Đorđe Petrović OSA, better known by the sobriquet Black George, or Karađorđe, was a Serbian revolutionary who led the struggle for his country's independence from the Ottoman Empire during the First Serbian Uprising of 1804–1813. Born into an impoverished family in the Šumadija region of Ottoman Serbia, Karađorđe distinguished himself during the Austro-Turkish War of 1788–1791 as a member of the Serbian Free Corps, a militia made up of Habsburg and Ottoman Serbs, armed and trained by the Austrians. Fearing retribution following the Austrians' and Serb rebels' defeat in 1791, he and his family fled to the Austrian Empire, where they were to live until 1794, when a general amnesty was declared. Karađorđe subsequently became a livestock merchant. In 1796, the rogue governor of the Sanjak of Vidin, Osman Pazvantoğlu, invaded the Pashalik of Belgrade, Karađorđe fought alongside the Ottomans to quash the incursion. In early 1804, following a massacre of Serb chieftains by renegade Ottoman janissaries known as Dahis, the Serbs of the Pashalik rebelled.
Karađorđe was unanimously elected to lead the uprising against the Dahis at an assembly of surviving chiefs in February 1804. Within six months, most of the Dahi leaders had been captured and executed by Karađorđe's forces, by 1805, the final remnants of Dahi resistance had been crushed. Karađorđe and his followers now demanded far-reaching autonomy, a move which Sultan Selim interpreted as but the first step towards complete independence. Selim promptly ordered an army to march into the Pashalik; the Ottomans suffered a string of defeats at the hands of Karađorđe's forces. By 1806, the rebels had captured all the major towns in the Pashalik, including Belgrade and Smederevo, expelled their Muslim inhabitants. Burdened by the demands of the Russo-Ottoman War of 1806–1812, Selim offered the Serbs extensive autonomy, but Karađorđe refused in light of Russia's avowal to aid the rebels should they continue fighting. Frequent infighting, together with Napoleon's invasion of Russia in 1812, weakened the rebels, the Ottomans were able to reverse many of their gains.
Karađorđe was forced to flee Serbia in October 1813 and Belgrade fell that month, bringing the First Serbian Uprising to a close. He and his followers were arrested and detained. Despite Ottoman requests for his extradition, the Austrians handed Karađorđe over to the Russians, who offered him refuge in Bessarabia. There, he joined the Greek secret society known as Filiki Eteria, which planned to launch a pan-Balkan uprising against the Ottomans. Karađorđe returned to Serbia in secret in July 1817, but was killed shortly thereafter by agents of Miloš Obrenović, a rival rebel leader, concerned that Karađorđe's reappearance would cause the Ottomans to renege on the concessions that they had agreed to following the Second Serbian Uprising of 1815. Karađorđe is considered the founder of the Karađorđević dynasty, which ruled Serbia in several intervals during the 19th and 20th centuries, his murder resulted in a violent, decades-long feud between his descendants and those of Obrenović, with the Serbian throne changing hands several times.
Đorđe Petrović was born into an impoverished family in the village of Viševac, in the Šumadija region of Ottoman Serbia, on 16 November 1768. He was the oldest of his parents' five children, his father, Petar Jovanović, had since become a peasant farmer. His mother, was a homemaker. Petrović's surname was derived from his father's given name, in line with contemporary Serbian naming conventions. Like most of his contemporaries, Petrović was illiterate, his family celebrated the feast day of Saint Clement. They are said to have been descended from the Vasojevići tribe of Montenegro's Lim River valley, his ancestors are thought to have migrated from Montenegro to Šumadija in the late 1730s or early 1740s. Petrović's childhood was difficult, his parents were forced to move around in search of a livelihood. His father worked as servant for a sipahi, an Ottoman cavalryman. Petrović himself spent his adolescence working as a shepherd. In 1785, he married Jelena Jovanović; the couple had seven children. Petrović worked for several landlords across Šumadija until 1787, when he and his family left the region and settled in the Austrian Empire, fearing persecution at the hands of the Ottoman janissaries.
It is said that as they were preparing to cross the Danube into Austria, Petrović's father began to have second thoughts about leaving Šumadija. Knowing that the entire family would be put in jeopardy if his father stayed behind, Petrović either took his father's life or arranged for someone to kill him instead. Following the outbreak of the Austro-Turkish War of 1788–1791, Petrović joined the Serbian Free Corps, took part in fighting the Ottomans in western Serbia; the Free Corps was a volunteer militia made up of both Ottoman and Habsburg Serbs, armed and trained by the Austrians. It was led by a Habsburg Serb officer, Major Mihailo Mihaljević. Petrović's participation in the war brought him invaluable military experience, as well as insight into the Austrians' military techniques, he was decorated for bravery, reaching the rank of sergeant. In this capacity, he was given command over a squad of 25 men; the Au
Romanticism was an artistic, literary and intellectual movement that originated in Europe toward the end of the 18th century, in most areas was at its peak in the approximate period from 1800 to 1850. Romanticism was characterized by its emphasis on emotion and individualism as well as glorification of all the past and nature, preferring the medieval rather than the classical, it was a reaction to the Industrial Revolution, the aristocratic social and political norms of the Age of Enlightenment, the scientific rationalization of nature—all components of modernity. It was embodied most in the visual arts and literature, but had a major impact on historiography, the social sciences, the natural sciences, it had a significant and complex effect on politics, with romantic thinkers influencing liberalism, radicalism and nationalism. The movement emphasized intense emotion as an authentic source of aesthetic experience, placing new emphasis on such emotions as apprehension and terror, awe—especially that experienced in confronting the new aesthetic categories of the sublimity and beauty of nature.
It elevated folk art and ancient custom to something noble, but spontaneity as a desirable characteristic. In contrast to the Rationalism and Classicism of the Enlightenment, Romanticism revived medievalism and elements of art and narrative perceived as authentically medieval in an attempt to escape population growth, early urban sprawl, industrialism. Although the movement was rooted in the German Sturm und Drang movement, which preferred intuition and emotion to the rationalism of the Enlightenment, the events and ideologies of the French Revolution were proximate factors. Romanticism assigned a high value to the achievements of "heroic" individualists and artists, whose examples, it maintained, would raise the quality of society, it promoted the individual imagination as a critical authority allowed of freedom from classical notions of form in art. There was a strong recourse to historical and natural inevitability, a Zeitgeist, in the representation of its ideas. In the second half of the 19th century, Realism was offered as a polar opposite to Romanticism.
The decline of Romanticism during this time was associated with multiple processes, including social and political changes and the spread of nationalism. The nature of Romanticism may be approached from the primary importance of the free expression of the feelings of the artist; the importance the Romantics placed on emotion is summed up in the remark of the German painter Caspar David Friedrich, "the artist's feeling is his law". To William Wordsworth, poetry should begin as "the spontaneous overflow of powerful feelings", which the poet "recollect in tranquility", evoking a new but corresponding emotion the poet can mold into art. To express these feelings, it was considered the content of art had to come from the imagination of the artist, with as little interference as possible from "artificial" rules dictating what a work should consist of. Samuel Taylor Coleridge and others believed there were natural laws the imagination—at least of a good creative artist—would unconsciously follow through artistic inspiration if left alone.
As well as rules, the influence of models from other works was considered to impede the creator's own imagination, so that originality was essential. The concept of the genius, or artist, able to produce his own original work through this process of creation from nothingness, is key to Romanticism, to be derivative was the worst sin; this idea is called "romantic originality". Translator and prominent Romantic August Wilhelm Schlegel argued in his Lectures on Dramatic Arts and Letters that the most phenomenal power of human nature is its capacity to divide and diverge into opposite directions. Not essential to Romanticism, but so widespread as to be normative, was a strong belief and interest in the importance of nature; this in the effect of nature upon the artist when he is surrounded by it, preferably alone. In contrast to the very social art of the Enlightenment, Romantics were distrustful of the human world, tended to believe a close connection with nature was mentally and morally healthy.
Romantic art addressed its audiences with what was intended to be felt as the personal voice of the artist. So, in literature, "much of romantic poetry invited the reader to identify the protagonists with the poets themselves". According to Isaiah Berlin, Romanticism embodied "a new and restless spirit, seeking violently to burst through old and cramping forms, a nervous preoccupation with perpetually changing inner states of consciousness, a longing for the unbounded and the indefinable, for perpetual movement and change, an effort to return to the forgotten sources of life, a passionate effort at self-assertion both individual and collective, a search after means of expressing an unappeasable yearning for unattainable goals"; the group of words with the root "Roman" in the various European languages, such as "romance" and "Romanesque", has a complicated history, but by the middle of the 18th century "romantic" in English and romantique in French were both in common use as adjectives of praise for natural phenomena such as views and sunsets, in a sense close to modern English usage but without the amorous connotation.
The application of the term to literature first became common in Germany, where the circle around the Schlegel brothers, critics August and Friedrich, began to speak of romantische Poesie in the 1790s, contrasting it with "classic" but in terms of spirit rather than dating. Friedrich Schlegel wrote in his Dialogue on Poetry, "I seek and find the romantic among th
Szeged is the third largest city of Hungary, the largest city and regional centre of the Southern Great Plain and the county seat of Csongrád county. The University of Szeged is one of the most distinguished universities in Hungary; the famous Szeged Open Air Festival is one of the main attractions, held every summer and celebrated as the Day of the City on May 21. The name Szeged might come from an old Hungarian word for corner, pointing to the turn of the river Tisza that flows through the city. Others say it derives from the Hungarian word sziget which means'island'. Others still contend that szeg means'dark blond' – a reference to the color of the water where the rivers Tisza and Maros merge; the city has its own name in a number of foreign languages by adding a suffix -in to the Hungarian name: Croatian, Segedin. Szeged and its area have been inhabited since ancient times. Ptolemy mentions the oldest known name of the city: Partiscum, it is possible that king of the Huns had his seat somewhere in this area.
The name Szeged was first mentioned in 1183, in a document of King Béla III. In the second century AD there was a Roman trading post established on an island in the Tisza, the foundations of the Szeged castle suggest that the structure may have been built over an earlier fort. Today only one corner of the castle still remains standing. During the Mongol invasion the town was destroyed and its inhabitants fled to the nearby swamps, but they soon returned and rebuilt their town. In the 14th century, during the reign of Louis the Great, Szeged became the most important town of Southern Hungary, – as the Turkish armies got closer to Hungary – the strategic importance of Szeged grew. King Sigismund of Luxembourg had a wall built around the town. Szeged was raised to free royal town status in 1498. Szeged was first pillaged by the Turkish army on 28 September 1526, but was occupied only in 1543, became an administrative centre of the Ottomans; the town was a sanjak centre first in Budin Eyaleti. The town was freed from Turkish rule on 23 October 1686, regained the free royal town status in 1715.
In 1719, Szeged received its coat of arms from Charles III. During the next several years, Szeged prospered. Piarist monks arrived in Szeged in 1719 and opened a new grammar school in 1721. Szeged held scientific lectures and theatrical plays; these years brought not only prosperity but enlightenment. Between 1728 and 1744 witch trials were frequent in the town, with the Szeged witch trials of 1728-29 being the largest; the witch trials were instigated by the authorities, who decided on this measure to remove the problem of the public complaints about the drought and its consequences of famine and epidemics by laying the responsibility on people among them, which had fraternized with the Devil. In 1720, the ethnic Hungarian population of the town numbered about 13000 to 16000, while the number of the Serb inhabitants was 1300. Szeged is known as the home of paprika, a spice made from dried, powdered capsicum fruits. Paprika arrived in Hungary in the second half of the 16th century as an ornamental plant.
About 100 years the plant was cultivated as an herb, paprika as we know it. Szeged is famous for their szekelygulyas, a goulash made with pork and sour cream, and famous for their halászlé, fish soup made of carp and catfish. The citizens of Szeged played an important part in the Hungarian Revolution of 1848. Lajos Kossuth delivered his famous speech here. Szeged was the last seat of the revolutionary government in July 1849; the Habsburg rulers punished the leaders of the town, but Szeged began to prosper again, the railway reached it in 1854, the town got its free royal town status back in 1860. Mark Pick's shop – the predecessor of today's world-famous Pick Salami Factory – was opened in 1869. Today the inner city of Szeged has wide avenues; this is due to the great flood of 1879, which wiped away the whole town. Emperor Franz Joseph visited the town and promised that "Szeged will be more beautiful than it used to be", he kept his promise. During the next years a new, modern city emerged with palaces and wide streets.
After the First World War Hungary lost its southern territories to Serbia, as a result Szeged became a city close to the border, its importance lessened, but as it took over roles that belonged to the now lost cities, it recovered. Following the Loss of Transylvania to Romania, University of Kolozsvár (now Cluj-Napoca, moved to Szeged in 1921. In 1923 Szeged took over the role of episcopal seat from Temesvár, it was occupied by Romanian army during Hungarian-Romanian War in 1919. During the 1920s the Jewish population of Szeged reached its zenith. Szeged suffered during World War II. 6,000 inhabitants of the city were killed, the Jewish citizens were confined to ghettos and taken to death camps. Szeged was captured by Soviet troops of the 2nd Ukrainian Front on 11 October 1944 in the course of the Battle of Debrecen. During the Communist-era, Szeged became a centre of light food industry. In 1965 oil was found near the city.
In European academic traditions, fine art is art developed for aesthetics or beauty, distinguishing it from applied art, which has to serve some practical function, such as pottery or most metalwork. The five main fine arts were painting, architecture and poetry, with performing arts including theatre and dance; the old master print and drawing were included as related forms to painting, just as prose forms of literature were to poetry. Today, the range of what would be considered fine arts includes additional modern forms, such as film, video production/editing and conceptual art. One definition of fine art is "a visual art considered to have been created for aesthetic and intellectual purposes and judged for its beauty and meaningfulness painting, drawing, watercolor and architecture." In that sense, there are conceptual differences between the applied arts. As conceived, as understood for much of the modern era, the perception of aesthetic qualities required a refined judgment referred to as having good taste, which differentiated fine art from popular art and entertainment.
The word "fine" does not so much denote the quality of the artwork in question, but the purity of the discipline according to traditional Western European canons. Except in the case of architecture, where a practical utility was accepted, this definition excluded the "useful" applied or decorative arts, the products of what were regarded as crafts. In contemporary practice these distinctions and restrictions have become meaningless, as the concept or intention of the artist is given primacy, regardless of the means through which this is expressed. According to some writers the concept of a distinct category of fine art is an invention of the early modern period in the West. Larry Shiner in his The Invention of Art: A Cultural History locates the invention in the 18th century: "There was a traditional “system of the arts” in the West before the eighteenth century. In that system, an artist or artisan was a skilled maker or practitioner, a work of art was the useful product of skilled work, the appreciation of the arts was integrally connected with their role in the rest of life.
“Art”, in other words, meant the same thing as the Greek word techne, or in English “skill”, a sense that has survived in phrases like “the art of war”, “the art of love”, “the art of medicine.” Similar ideas have been expressed by Paul Oskar Kristeller, Pierre Bourdieu, Terry Eagleton, though the point of invention is placed earlier, in the Italian Renaissance. The decline of the concept of "fine art" is dated by George Kubler and others to around 1880, when it "fell out of fashion" as, by about 1900, folk art came to be regarded as of equal significance. ""fine art" was driven out of use by about 1920 by the exponents of industrial design... who opposed a double standard of judgment for works of art and for useful objects". This was among theoreticians; the separation of arts and crafts that exists in Europe and the US is not shared by all other cultures. In Japanese aesthetics, the activities of everyday life are depicted by integrating not only art with craft but man-made with nature. Traditional Chinese art distinguished within Chinese painting between the landscape literati painting of scholar gentlemen and the artisans of the schools of court painting and sculpture.
A high status was given to many things that would be seen as craft objects in the West, in particular ceramics, jade carving and embroidery. Latin American art was dominated by European colonialism until the 20th-century, when indigenous art began to reassert itself inspired by the Constructivist Movement, which reunited arts with crafts based upon socialist principles. In Africa, Yoruba art has a political and spiritual function; as with the art of the Chinese, the art of the Yoruba is often composed of what would ordinarily be considered in the West to be craft production. Some of its most admired manifestations, such as sculpture and textiles, fall in this category. Drawing is one of the major forms of the visual arts. Common instruments include: graphite pencils and ink, inked brushes, wax color pencils, charcoals, pastels, stylus, or various metals like silverpoint. There are a number including cartooning and creating comics. There remains debate whether the following is considered a part of “drawing” as “fine art”: "doodling", drawing in the fog a shower and leaving an imprint on the bathroom mirror, or the surrealist method of "entopic graphomania", in which dots are made at the sites of impurities in a blank sheet of paper, the lines are made between the dots.
Mosaics are images formed with small pieces of glass, called tesserae. They can be functional. An artist who designs and makes mosaics is called a mosaicist. Printmaking is the process of making artworks by printing on paper. Except in the case of monotyping, the process is capable of producing multiples of the same piece, called a print; each print is considered an original, as opposed to a copy. The reasoning behind this is that the print is not a reproduction of another work of art in a different medium — for instance, a painting — but rather an image designed from inception as a print. An individual print is referred to as an impression. Prints ar
Srbobran is a town and municipality located in the South Bačka District of the autonomous province of Vojvodina, Serbia. The town is located on the north bank of the Danube-Tisa-Danube canal; the town has a population of 12,009, the municipality of 16,317. The municipality of Srbobran encompasses of town of Srbobran, two villages: Nadalj and Turija. In Serbian, the town is known as Srbobran; the name Srbobran means "Serbs' defender" in Serbian. Older Serbian name used for the town was Sentomaš. According to archaeology, there was human settlement in the territory of present-day Srbobran in the prehistoric times; the first written record about the settlement is from 1338, in which the Srbobran is mentioned under name Sentomas, which means Saint Thomas, i.e. the apostle Thomas, the patron saint of a monastery and of the village around it in the Middle Ages. During this time, the area was under administration of the medieval Kingdom of Hungary and was part of the Bacsensis County; this village, together with the monastery, became destroyed during the Ottoman conquest in the 16th century.
Its former population fled towards North to Habsburg Royal Hungary. During the Ottoman administration, the settlement of Sentomaš was rebuilt and was populated by ethnic Serbs, it was part of the Ottoman Sanjak of Segedin. After the Bačka region was captured by Habsburg troops led by Prince Eugene of Savoy in the end of the 17th century, a settlement was included into Habsburg Monarchy and was populated by new colonists by ethnic Serbs from the South, but by ethnic Hungarians from the North, who became the second largest ethnic group in the settlement; the settlement was part of the Military Frontier until 1751, when it came under the civil administration. A document from 1751 indicates that besides name Sentomaš, the name Srbograd was used as a non-official denomination for the town; the development of the town was fast. From 1751, the town was part of the Theiss District within the Batsch-Bodrog County and the Habsburg Kingdom of Hungary; the name Srbobran dates from the time of 1848/1849 revolutions in the Habsburg Monarchy, but was used since 1918.
In 1848-1849, the town was part of Serbian Voivodship, a Serbian autonomous region within the Austrian Empire. The Serbian defense line was located near this town, hence the name Srbobran, which means "Serbs's defender". On July 14, 1848, the first siege of the town by Hungarian forces began under Baron Fülöp Berchtold, forced to retreat due to a strong Serbian defense; the Hungarian troops captured Sentomaš for the fourth trial, on April 4, 1849, burned the town to the ground. Having suppressed the Hungarian anti-Habsburg movement, Austrian authorities established a new province to which Sentomaš belonged to: the Voivodeship of Serbia and Banat of Temeschwar, which existed until 1860. In 1850, the population of Sentomaš was 5,630 people, only about half of the population recorded in 1836. After abolishment of the voivodeship in 1860, Sentomaš was again included into the Batsch-Bodrog County. Since the establishment of the dual Monarchy of Austria-Hungary in 1867, the town was located within the Hungarian part of the Monarchy.
According to the official census of 1910, Sentomaš had 14,335 inhabitants, among them 7,808 spoke Serbian language, 6,031 spoke Hungarian language, 430 spoke German language. Sentomaš became part of the Kingdom of Serbs and Slovenes in 1918 and was named Srbobran. In 1918-1919, the town was part of the Banat, Bačka and Baranja region and part of the Novi Sad County. Between 1922 and 1929 it was part of Belgrade Oblast, between 1929 and 1941 part of Danube Banovina. In 1941, the town was attached to the Horthy's Hungary. In 1944, the Soviet Red Army and Yugoslav partisans expelled Axis troops from the region, at this time 2000 civil people with Hungarian nationality was killed by revenge. Srbobran was included into the autonomous province of Vojvodina within new socialist Yugoslavia. Since 1945, Vojvodina is part of the People's Republic of Serbia within Yugoslavia; until the 1950s, Srbobran was part of the Bečej municipality, but separate municipality of Srbobran was established. During the Yugoslav wars of the 1990s, some Serb refugees came from Croatia and Herzegovina, Kosovo, settled in Srbobran.
According to the 2011 census, the population of the Srbobran municipality is composed of: Serbs = 10,703 Hungarians = 3,387 Romani = 629 Others and undeclared = 1,598 All of the three settlements in the municipality have an ethnic Serb majority. The Serbian and Hungarian language are used by municipal authorities. See: Serbs in Vojvodina, Hungarians in Vojvodina, Romani people of Vojvodina. In 2011, Srbobran town has a population of 12,009, including: Serbs = 7,093 Hungarians = 3,220 Roma = 465 Others and undeclared = 1,231 1961: 14,391 1971: 14,189 1981: 13,596 1991: 12,798 2011: 11,968 The following table gives a preview of total number of employed people per their core activity: Town is located near to the M22 motorway between Belgrade and Subotica. There are two national
Bosnia and Herzegovina
Bosnia and Herzegovina, sometimes called Bosnia–Herzegovina, known informally as Bosnia, is a country in Southeastern Europe, located within the Balkan Peninsula. Sarajevo is largest city. Bosnia and Herzegovina is an landlocked country – it has a narrow coast at the Adriatic Sea, about 20 kilometres long surrounding the town of Neum, it is bordered by Croatia to the north and south. In the central and eastern interior of the country the geography is mountainous, in the northwest it is moderately hilly, the northeast is predominantly flatland; the inland, Bosnia, is a geographically larger region and has a moderate continental climate, with hot summers and cold and snowy winters. The southern tip, has a Mediterranean climate and plain topography. Bosnia and Herzegovina traces permanent human settlement back to the Neolithic age and after which it was populated by several Illyrian and Celtic civilizations. Culturally and the country has a rich history, having been first settled by the Slavic peoples that populate the area today from the 6th through to the 9th centuries.
In the 12th century the Banate of Bosnia was established, which evolved into the Kingdom of Bosnia in the 14th century, after which it was annexed into the Ottoman Empire, under whose rule it remained from the mid-15th to the late 19th centuries. The Ottomans brought Islam to the region, altered much of the cultural and social outlook of the country; this was followed by annexation into the Austro-Hungarian Monarchy, which lasted up until World War I. In the interwar period and Herzegovina was part of the Kingdom of Yugoslavia and after World War II, it was granted full republic status in the newly formed Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia. Following the dissolution of Yugoslavia, the republic proclaimed independence in 1992, followed by the Bosnian War, lasting until late 1995. Tourism in Bosnia and Herzegovina has grown at double digit rates in recent years. Bosnia and Herzegovina is regionally and internationally renowned for its natural environment and cultural heritage inherited from six historical civilizations, its cuisine, winter sports, its eclectic and unique music and its festivals, some of which are the largest and most prominent of their kind in Southeastern Europe.
The country is home to three main ethnic groups or constituent peoples, as specified in the constitution. Bosniaks are the largest group of the three, with Serbs second, Croats third. A native of Bosnia and Herzegovina, regardless of ethnicity, is identified in English as a Bosnian. Minorities, defined under the constitutional nomenclature "Others", include Jews, Poles and Turks. Bosnia and Herzegovina has a bicameral legislature and a three-member Presidency composed of a member of each major ethnic group. However, the central government's power is limited, as the country is decentralized and comprises two autonomous entities: the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina and Republika Srpska, with a third unit, the Brčko District, governed under local government; the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina consists of 10 cantons. Bosnia and Herzegovina ranks in terms of human development, has an economy dominated by the industry and agriculture sectors, followed by the tourism and service sectors; the country has a social security and universal healthcare system, primary- and secondary-level education is tuition-free.
It is a member of the UN, OSCE, Council of Europe, PfP, CEFTA, a founding member of the Union for the Mediterranean upon its establishment in July 2008. The country is a potential candidate for membership to the European Union and has been a candidate for NATO membership since April 2010, when it received a Membership Action Plan; the first preserved acknowledged mention of Bosnia is in De Administrando Imperio, a politico-geographical handbook written by the Byzantine emperor Constantine VII in the mid-10th century describing the "small land" of "Bosona". The name is believed to have derived from the hydronym of the river Bosna coursing through the Bosnian heartland. According to philologist Anton Mayer the name Bosna could derive from Illyrian *"Bass-an-as"), which would derive from the Proto-Indo-European root "bos" or "bogh"—meaning "the running water". According to English medievalist William Miller the Slavic settlers in Bosnia "adapted the Latin designation Basante, to their own idiom by calling the stream Bosna and themselves Bosniaks ".
The name Herzegovina originates from Bosnian magnate Stjepan Vukčić Kosača's title, "Herceg of Hum and the Coast". Hum Zahumlje, was an early medieval principality, conquered by the Bosnian Banate in the first half of the 14th century; the region was administered by the Ottomans as the Sanjak of Herzegovina within the Eyalet of Bosnia up until the formation of the short-lived Herzegovina Eyalet in the 1830s, which remerged in the 1850s, after which the entity became known as Bosnia and Herzegovina. On initial proclamation of independence in 1992, the country's official name was the Republic of Bosnia and Herzegovina but following the 1995 Dayton Agreement and the new constitution that accompanied it the official name was changed to Bosnia and Herzegovina. Bosnia has been inhabited by humans since at least the Neolithic age; the earliest Neolithic population became known in the Antiquity as the Illyrians. Celtic migrations in the 4th century BC were notable. Concrete historical e
Principality of Serbia
The Principality of Serbia was a semi-independent state in the Balkans that came into existence as a result of the Serbian Revolution, which lasted between 1804 and 1817. Its creation was negotiated first through an unwritten agreement between Miloš Obrenović, leader of the Second Serbian Uprising and Ottoman official Marashli Pasha, it was followed by the series of legal documents published by the Porte in 1828, 1829 and 1830 — the Hatt-i Sharif. Its de facto independence ensued in 1867, following the expulsion of all Ottoman troops from the country. In 1882 the country was elevated to the status of kingdom; the Serbian revolutionary leaders — first Karađorđe and Miloš Obrenović — succeeded in their goal of liberating Serbia from centuries-long Turkish rule. Turkish authorities acknowledged the state in 1830 by the charter known as the Hatt-i Sharif, Miloš Obrenović became a hereditary prince of the Serbian Principality. At first, the principality included only the territory of the former Pashaluk of Belgrade, but in 1831–33 it expanded to the east and west.
In 1866 Serbia began campaign of forging The First Balkan Alliance by signing the series of agreements with other Balkan entities in period 1866-68. On 18 April 1867 the Ottoman government ordered the Ottoman garrison, since 1826 the last representation of Ottoman suzerainty in Serbia, withdrawn from the Belgrade fortress; the only stipulation was that the Ottoman flag continue to fly over the fortress alongside the Serbian one. Serbia's de facto independence dates from this event. A new constitution in 1869 defined Serbia as an independent state. Serbia was further expanded to the southeast in 1878, when its independence from the Ottoman Empire won full international recognition at the Treaty of Berlin; the Principality would last until 1882. 1835 Sretenje Constitution, in effect 1835 1838 Constitution of Serbia, in effect 1838–69 1869 Constitution of Serbia, in effect 1869–88 Akkerman Convention, treaty between the Russian Empire and Ottoman Empire, had article 5 on Serbia: autonomy, return of lands removed in 1813, Serbs were granted freedom of movement through the Ottoman Empire.
Rejected by Mahmud II in 1828. 1829 hatt-i sharif 1830 hatt-i sharif 1833 hatt-i sharif This is ethnic and religious composition of Principality of Serbia in 1866 and after that population by year. The Principality was ruled by the Obrenović dynasty, except for a period under Prince Aleksandar of the Karađorđević dynasty. Princes Miloš and Mihailo Obrenović. History of Serbia Kingdom of Serbia Principality of Serbia in 1833 Principality of Serbia in 1878 Balkan Peninsula in 1878 Map Map