Ajivika is one of the nāstika or "heterodox" schools of Indian philosophy. Purportedly founded in the 5th century BCE by Makkhali Gosala, it was a śramaṇa movement and a major rival of vedic religion, early Buddhism and Jainism. Ājīvikas were organised renunciates. The precise identity of the Ajivikas is not well known, it is unclear if they were a divergent sect of the Buddhists or the Jains. Original scriptures of the Ājīvika school of philosophy may once have existed, but these are unavailable and lost, their theories are extracted from mentions of Ajivikas in the secondary sources of ancient Indian literature. Scholars question whether Ājīvika philosophy has been and summarized in these secondary sources, as they were written by groups competing with and adversarial to the philosophy and religious practices of the Ajivikas, it is therefore that much of the information available about the Ājīvikas is inaccurate to some degree, characterisations of them should be regarded and critically. The Ājīvika school is known for its Niyati doctrine of absolute determinism, the premise that there is no free will, that everything that has happened, is happening and will happen is preordained and a function of cosmic principles.
Ājīvikas considered the karma doctrine as a fallacy. Ajivika metaphysics included a theory of atoms, adapted in Vaisheshika school, where everything was composed of atoms, qualities emerged from aggregates of atoms, but the aggregation and nature of these atoms was predetermined by cosmic forces. Ājīvikas were considered as atheists. They believed that in every living being is an ātman – a central premise of Hinduism and Jainism.Ājīvika philosophy reached the height of its popularity during the rule of the Mauryan emperor Bindusara, around the 4th century BCE. This school of thought thereafter declined, but survived for nearly 2,000 years through the 14th century CE in the southern Indian states of Karnataka and Tamil Nadu; the Ājīvika philosophy, along with the Cārvāka philosophy, appealed most to the warrior and mercantile classes of ancient Indian society. Ajivika is derived from Ajiva which means "livelihood, mode of life"; the term Ajivika means "those following special rules with regard to Iivelihood", sometimes connoting "religious mendicants" in ancient Sanskrit and Pali texts.
The name Ajivika for an entire philosophy resonates with its core belief in "no free will" and complete niyati "inner order of things, self-command, predeterminism", leading to the premise that good simple living is not a means to salvation or moksha, just a means to true livelihood, predetermined profession and way of life. The name came to imply that school of Indian philosophy which lived a good simple mendicant-like livelihood for its own sake and as part of its predeterministic beliefs, rather than for the sake of after-life or motivated by any soteriological reasons; some scholars spell Ajivika as Ajivaka. Ājīvika philosophy is cited in ancient texts of Buddhism and Jainism to Makkhali Gosala, a contemporary of the Buddha and Mahavira. In Sandaka Sutta the Ājīvikas are said to recognize three emancipators: Nanda Vaccha, Kisa Saṅkicca, Makkhali Gosāla. Exact origins of Ājīvika is unknown, but accepted to be the 5th century BCE. Primary sources and literature of the Ājīvikas is lost, or yet to be found.
Everything, known about Ājīvika history and its philosophy is from secondary sources, such as the ancient and medieval texts of India. Inconsistent fragments of Ājīvika history is found in Jain texts such as the Bhagvati Sutra and Buddhist texts such as the Samaññaphala Sutta and Sandaka Sutta, Buddhaghosa's commentary on Sammannaphala Sutta, with a few mentions in Hindu texts such as Vayu Purana; the Ājīvikas reached the height of their prominence in the late 1st millennium BCE declined, yet continued to exist in south India until the 14th Century CE, as evidenced by inscriptions found in southern India. Ancient texts of Buddhism and Jainism mention a city in the 1st millennium BCE named Savatthi as the hub of the Ājīvikas. In part of the common era, inscriptions suggests that the Ājīvikas had a significant presence in the South Indian state of Karnataka, prominently in Kolar district and some places of Tamil Nadu; the Ājīvika philosophy spread in ancient South Asia, with a Sangha Geham for Ājīvikas on the island now known as Sri Lanka and extending into the western state of Gujarat by the 4th century BCE, the era of the Maurya Empire.
Riepe refers to Ājīvikas as a distinct heterodox school of Indian tradition. Raju states that "Ājīvikas and Cārvākas can be called Hindus", adds that "the word Hinduism has no definite meaning". Epigraphical evidence suggests that emperor Ashoka, in the 3rd century BCE, considered Ājīvikas to be more related to the schools of Hinduism than to Buddhists, Jainas or other Indian schools of thought. Makkhali Gosala is considered as the founder of the Ājīvika movement; some sources state that Gosala was only a leader of a large Ājīvika congregation of ascetics, but not the founder of the movement himself. The Swiss Indologist Jarl Charpentier and others suggest the Ājīvika tradition existed in India well before the birth of Makkhali Gosala, citing a variety of ancient Indian texts. Gosala was believed to be born in Tiruppatur of Tiruchirappalli district in Tamil Nadu and was the son of Mankha, a p
The 2012 Offaly Senior Hurling Championship was the 114th staging of the Offaly Senior Hurling Championship since its establishment by the Offaly County Board in 1896. The draw for the 2012 fixtures took place on 28 January 2012; the championship began on 11 May 2012 and ended on 7 October 2012. Coolderry were the defending champions, they were defeated in the quarter-final stages by St. Rynagh's. Shamrocks were relegated from the championship. Kilcormac/Killoughey won the title following a 2-16 to 2-12 defeat of St. Rynagh's in the final. All but one of the twelve teams from the 2011 championship participated in the top tier of Offaly hurling in 2012. Brosna Gaels, who defeated St. Rynagh's by 0-13 to 0-8 in the final of the intermediate championship in 2011, availed of their right to automatic promotion to the senior championship. Lusmagh were defeated in the 2011 senior relegation play-off and were relegated to the intermediate grade for 2012; the twelve teams were divided into two groups: Group 1: Coolderry, Kilcormac/Killoughey, Seir Kieran, Brosna Gaels, Shamrocks Group 2: Birr, St. Rynagh's, Drumcullen, Belmont Aidan Bracken Building Design Hurling Championship 2012
The Dictionary of Obscure Sorrows is a website and YouTube channel, created by John Koenig, that defines neologisms for emotions that do not have a descriptive term. The dictionary includes verbal entries on the website with paragraph-length descriptions and videos on YouTube for individual entries; the neologisms, while created by Koenig, are based on his research on etymologies and meanings of used prefixes and word roots. The terms are based on "feelings of existentialism" and are meant to "fill a hole in the language" from reader contributions of specific emotions; some videos involve a large number of photographs, such as the video for Vemödalen, which uses an "almost exhausting—yet seamless—fusion of 465 similar photos from different photographers". Other videos are more personal, such as Avenoir,which involves a "collage of his own home movies to piece together an exploration of life’s linearity". An official book for the Dictionary of Obscure Sorrows is expected to be published soon.
The dictionary was first considered in 2006 when Koenig was a "student at Macalester College in Minnesota" and was attempting to write poetry. The Dictionary of Obscure Sorrows was the idea he came up with that would contain all the words he needed for his poetry, including emotions that had never been linguistically described; the popularity of the website and web series began to grow in June 2015 after a list of twenty-three words from the dictionary began to be shared on multiple social media sites. Several of the neologisms presented in The Dictionary of Obscure Sorrows those that have an accompanying video, have received attention and interest; the term Vemödalen focuses on the lack of creativity within photography due to the existence of similar photographs having been taken in the past. However, the video focuses on how it is "inevitable that the “same” image will be captured by different individuals" while it is correct that "just because some things seem similar, their uniqueness is not annulled".
Using a quote from Walt Whitman, the video points out that something being unique will always be based on adding to what came before and that every photo made is being added to the story of photographs that all people are collaborating on. The term Sonder has been noted as well for its relation to other people, its definition meaning "the realization that each random passerby is living a life as vivid and complex as your own". Sonder has been appropriated by various companies for use as the name of a bike brand and the title of a video game; the third album from indie pop artist Kaoru Ishibashi was named Sonderlust after this term from the dictionary and references the separation from his wife and his attempts to understand her life. Sonder is the fourth studio album by English progressive metal band, TesseracT. Multiple words from the dictionary, such as ellipism, énouement, onism, were used as titles for various cocktails served at the Chicago restaurant Knife. An art gallery exhibit for the works of Michael Sagato in Los Angeles uses words from the Dictionary of Obscure Sorrows to title each of his art pieces and to reference the meaning behind each piece.
The Times of India referred to the dictionary as a "delightful website for etymologists and wordsmiths". Sharanya Manivannan, writing for The New Indian Express, described the dictionary as a "beautiful experiment on the fine line between babble and Babel." Bartlett, Evan. "10 made-up words to describe emotions that we should all start using immediately". The Independent. Retrieved October 1, 2015. Livni, Ephrat. "Opia, liberosis: The dictionary for all the emotions you feel, but can't express". Quartz. Retrieved January 18, 2017. Official website The Dictionary of Obscure Sorrows on YouTube The Dictionary of Obscure Sorrows on TestTube