nesbit. Anne Shirley was born in the town of Bolingbroke, Nova Scotia and spent the earliest years of her childhood there. No specific birthdate is given, but references in works suggest her date of birth is in March 1865. Anne was orphaned as an infant of three months, when her parents, schoolteachers Walter and Bertha Shirley, died of typhoid fever. Without any other relations, Anne was taken in by Mrs. Thomas, who had done housework for the Shirleys. After Mr. Thomas died, Anne went to live with the Hammond family for some years and was treated as little more than a servant until Mr. Hammond died, whereupon Mrs. Hammond divided her children amongst relatives and Anne was sent to the orphanage at Hopetown.

She considered herself as "cursed" by twins — Mrs. Hammond had three sets of twins whom Anne helped raise. At the age of eleven, Anne was taken from the Hopetown orphanage to the neighbouring province of Prince Edward Island, which she regarded as her true home after, she arrived by mistake — her sponsors, the siblings Matthew and Marilla Cuthbert, wanted to adopt a boy to help them on their farm, but the neighbour with whom they had sent the message was certain they had requested a girl instead. Matthew became fascinated by the girl's good-hearted spirit, charming enthusiasm, lively imagination, wanted her to stay at Green Gables from the first. Marilla's reaction was to send her back to the orphanage, but she was won over by Anne's quirky joie de vivre — and by the fact that another woman, much harder than herself, was set to take Anne should Marilla decline to keep her; the American scholar Joseph Brennan noted that for Anne "all things are alive", as she imagines trees by the roadside welcoming her to Green Gables while a leaning plum tree makes her think that it is offering a veil just for her.

Anne at one point says "Maples are such social things" and likes Lover's Lane because "... you can think out loud there without people calling you crazy."Anne has great powers of imagination, fed by books of poetry and romance, a passion for "romantic" and beautiful names and places. When she sees a road lined with apple trees in bloom, she falls silent for a moment before naming the road the "White Way of Delight". Anne had been starved of love at the orphanages she has lived at, for her, Green Gables is the only home she has known. Anne's imaginative nature matches well with her passionate, warm side, full of bubbly optimism and enthusiasm. Anne has an impulsive nature which leads her into all sorts of "scrapes", she alternates between being carried away with enthusiasm or being in the "depths of despair". One scholar Elizabeth Watson has observed a recurring theme, noting Anne's observations of sunsets mirror her own development. Under the White Way of Delight, Anne watches the sun set, to her a glory where "a painted sunset sky shone like a great rose window at the end of a cathedral aisle".

By the end of the novel, when Anne watches the sun set, it set across a backdrop of "flowers of quiet happiness", as Anne is falling in love with Gilbert. Anne made a poor impression on the townsfolk of Avonlea with an outburst at the Cuthberts' neighbour, the outspoken gossip Mrs. Rachel Lynde, but this was amended by an impassioned apology. Anne soon became ` bosom friends' with a girl from Diana Barry. Together with Matthew, Diana is Anne's "kindred spirit"; the friendship was disrupted by the temporary enmity of Diana's mother, after Anne mistakenly made Diana drunk with Marilla's homemade currant wine, mistaking it for raspberry cordial. Anne was soon restored to Mrs. Barry's good graces by saving the life of Diana's little sister, Minnie May. Minnie May had an attack of the croup, which Anne was able to cure with a bottle of ipecac and knowledge acquired while caring for the numerous Hammond twins. Throughout her childhood, Anne continued to find herself in similar "scrapes" through mistakes and misunderstandings, no fault of her own.

At one point Anne "admires to the point of nuttiness" an amethyst brooch, which she is falsely accused of stealing, a crime she has to confess to in order to attend a picnic. Anne tends to define herself in opposition to older people via humour, forges a relationship with Marilla Cuthbert via humour; the dreamy and imaginative Anne asks that Marilla call her "Cordelia" and "Geraldine" as Anne likes to imagine herself as somebody that she is not. Anne formed a complex relationship with Gilbert Blythe, three years older than Anne but studying at her level, having had his schooling interrupted when his father became ill. On their first meeting as schoolmates, Gilbert teased Anne with the nickname "Carrots". Anne, perceiving it as a personal insult due to sensitivity over her hair colour, became so angry that she broke her slate over his head; when her teacher punished her by making her stand in front of the class, later punishes her for tardiness by making her sit with "the boys" Gilbert Blythe, Anne forms a long-lasting hatred of Gilbert Blythe.

Anne tells Diana that "Gilbert Blythe has hurt me excruciatingly". Throughout Anne of Green Gables, Gilbert displays admiration for Anne, but she coldly rebuffs him, her gru

Basso Della Rovere Chapel (Santa Maria del Popolo)

The Basso Della Rovere or Saint Augustine Chapel is located in the south aisle of the basilica of Santa Maria del Popolo in Rome. This was dedicated to St. Augustine; the cycle of beautiful quattrocento frescoes was executed by his workshop. The chapel was furnished by Bishop Girolamo Basso della Rovere after his uncle, Pope Sixtus IV had reconstructed the basilica from 1472 to 1477; the painted decoration is attributed to Pinturicchio and his workshop, who worked here in an unspecified period between 1484, when the chapel was fitted, 1492, when his patron received the bishopric of Palestrina instead of that of Recanati, mentioned in the dedicatory inscription on the monument of his father, Giovanni Basso. Compared to the nearby Chapel of the Nativity, frescoed by the same Pinturicchio, the Basso Della Rovere Chapel has a greater decorative fervour; the small chapel is hexagonal with a sexpartite ribbed vault and the entrance is protected by a slim 15th-century balustrade. On the side walls fake porphyry columns with Corinthian capitals support an entablature of white and gilded marble.

They are placed on a pedestal, decorated with painted benches and illusionistic monochrome reliefs. Two books were painted on one of the benches in perfect perspective; the pedestal has remarkable similarities to the inlays of the small study of Guidobaldo da Montefeltro at Gubbio but now in the Metropolitan Museum of Art in New York. The monochromes were restored in the 19th century by Vincenzo Camuccini; the panels of the vault are covered by a lush floral decoration on a golden background with images of prophets in medaillons. The profusion of polychrome decoration is complemented by the maiolica floor tiles, contemporary works from Deruta, which show heraldic devices, Della Rovere trees and other decorative motifs; the five lunettes are decorated with Stories from the Life of the Virgin, now much damaged and repainted. The great fresco of the Madonna and Child Enthroned with Saints Augustine, Anthony of Padua and a Holy Monk above the altar, with a lunette that shows the God the Father Blessing, is enclosed by a white marble frame with rich golden decorations.

There are two arched windows on the two adjacent walls with splays decorated with grotesques. The first wall is decorated by the fresco of the Assumption of the Virgin Mary while last section is covered by the funeral monument of Giovanni Basso; that was created around 1485 by the workshop of Andrea Bregno. Its design is analogous to the now truncated tomb of Pietro Mellini in the Mellini Chapel and other similar monuments in Rome; the handling is less refined, when examined, but still a beautiful work. The tomb is surmounted by a lunette fresco of the Dead Christ Supported by Two Angels attributed to Antonio da Viterbo; the marble Pietà above the altar is the work of Gian Cristoforo Romano. The complex painted decoration, although in general following the Umbrian style, has the characteristics of multiple hands with different individual accents. In addition to the assistants from the workshop of Pinturicchio and Perugino, the Bolognese Amico Aspertini may have participated in the stories of the martyrs on the false reliefs of the base, because he stayed in Rome in those years.

One of the hands notably present in the main scenes, if not Pinturicchio himself, is assigned to a generic „Master of the Basso Della Rovere Chapel” recognizable in the frescoes of the Piccolomini Library in the Cathedral of Siena. Cristina Acidini, Pintoricchio, in Pittori del Rinascimento, Firenze 2004. ISBN 88-8117-099-X Gerald S. Davies: Renascence; the Sculptured Tombs of the Fifteenth Century in Rome, E. P. Dutton and Company, New York, 1916