The RATP Group known as the Régie Autonome des Transports Parisiens, is a state-owned public transport operator and maintainer headquartered in Paris, France. Formed in 1949, it has its origins as the city's public transport operator, its logo represents, in a stylized version, the Seine's meandering through the Paris area as the face of a person looking up. Today, RATP is still responsible for most of the public transport in Paris, the rest of the Île-de-France region, including the Paris Métro and bus services and part of the Réseau Express Régional network. In the Île-de-France region, RATP carries about 3 billion passengers per year; the RATP's Paris operations are still a major part of the business, but its operations have now extended to include businesses around the globe. They include involvement in the operation of bus, rapid transit and inter-city rail services in Europe, Asia and the Americas. RATP Group is the world's fifth largest operator in the public transport sector; the RATP was created on 1 January 1949 by combining the assets of the Compagnie du chemin de fer métropolitain de Paris, which operated the Paris Métro, the Société des transports en commun de la région parisienne, which operated the city's bus system.
Earlier, the CMP had absorbed the Société du Chemin de Fer Électrique Nord-Sud de Paris in 1930 and the Ligne de Sceaux in 1937, which extended commuter rail to the suburbs. The STCRP had been created on 1 January 1921 by the merger of about half a dozen independent bus and streetcar operators in the Paris area. By the time the STCRP was merged into the RATP, all of its streetcars had been replaced by bus routes. In the early years of the 21st century, a partnership with the Transdev group resulted in RATP acquiring a minority shareholding in that group, with its many worldwide transport operations. However, in 2009, the Caisse des dépôts et consignations, the majority owner of the Transdev group, started negotiations with Veolia Environnement to merge Transdev with Veolia Transport; as part of the resulting agreement, made in May 2010, it was agreed that the RATP Group would take over ownership of some of Transdev's operations in lieu of cash payment for its holdings in Transdev. This had a considerable impact on RATP's international profile.
In 2009, RATP entered the United States by purchasing transit contractor McDonald Transit Associates. McDonald operated FWTA in Texas, Votran in Florida, Waco Transit System in Texas, among others. On 1 August 2011 the RATP Group purchased Stagecoach Metrolink's contract to operate the Metrolink light rail system in Greater Manchester, England until July 2017. Two years in 2013 RATP purchased the nearby long-established coach company, Selwyns Travel, a National Express operator; the last CEOs of the RATP were Pierre Mongin and Élisabeth Borne. The actual president of the RATP, Catherine Guillouard, was nominated on 2 August 2017. In Paris, RATP operates, under its own name, on behalf of the Île-de-France Mobilités, the Paris region transit authority. RATP's services constitute, in their own right, a multi-mode public transportation infrastructure, but contribute to a larger multi-mode system extending out into the surrounding Île-de-France communities. RATP's services in the Greater Paris area include: The Paris Métro system of underground rapid transit lines, which run throughout the city, with some lines extending somewhat beyond the city boundaries.
The Métro has 16 lines with 219 km of 302 stations. Two metro lines are automated and driverless: line 1 and line 14. Orlyval, the automated metro shuttle connecting Antony station and Orly Airport. Parts of the RER, the Paris regional express rail network that runs underground in the centre of Paris and overground in the rest of the region. RATP owns and operates line A and line B, both together representing 115 km and 66 stations; the rest of the RER network is operated by SNCF. Eight out of ten lines of the Paris tram system totalizing 101.9 km and 183 stops. The extensive Paris city bus system, including the night buses of the Noctilien network. Two BRT lines: the Trans-Val-de-Marne and line 393; the Montmartre funicular. Paris bus route 341 was RATP's first line equipped with 100% electric full-size buses. RATP Dev, a 100% subsidiary of the RATP Group created in 2002, provides operations and maintenance of passenger transport services outside of the "historical" RATP network in the Greater Paris area although it operates some specialised services within Paris.
RATP Dev is present in 14 countries, namely Algeria, France, Italy, the Philippines, Saudi Arabia, South Africa, South Korea, the United Kingdom, the United States. Wholly and owned operations include the following: Agglobus, the urban bus network of Bourges in the Cher department Aléo, the urban bus network of Moulins in the Allier department Cars Jacquemard, a coach operator in the Eure department Cars Perrier, one of the operators of the Sqybus network serving the Saint-Quentin-en-Yvelines suburb near Paris The CTRL network of Lorient Agglomération in the Morbihan department Com'Bus and Val-d'Oise departments The Impulsyon urban bus netw
The RER C is one of the five lines in the RER system serving Paris, France. It is operated by SNCF; the line runs from the northwestern termini Pontoise, Versailles-Château-Rive-Gauche and Saint-Quentin-en-Yvelines to the southeastern termini Massy-Palaiseau, Dourdan-la-Forêt, Saint-Martin d'Étampes and Versailles – Chantiers. The RER C line is the second-longest in the network, with over 187 km of route. RER C was created from an amalgamation and renovation of several old SNCF commuter lines unlike RER A and B which had newer sections owned and constructed by RATP; each day, over 531 trains run on the RER C alone, carries over 540,000 passengers daily, 150,000 passengers more than the entirety of the TGV network. It is the most popular RER line for tourists which represents 15% of its passengers, as the line serves many monuments and museums, including the Palace of Versailles. However, the numerous stops, combined with the old and fragile infrastructure the line inherited, makes the Parisian section of the RER C slow and inefficient.
The numerous old curves and steep grades on RER C means trains sometimes need to slow down to 40 km/h to safely pass sections with tight alignments. In contrast, RER A was constructed with more modern standards enabling much higher average operating speeds; these problems are evident on trips to and from the northern suburbs to the city center as taking Transilien lines and transferring to the Métro is much faster than taking the meandering RER C with spaced stops. In addition, the RER C's complicated operating schedule created by its complex network of numerous branches means the entire line is vulnerable to delays from the smallest incidents; these issues have led to the line being called "réseau escargot régional" by the local populace. Line C was opened on 26 September 1979 following the construction of a new 1-kilometre tunnel connecting the Gare d'Orsay railway terminus with the Invalides terminus of the Rive Gauche line to Versailles, along the banks of the Seine. Services operated between Versailles-Château-Rive-Gauche – Invalides – Quai-d'Orsay, branching to Massy – Palaiseau, Juvisy – Dourdan / Saint-Martin d'Étampes.
May 1980: Service extended Saint-Quentin-en-Yvelines – Versailles – Chantiers – Gare des Invalides. On 25 September 1988 the VMI branch to the north-west opened; this branch used the infrastructure of the "ligne d'Auteuil", a new 3 kilometres tunnel connection between Batignolles and St-Ouen, connecting to the RER C's main trunk at Champ de Mars-Tour Eiffel via a curved bridge over the Seine river. This extended services to Montigny -- Argenteuil. Porte de Clichy opened on 29 September 1991. Located between Pereire – Levallois and St-Ouen. In 1992 the line was extended from Juvisy to Versailles. A further 9 kilometres extension from Montigny – Beauchamp to Pontoise was opened on 28 August 2000. On the same day a new station, Bibliothèque François Mitterrand, opened in order to create a new connexion with Métro Line 14. Located between Paris-Austerlitz and Boulevard Masséna. Another new station, St-Ouen-l'Aumône-Liesse, opened on 24 March 2002. Located between Pierrelaye and St-Ouen-l'Aumône; the C3 branch transferred to the Transilien Paris – Saint-Lazare suburban rail network on 27 August 2006.
On 16 December 2006, Boulevard Victor was renamed Boulevard Victor – Pont du Garigliano to highlight the new interchange with tramway line T3. In February 2012, Versailles - Rive Gauche was renamed Versailles-Château-Rive-Gauche, to avoid frequent tourist confusion with other stations in Versailles. List of stations of the Paris Métro List of stations of the Paris RER Media related to Paris RER ligne C at Wikimedia Commons RATP official website RATP English website Interactive map of the RER Interactive map of the Paris métro Mobidf website, dedicated to the RER Metro-Pole website, dedicated to Paris public transports
In rail transport, track gauge or track gage is the spacing of the rails on a railway track and is measured between the inner faces of the load-bearing rails. All vehicles on a rail network must have running gear, compatible with the track gauge, in the earliest days of railways the selection of a proposed railway's gauge was a key issue; as the dominant parameter determining interoperability, it is still used as a descriptor of a route or network. In some places there is a distinction between the nominal gauge and the actual gauge, due to divergence of track components from the nominal. Railway engineers use a device, like a caliper, to measure the actual gauge, this device is referred to as a track gauge; the terms structure gauge and loading gauge, both used, have little connection with track gauge. Both refer to two-dimensional cross-section profiles, surrounding the track and vehicles running on it; the structure gauge specifies the outline into which altered structures must not encroach.
The loading gauge is the corresponding envelope within which rail vehicles and their loads must be contained. If an exceptional load or a new type of vehicle is being assessed to run, it is required to conform to the route's loading gauge. Conformance ensures. In the earliest days of railways, single wagons were manhandled on timber rails always in connection with mineral extraction, within a mine or quarry leading from it. Guidance was not at first provided except by human muscle power, but a number of methods of guiding the wagons were employed; the spacing between the rails had to be compatible with that of the wagon wheels. The timber rails wore rapidly. In some localities, the plates were made L-shaped, with the vertical part of the L guiding the wheels; as the guidance of the wagons was improved, short strings of wagons could be connected and pulled by horses, the track could be extended from the immediate vicinity of the mine or quarry to a navigable waterway. The wagons were built to a consistent pattern and the track would be made to suit the wagons: the gauge was more critical.
The Penydarren Tramroad of 1802 in South Wales, a plateway, spaced these at 4 ft 4 in over the outside of the upstands. The Penydarren Tramroad carried the first journey by a locomotive, in 1804, it was successful for the locomotive, but unsuccessful for the track: the plates were not strong enough to carry its weight. A considerable progressive step was made. Edge rails required a close match between rail spacing and the configuration of the wheelsets, the importance of the gauge was reinforced. Railways were still seen as local concerns: there was no appreciation of a future connection to other lines, selection of the track gauge was still a pragmatic decision based on local requirements and prejudices, determined by existing local designs of vehicles. Thus, the Monkland and Kirkintilloch Railway in the West of Scotland used 4 ft 6 in; the Arbroath and Forfar Railway opened in 1838 with a gauge of 5 ft 6 in, the Ulster Railway of 1839 used 6 ft 2 in Locomotives were being developed in the first decades of the 19th century.
His designs were so successful that they became the standard, when the Stockton and Darlington Railway was opened in 1825, it used his locomotives, with the same gauge as the Killingworth line, 4 ft 8 in. The Stockton and Darlington line was immensely successful, when the Liverpool and Manchester Railway, the first intercity line, was built, it used the same gauge, it was hugely successful, the gauge, became the automatic choice: "standard gauge". The Liverpool and Manchester was followed by other trunk railways, with the Grand Junction Railway and the London and Birmingham Railway forming a huge critical mass of standard gauge; when Bristol promoters planned a line from London, they employed the innovative engineer Isambard Kingdom Brunel. He decided on a wider gauge, to give greater stability, the Great Western Railway adopted a gauge of 7 ft eased to 7 ft 1⁄4 in; this became known as broad gauge. The Great Western Railway was successful and was expanded and through friendly associated companies, widening the scope of broad gauge.
At the same time, other parts of Britain built railways to standard gauge, British technology was exported to European countries and parts of North America using standard gauge. Britain polarised into two areas: those that used standard gauge. In this context, standard gauge was referred to as "narrow gauge" to indicate the contrast; some smaller concerns selected other non-standard gauges: the Eastern Counties Railway adopted 5 ft. Most of them converted to standard gauge at an early date, but the GWR's broad gauge continued to grow; the larger railway companies wished to expand geographically, large areas were considered to be under their control. When a new
Île-de-France called the région parisienne, contains the city of Paris, is the most populous of the 18 regions of France. It covers 12,012 square kilometres, or two percent of the national territory, has official estimated population of 12,213,364 as of January 1, 2019, or 18.2% of the population of France. The region accounts for nearly 30 percent of the French Gross Domestic Product; the region is made up of eight administrative departments: Paris, Hauts-de-Seine, Seine-Saint-Denis, Seine-et-Marne, Val-de-Marne, Val-d'Oise and Yvelines. It was created as the "District of the Paris Region" in 1961 renamed in 1976 after the historic province of Île-de-France, when its status was aligned with the other French administrative regions created in 1972. Residents are sometimes referred to an administrative word created in the 1980s; the GDP of the region in 2016 was €681 billion. It has the highest per-capita GDP among regions in France and the third-highest of regions in the European Union. In 2018 all of the twenty-eight French companies listed in the Fortune Global 500 had their headquarters in the Paris region.
Besides the landmarks of Paris, the region has many important historic sites, including the Palace of Versailles and the Palace of Fontainebleau, as well as the most-visited tourist attraction in France, Disneyland Paris. Although the modern name Île-de-France means "Island of France", the etymology is in fact unclear; the "island" may refer to the land between the rivers Oise and Seine, or it may have been a reference to the Île de la Cité, where the French royal palace and cathedral were located. The Île-de-France was inhabited by the Parisii, a sub-tribe of the Celtic Senones, from around the middle of the 3rd century BC. One of the area's major north–south trade routes crossed the Seine on the île de la Cité; the Parisii minted their own coins for that purpose. The Romans began their settlement on Paris's Left Bank, it became a prosperous city with a forum, temples, an amphitheatre. Christianity was introduced in the middle of the 3rd century AD by Saint Denis, the first Bishop of Paris: according to legend, when he refused to renounce his faith before the Roman occupiers, he was beheaded on the hill which became known as Mons Martyrum "Montmartre", from where he walked headless to the north of the city.
As the Frankish domination of Gaul began, there was a gradual immigration by the Franks to Paris and the Parisian Francien dialects were born. Fortification of the Île-de-la-Citie failed to avert sacking by Vikings in 845, but Paris's strategic importance—with its bridges preventing ships from passing—was established by successful defence in the Siege of Paris. In 987, Hugh Capet, Count of Paris and Duke of the Franks, was elected King of the Franks. Under the rule of the Capetian kings, Paris became the largest and most prosperous city in France; the Kings of France enjoyed getting away from Paris and hunting in the game-filled forests of the region. They built palatial hunting lodges, most notably Palace of Fontainebleau and the Palace of Versailles. From the time of Louis XIV until the French Revolution, Versailles was the official residence of the Kings and the seat of the French government; the Ile-de-France became the term used for the territory of Paris and the surrounding province, administered directly by the King.
During the French Revolution, the royal provinces were abolished and divided into departments, the city and region were governed directly by the national government. In the period after World War II, as Paris faced a major housing shortage, hundreds of massive apartment blocks for low-income residents were built around the edges of Paris. In the 1950s and the 1960s, Many thousands of immigrants settled in the communes bordering the city. In 1959, under President Charles De Gaulle, a new region was created out of six departments, which corresponded with the historic region, with the name District de la région de Paris. On 6 May 1976, as part of the process of regionalisation, the district was reconstituted and increased administrative and political powers and renamed the Île-de-France region. Île-de-France has a land area of 12,011 km2. It is composed of eight départements centered on Paris. Around the département of Paris, urbanization fills a first concentric ring of three departments known as the petite couronne, extends into a second outer ring of four départements known as the grande couronne.
The former département of Seine, abolished in 1968, included the city proper and parts of the petite couronne. The petite couronne consists of the départements of Hauts-de-Seine, Seine-Saint-Denis, Val-de-Marne, the grande couronne of those of Seine-et-Marne, Yvelines and Val-d'Oise. Politically, the region is divided into 8 départements, 25 arrondissements, 155 cantons and 1 276 communes, out of the total of 35 416 in metropolitan France, The outer parts of the Ile-de-France remain rural. Agriculture land and natu
A tram is a rail vehicle which runs on tramway tracks along public urban streets. The lines or networks operated by tramcars are called tramways; the term electric street railways was used in the United States. In the United States, the term tram has sometimes been used for rubber-tyred trackless trains, which are unrelated to other kinds of trams. Tram vehicles are lighter and shorter than main line and rapid transit trains. Today, most trams use electrical power fed by a pantograph sliding on an overhead line. In some cases by a contact shoe on a third rail is used. If necessary, they may have dual power systems—electricity in city streets, diesel in more rural environments. Trams carry freight. Trams are now included in the wider term "light rail", which includes grade-separated systems; some trams, known as tram-trains, may have segments that run on mainline railway tracks, similar to interurban systems. The differences between these modes of rail transport are indistinct, a given system may combine multiple features.
One of the advantages over earlier forms of transit was the low rolling resistance of metal wheels on steel rails, allowing the trams to haul a greater load for a given effort. Problems included the fact that any given animal could only work so many hours on a given day, had to be housed, groomed and cared for day in and day out, produced prodigious amounts of manure, which the streetcar company was charged with disposing of. Electric trams replaced animal power in the late 19th and early 20th century. Improvements in other forms of road transport such as buses led to decline of trams in mid 20th century. Trams have seen resurgence in recent years; the English terms tram and tramway are derived from the Scots word tram, referring to a type of truck used in coal mines and the tracks on which they ran. The word tram derived from Middle Flemish trame; the identical word la trame with the meaning "crossbeam" is used in the French language. Etymologists believe that the word tram refers to the wooden beams the railway tracks were made of before the railroad pioneers switched to the much more wear-resistant tracks made of iron and steel.
The word Tram-car is attested from 1873. Although the terms tram and tramway have been adopted by many languages, they are not used universally in English; the term streetcar is first recorded in 1840, referred to horsecars. When electrification came, Americans began to speak of trolleycars or trolleys. A held belief holds the word to derive from the troller, a four-wheeled device, dragged along dual overhead wires by a cable that connected the troller to the top of the car and collected electrical power from the overhead wires. "Trolley" and variants refer to the verb troll, meaning "roll" and derived from Old French, cognate uses of the word were well established for handcarts and horse drayage, as well as for nautical uses. The alternative North American term'trolley' may speaking be considered incorrect, as the term can be applied to cable cars, or conduit cars that instead draw power from an underground supply. Conventional diesel tourist buses decorated to look like streetcars are sometimes called trolleys in the US.
Furthering confusion, the term tram has instead been applied to open-sided, low-speed segmented vehicles on rubber tires used to ferry tourists short distances, for example on the Universal Studios backlot tour and, in many countries, as tourist transport to major destinations. The term may apply to an aerial ropeway, e.g. the Roosevelt Island Tramway. Although the use of the term trolley for tram was not adopted in Europe, the term was associated with the trolleybus, a rubber-tyred vehicle running on hard pavement, which draws its power from pairs of overhead wires; these electric buses, which use twin trolley poles, are called trackless trolleys, or sometimes trolleys. The New South Wales, government has decided to use the term "light rail" for their trams; the history of trams, streetcars or trolley systems, began in early nineteenth century. It can be divided up into several discrete periods defined by the principal means of motive power used; the world's first passenger train or tram was the Swansea and Mumbles Railway, in Wales, UK.
The Mumbles Railway Act was passed by the British Parliament in 1804, horse-drawn service started in 1807. The service was restarted in 1860, again using horses, it was worked by steam from 1877, from 1929, by large electric tramcars, until closure in 1961. The Swansea and Mumbles Railway was something of a one-off however, no street tramway would appear in Britain until 1860 when one was built in Birkenhead by the American George Francis Train. Street railways developed in America before Europe due to the poor paving of the streets in American cities which made them unsuitable for horsebuses, which were common on the well-paved streets of European cities. Running the horsecars on rails allowed for a much smoother ride. There are records of a street railway running in Baltimore as early as 1828, however the first authenticated streetcar in America, was the New York and Harle
Paris Métro Line 12
Paris Métro Line 12 is one of sixteen metro lines in Paris, France. It links Issy-les-Moulineaux in southern Paris to Front Populaire in the north. With 72 million journeys per year, Line 12 is the eleventh busiest on the Parisian Métropolitan system, it has several important stops, such as Madeleine, the 6th arrondissement of Paris, Porte de Versailles and two national railway stations, Gare Montparnasse and Gare Saint-Lazare. The service runs every day of the week, starting at 05:30; the line uses MF the network's standard since the early 1970s. Line 12 was founded as "Line A" by the Nord-Sud Company, who built line 13, it was built between 1905 and 1910, to connect the districts of Montparnasse, in the south, Montmartre, in the north. The first trip, from Porte de Versailles to Notre-Dame-de-Lorette, was on 5 November 1910; the line was the second to be built on the north-south axis of the city, in competition with Line 4 of the Compagnie du chemin de fer métropolitain de Paris. It was extended bit by bit until 1934.
Tunnelling to the northern terminus at the Porte de la Chapelle on the perimeter of Paris had been completed in 1916. In 1930, the CMP bought the Nord-Sud company and Line A was integrated into the new, unified network as Line 12. In 1949, the CMP was itself merged into Paris's public transport company, they operate the line today and have plans to extend it south as far as the town of Issy, north to La Plaine Saint-Denis. The line was built using cut-and-cover excavation techniques. Since this method cannot be used under buildings, the route follows the streets above, it remains unchanged today and many original design features, such as the Nord-Sud company's refined ceramic decor, remain in the stations. Some stations are decorated thematically: Assemblée Nationale has murals depicting politicians' silhouettes, the tiling in Concorde represents an extract from the Declaration of the Rights of Man and Citizen in 1789. Engineer Jean-Baptiste Berlier proposed to the City of Paris to finance and build a new line linking the areas of Montmartre and Gare Saint-Lazare in the north with Montparnasse and Vaugirard in the south.
The line would establish a second north-south transport axis of the city, west of the existing line four. Berlier's design of two deep, iron-lined tunnels was modelled on the London Underground system; this method allowed the straightest line possible to be built, without passing underneath buildings and free from interference with underground sewers. The City Council liked the plan and on 28 December 1901 granted the tender for a Montparnasse-Montmartre line to Messrs Janicot and Berlier. In June 1902, a new company, new competitor of the "Parisian Metropolitan Rail Company", was established: the Nord-Sud Company; the grant to build what would become Line A was transferred to the Nord-Sud Company. While the infrastructure of the CMP was financed by the city corporation, Nord-Sud project was the sole responsibility of the Nord-Sud Company; the link between two important but distant urban centres guaranteed heavy traffic for the line and it would directly compete with the CMP and tramway companies, threatening their monopoly across the city.
The City was wary of inciting new demands to license other lines, of provoking industrial disorder, something experienced on the tramway network. French law required a Déclaration d'utilité publique, a statement of the project's public benefit before municipal construction, the concerns meant that it was not promulgated for the 6.216 km line until 3 April 1905. The law announced the creation "of public utility, of local interest, this establishment, in Paris, of a railroad, electrically powered, dedicated to the transport of passengers and their hand-luggage, from Montmartre to Montparnasse"; the law became active on the 19 July 1905, the southern terminus was at Porte de Versailles, 3.154 km long, with a northern branch from Gare St. Lazare to Porte de Saint-Quen. On the 10 April 1908, the northern extension from Place des Abbesses to Place Jules Joffrin, 1.32 km long, was in turn authorised, followed by the final section to Porte de la Chapelle on the 24 January 1912. The boggy undersoil of Paris made it impossible for the engineers to follow their initial concept of excavated, metal-lined tunnels: digging deeper to more stable ground would raise costs.
The line was established underneath the streets using the cut and cover method of the CMP's lines the standard in use on the Metropolitan system. As a consequence, the layout contains several difficult curves in the northern part where narrow streets have a winding route; the line had all with vaulted roof construction. An interchange with lines A and B was established at Saint-Lazare, but there was no connection with the CMP's lines. Work on the sub-fluvial tunnel underneath the Seine, between the Chambre des Députés station and Concorde, took place between July 1907 and July 1909; this 657 m long section runs through a bed of limestone after a break in the sand on the Rive Gauche. The under-river passage was bored by two early tunnel boring machines, each with an external diameter of 5.24 m. The head of the machine cut into the rock, while in two intermediate chambers 24 hydraulic jacks exerted a pressure of 2.4 tonnes (2.6 sho
Boulogne – Pont de Saint-Cloud (Paris Métro)
Boulogne – Pont de Saint-Cloud is a station on Line 10 of the Paris Métro. The station lies under the Rond-Point Rhin et Danube, near the Pont de Saint-Cloud bridge over the Seine, in the commune of Boulogne-Billancourt; the station was opened on 2 October 1981. The station serves as the western terminus of Paris Métro Line 10 and is the most westerly station on Paris Metro system