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Ögedei Khan

Ögedei was the third son of Genghis Khan and second Great Khan of the Mongol Empire, succeeding his father. He continued the expansion of the empire that his father had begun, was a world figure when the Mongol Empire reached its farthest extent west and south during the Mongol invasions of Europe and East Asia. Like all of Genghis' primary sons, he participated extensively in conquests in China and Central Asia. Ögedei was the third son of Börte Ujin. He participated in the turbulent events of his father's rise; when Ögedei was 17 years old, Genghis Khan experienced the disastrous defeat of Khalakhaljid Sands against the army of Jamukha. Ögedei was wounded and lost on the battlefield. His father's adopted brother and companion Borokhula rescued him. Although married, in 1204 his father gave him Töregene, the wife of a defeated Merkit chief; the addition of such a wife was not uncommon in steppe culture. After Genghis was proclaimed Emperor or Khagan in 1206, myangans of the Jalayir, Besud and Khongqatan clans were given to him as his appanage.

Ögedei's territory occupied the Hobok rivers. According to his father's wish, the commander of the Jalayir, became Ögedei's tutor. Ögedei, along with his brothers, campaigned independently for the first time in November 1211 against the Jin dynasty. He was sent to ravage the land south through Hebei and north through Shanxi in 1213. Ögedei's force drove the Jin garrison out of the Ordos, he rode to the juncture of the Xi Xia and Song domains. During the Mongol conquest of Eastern Persia, Ögedei and Chagatai massacred the residents of Otrar after a five-month siege in 1219–20 and joined Jochi, outside the walls of Urganch; because Jochi and Chagatai were quarreling over the military strategy, Ögedei was appointed by Genghis Khan to oversee the siege of Urganch. They captured the city in 1221; when the rebellion broke out in southeast Persia and Afghanistan, Ögedei pacified Ghazni. The Empress Yisui insisted that Genghis Khan designate an heir before the invasion of the Khwarezmid Empire in 1219.

After the terrible brawl between two elder sons Jochi and Chagatai, they agreed that Ögedei was to be chosen as heir. Genghis confirmed their decision. Genghis Khan died in 1227, Jochi had died a year or two earlier. Ögedei's younger brother Tolui held the regency until 1229. Ögedei was elected supreme khan in 1229, according to the kurultai held at Kodoe Aral on the Kherlen River after Genghis' death, although this was never in doubt as it was Genghis' clear wish that he be succeeded by Ögedei. After ritually declining three times, Ögedei was proclaimed Khagan of the Mongols on 13 September 1229. Chagatai continued to support his younger brother's claim. Genghis Khan saw Ögedei as having generous character, his charisma is credited for his success in keeping the Empire on his father's path. Thanks to the organization left behind by Genghis Khan, to the personality of Ögedei, the affairs of the Mongol Empire remained for the most part stable during his reign. Ögedei was a pragmatic man. Ögedei had no delusions that he was his father's equal as a military commander or organizer and used the abilities of those he found most capable.

Notwithstanding reports of his charisma, Ögedei was criticized by Mongol and Persian chroniclers for a crime he committed in 1237, which according to Persian chroniclers consisted of ordering the rape of four thousand Oirat girls above the age of seven. These girls were confiscated for Ögedei's harem or given to caravan hostels throughout the Mongol Empire for use as prostitutes; this move brought the Oirat and their lands under Ögedei's control following the death of Ögedei's sister Checheyigen, who controlled Oirat lands. After destroying the Khwarazmian empire, Genghis Khan was free to move against Western Xia. In 1226, Jalal ad-Din Mingburnu, the last of the Khwarizm monarchs, returned to Persia to revive the empire lost by his father, Muhammad ‘Ala al-Din II; the Mongol forces sent against him in 1227 were defeated at Dameghan. Another army that marched against Jalal al-Din scored a pyrrhic victory in the vicinity of Isfahan but was unable to follow up that success. With Ögedei's consent to launch a campaign, Chormaqan left Bukhara at the head of 30,000 to 50,000 Mongol soldiers.

He occupied two long-standing bases of Khwarazmian support. Crossing the Amu Darya River in 1230 and entering Khorasan without encountering any opposition, Chormaqan passed through quickly, he left a sizable contingent behind under the command of Dayir Noyan, who had further instructions to invade western Afghanistan. Chormaqan and the majority of his army entered the northern section of Persia known as Mazandaran in the autumn of 1230, thus avoiding the mountainous area south of the Caspian Sea; that region was controlled by the Ismailis. Upon reaching the city of Rey, Chormaqan made his winter camp there and dispatched his armies to pacify the rest of northern Persia. In 1231, he led his army southward and captured the cities of Qum and Hamadan. From there, he sent armies into the regions of Fars and Kirman, whose rulers submitted, preferring to pay tribute to Mongol overlords rather than having their states ravaged. Meanwhile, further east, Dayir achieved his goals in capturing Kabul and Zawulistan.

With the Mongols in control of Persia, Jalal al-Din was isolated in Transcaucasia where he was banished. Thus all of Persia was added to the Mongol Empire. At the end of 1230, responding to the Jin's unexpected defea

Competition

Competition arises whenever at least two parties strive for a goal which cannot be shared: where one's gain is the other's loss. It is, in general, a rivalry between two or more entities: animals, economic groups, social groups, etc. for group or social status, leadership and recognition: awards, mates, prestige, a niche, scarce resources, or a territory. Competition occurs between living organisms which co-exist in the same environment. Animals compete over water supplies, food and other biological resources. Humans compete for food and mates, though when these needs are met deep rivalries arise over the pursuit of wealth, power and fame. Competition is a major tenet of market economies and business associated with business competition as companies are in competition with at least one other firm over the same group of customers. Competition inside a company is stimulated with the larger purpose of meeting and reaching higher quality of services or improved products that the company may produce or develop.

Competition is considered to be the opposite of cooperation, however in the real world, mixtures of cooperation and competition are the norm. Optimal strategies to achieve goals are studied in the branch of mathematics known as game theory. Competition has been studied in several fields, including psychology and anthropology. Social psychologists, for instance, study the nature of competition, they investigate the natural urge of its circumstances. They study group dynamics, to detect how competition emerges and what its effects are. Sociologists, study the effects of competition on society as a whole. In addition, anthropologists study the prehistory of competition in various cultures, they investigate how competition manifested itself in various cultural settings in the past, how competition has developed over time. Competition within and among species is one of the most important forces in biology in the field of ecology. Competition between members of a species for resources such as food, water and sunlight may result in an increase in the frequency of a variant of the species best suited for survival and reproduction until its fixation within a population.

However, competition among resources has a strong tendency for diversification between members of the same species, resulting in coexistence of competitive and non-competitive strategies or cycles between low and high competitiveness. Third parties within a species favour competitive strategies leading to species extinction when environmental conditions are harsh. Competition is present between species; when resources are limited, several species may depend on these resources. Thus, each of the species competes with the others to gain access to the resources; as a result, species less suited to compete for the resources may die out unless they adapt by character dislocation, for instance. According to evolutionary theory, this competition within and between species for resources plays a significant role in natural selection. At shorter time scales, competition is one of the most important factors controlling diversity in ecological communities, but at larger scales expansion and contraction of ecological space is a much more larger factor than competition.

This is illustrated by living plant communities where asymmetric competition and competitive dominance occur. Multiple examples of symmetric and asymmetric competition exist for animals. In Australia, New Zealand and the United Kingdom, competitions or lottos are the equivalent of what are known as sweepstakes in the United States; the correct technical name for Australian consumer competitions is a trade promotion lottery or lottos. Competition or trade promotion lottery entrants enter to win a prize or prizes, hence many entrants are all in competition, or competing for a limited number of prizes. A trade promotion lottery or competition is a free entry lottery run to promote goods or services supplied by a business. An example is where you purchase goods or services and given the chance to enter into the lottery and win a prize. A trade promotion lottery can be called a lotto, contest, sweepstake, or giveaway; such competitions can be games of luck or skill, or a combination of both. People that enjoy entering competitions are known as compers.

Many compers attend annual national conventions. In 2012 over 100 members of the online competitions community of lottos.com.au from around Australia met on the Gold Coast, Queensland to discuss competitions. Many philosophers and psychologists have identified a trait in most living organisms which can drive the particular organism to compete; this trait, called competitiveness, is viewed as an innate biological traitwhich coexists along with the urge for survival. Competitiveness, or the inclination to compete, has become synonymous with aggressiveness and ambition in the English language. More advanced civilizations integrate aggressiveness and competitiveness into their interactions, as a way to distribute resources and adapt. Many plants compete with neighboring ones for sunlight. However, Stephen Jay Gould and others have argued that as one ascends the evolutionary hierarchy, competitiveness becomes less innate, more a learned behavior; the same could be said for co-operation: in humans, at least, both co-operation and competition are considered learned behaviors, because the human species learns to adapt to environmental pressures.

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Idiopathic generalized epilepsy

Idiopathic generalized epilepsy is a group of epileptic disorders that are believed to have a strong underlying genetic basis. Patients with an IGE subtype are otherwise normal and have no structural brain abnormalities. People often have a family history of epilepsy and seem to have a genetically predisposed risk of seizures. IGE tends to manifest itself between early childhood and adolescence although it can be diagnosed later; the genetic cause of some IGE types is known, though inheritance does not always follow a simple monogenic mechanism. This form of epilepsy is rare, representing less than 1% of cases, is twice as prevalent in boys compared to girls. Age of seizure onset is between 5 years of age. Children with this disorder present with head drops and brief arm jerks. Although there is believed to be a genetic basis for this disorder, no genetic linkage has been shown. Generalized epilepsy with febrile seizures plus is an umbrella for many other syndromes that share causative genes. Patients experience febrile seizures early in childhood and grow to experience other types of seizures in life.

Known causative genes for GEFS+ are the sodium channel α subunit genes SCN1A and SCN2A and the β subunit gene SCN1B. Mutations in the GABAA receptor γ subunit GABRG1 are causative for this disorder; this rare epilepsy has a wide age range of presentation. This epilepsy is characterized by absence seizures concurrent with myoclonic jerks occurring several times daily; the genetics of this disorder have not been delineated. Seizures from this disorder cease within 5 years. Called Doose syndrome, epilepsy with myoclonic-astatic seizures accounts for ~2% of childhood epilepsies. Children with this disorder have brief myoclonic jerks followed by brief loss of muscle tone, sometimes resulting in dangerous falls; some patients have much longer lasting seizures of this type. Many patients with this disorder have absence seizures; this is believed to be a polygenic disorder. Known as pyknolepsy, childhood absence epilepsy represents up to 10% of all childhood epilepsies, it first manifests in childhood between the ages of 8 as brief periods of unconsciousness.

Mutations in the calcium channel α subunit encoding gene CACNA1H and the GABA receptor γ subunit encoding gene GABRG2 yield susceptibility for CAE. Juvenile absence epilepsy is similar to CAE but has an onset between ages 9 and 13. Other differences are that patients with this disorder have less frequent but longer absence seizures than those with CAE. There are a number of possible genetic loci for this disorder, though no causative genes have been demonstrated. Known as Janz syndrome, juvenile myoclonic epilepsy is a common form of epilepsy, accounting for ~10% of all cases and ~25% of cases of idiopathic generalized epilepsies. Many children with CAE go on to develop JME. JME first presents between the ages of 18 with prominent myoclonic seizures; these seizures tend to occur early in the morning. Patients with JME may have generalized tonic-clonic seizures and absence seizures. Linkage of this disorder has been shown to mutations in the genes GABRA1, CACNB4, CLCN2, GABRD2, EFHC1, EFHC2; this type of IGE can present at any age and is poorly characterized.

Because of its loose definition, it is impossible to supply an accurate estimate of its prevalence. As implied by its name, patients with this disorder present only with tonic-clonic seizures. "Proposal for Revised Classification of Epilepsies and Epileptic Syndromes". Epilepsia. 30: 389–99. 1989. Doi:10.1111/j.1528-1157.1989.tb05316.x. PMID 2502382. Jr, N.. "Idiopathic Generalized Epilepsies Recognized by the International League Against Epilepsy". Epilepsia. 46: 48. Doi:10.1111/j.1528-1167.2005.00313.x