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İsmet İnönü

Mustafa İsmet İnönü was a Turkish general and statesman, who served as the second President of Turkey from 10 November 1938 to 27 May 1950, when his Republican People's Party was defeated in Turkey's second free elections. He served as the first Chief of the General Staff from 1922 to 1924, as the first Prime Minister after the declaration of the Republic, serving three terms: from 1923 to 1924, 1925 to 1937, 1961 to 1965; as President, he was granted the official title of "Millî Şef". When the 1934 Surname Law was adopted, Mustafa Kemal gave him a surname taken from İnönü, where he commanded the forces of Army of Grand National Assembly as the Minister of the Chief of the General Staff during the Greco-Turkish War of 1919–1922. Afterwards these battles became to be known as the First Battle of İnönü and Second Battle of İnönü. İsmet İnönü was born in İzmir, Aidin Vilayet to Hacı Reşit and Cevriye, was of Kurdish descent on his father's side and of Turkish descent through his mother. Hacı Reşit was retired from the First Examinant Department of Legal Affairs Bureau of the War Ministry, born in Malatya and a member of Kürümoğulları family of Bitlis.

Cevriye was a daughter of Müderris Hasan Efendi who belonged to the ulema and was a member of a Turkish family of Razgrad. Due to his father's assignments, the family moved from one city to another. Thus, Ismet completed his primary education in Sivas and graduated Sivas Military Junior High School in 1894, and he studied at Sivas School for Civil Servants for a year. Ismet graduated from the Imperial School of Military Engineering in 1903 as gunnery officer, received his first military assignment in the Ottoman Army, he joined the Committee of Progress. He won his first military victories by suppressing two major revolts against the struggling Ottoman Empire, first in Rumelia and in Yemen, whose leader was Yahya Muhammad Hamid ed-Din, he served as a military officer during the Balkan Wars on the Ottoman-Bulgarian front. During World War I, he served with the Ottoman military rank of Miralay and worked under Mustafa Kemal Pasha during his assignments at the Caucasus and Palestine fronts. During the war, on 13 April 1916, Ismet married Mevhibe, a daughter of an Ashraf of Ziştovi Zühtü Efendi.

They had three children: Erdal and Özden. After losing the Battle of Megiddo against General Edmund Allenby during the last days of World War I, he went to Istanbul and was assigned Undersecretary of the Ministry of War and General Secretary of the Documentation in the Military Council. After the military occupation of Constantinople on 16 March 1920, he decided to pass to Anatolia to join the Turkish National Movement, he and his chief of staff Major Saffet wore soldier uniform and left Maltepe in the evening of 19 March 1920 and arrived at Ankara on 9 April 1920. He was appointed the commander of the Western Front of the Army of the Grand National Assembly, a position in which he remained during the Turkish War of Independence, he was promoted to the rank of Mirliva after winning the First Battle of İnönü which took place between 9 and 11 January 1921. He won the subsequent Second Battle of İnönü, fought between 26 and 31 March 1921. During the Turkish War of Independence, he was a member of the GNA in Ankara.

İnönü was replaced by Mustafa Fevzi Pasha, the Prime Minister and Minister of Defense at the time, as the Chief of Staff of the Army of the GNA after the Turkish forces lost major battles against the advancing Greek Army in July 1921, as a result of which the cities Afyonkarahisar, Kütahya and Eskişehir were temporarily lost. He participated as a staff officer to the battles, until the final Turkish victory in September 1922. After the War of Independence was won, İsmet Pasha was appointed as the chief negotiator of the Turkish delegation, both for the Armistice of Mudanya and for the Treaty of Lausanne; the Lausanne conference convened in late 1922 to settle the terms of a new treaty that would take the place of the Treaty of Sèvres. Inönü became famous for his stubborn resolve in determining Ankara's position as the legitimate, sovereign government of Turkey. After delivering his position, Inönü turned off his hearing aid during the speeches of British foreign secretary Lord Curzon; when Curzon had finished, Inönü reiterated his position.

İnönü served as the Prime Minister of Turkey for several terms, maintaining the system that Mustafa Kemal had put in place. He acted after every major crisis to restore peace in the country, he tried to manage the economy with heavy-handed government intervention after the 1929 economic crisis, by implementing an economic plan inspired by the Five Year Plan of the Soviet Union. In doing so, he took much private property under government control. Due to his efforts, to this day, more than 70% of land in Turkey is still owned by the state. Desiring a more liberal economic system, Atatürk dissolved the government of İnönü and appointed Celâl Bayar, the founder of the firs

W. David Arnett

William David Arnett is a Regents Professor of Astrophysics at Steward Observatory, University of Arizona, known for his research on supernova explosions, the formation of neutron stars or black holes by gravitational collapse, the synthesis of elements in stars. Arnett pioneered the application of supercomputers to astrophysical problems, including neutrino radiation hydrodynamics, nuclear reaction networks and explosions, supernova light curves, turbulent convective flow in two and three dimensions. Arnett received his B. S. degree from the University of Kentucky in 1961 and his M. S. and Ph. D. degrees in physics from Yale University in 1963 and 1965, advised by A. G. W. Cameron. After postdoctoral work with W. A. Fowler at the California Institute of Technology and Fred Hoyle at the Institute of Theoretical Astronomy of Cambridge University, he served on the faculties of Rice University, University of Texas and University of Illinois before becoming the B. and E. Sunny Distinguished Service Professor at the University of Chicago and Regents Professor at the University of Arizona.

Arnett received the Hans Bethe Prize of the American Physical Society in 2009, the Henry Norris Russell Lectureship of the American Astronomical Society in 2012. He has received several other awards and honors, including: Marcel Grossmann Award, International Center for Relativistic Astrophysics, 2012 S. Chandrasekhar Lecturer, S. N. Bose National Centre for Basic Sciences, India, 2007 Member, National Academy of Sciences, 1985 Member, American Academy of Arts and Sciences, 1985 Alexander von Humboldt Prize, 1981 Yale University Distinguished Graduate Award in Physical Sciences and Engineering, 1980 University of Kentucky Honorary Doctorate of Sciences, 2016

Jani Gal

Jani Gal is a 2007 Iraqi film directed by Iranian director Jamil Rostami. It is based on a celebrated novel by Kurdish author Ibrahim Ahmad and Film written by Iranian screenwriter khosro Sina, it was Iraq's submission to the 80th Academy Awards for the Academy Award for Best Foreign Language Film, but was not accepted as a nominee. The story illustrates the plight of Juamer in a flashback structure; when Juamer's wife goes into labor, he runs to get the midwife but is caught in the midst of a clash between Kurdish protestors and Iraqi police. He is mistakenly arrested and sentenced to ten years imprisonment. After his release, Juamer sets out to find his loved ones but he discovers that his wife died, without medical help, on the same day that he was arrested. Best International Filmmaker Award, Boston Film Festival, 2008. Columbine Award, Moondance International Film Festival, 2008. Cinema of Iraq List of submissions to the 80th Academy Awards for Best Foreign Language Film Jani Gal on IMDb

Acceptance angle (solar concentrator)

Acceptance angle is the maximum angle at which incoming sunlight can be captured by a solar concentrator. Its value depends on the concentration of the optic and the refractive index in which the receiver is immersed. Maximizing the acceptance angle of a concentrator is desirable in practical systems and it may be achieved by using nonimaging optics. For concentrators that concentrate light in two dimensions, the acceptance angle may be different in the two directions; the "acceptance angle" figure illustrates this concept. The concentrator is a lens with a receiver R; the left section of the figure shows a set of parallel rays incident on the concentrator at an angle α < θ to the optical axis. All rays end up on the receiver and, all light is captured. In the center, this figure shows another set of parallel rays, now incident on the concentrator at an angle α = θ to the optical axis. For an ideal concentrator, all rays are still captured. However, on the right, this figure shows yet another set of parallel rays, now incident on the concentrator at an angle α > θ to the optical axis.

All rays now miss all light is lost. Therefore, for incidence angles α < θ all light is captured while for incidence angles α > θ all light is lost. The concentrator is said to have an acceptance angle θ, or a total acceptance angle 2θ. Ideally, a solar concentrator has a transmission curve cI as shown in the "transmission curves" figure. Transmission is τ = 1 for all incidence angles α < θI and τ = 0 for all incidence angles α > θI. In practice, real transmission curves are not perfect and they have a shape similar to that of curve cR, normalized so that τ = 1 for α = 0. In that case, the real acceptance angle θR is defined as the angle for which transmission τ drops to 90% of its maximum. For line-focus systems, such as a trough concentrator or a linear Fresnel lens, the acceptance angle is one dimensional, the concentration has only weak dependence on off-pointing perpendicular to the focus direction. Point focus systems, on the other hand, are sensitive to off-pointing in both directions. In the general case, the acceptance angle in one direction may be different from the other.

The acceptance angle θ of a concentrator may be seen as a measure of how it must track the sun in the sky. The smaller the θ, the more precise the tracking needs to be or the concentrator will not capture the incoming sunlight, it is, therefore, a measure of the tolerance a concentrator has to tracking errors. However, other errors affect the acceptance angle; the "optical imperfections" figure shows this. The left part of the figure shows a made lens with good optical surfaces s1 and s2 capturing all light rays incident at an angle α to the optical axis. However, real optics are never perfect and the right part of the figure shows the effect of a badly made bottom surface s2. Instead of being smooth, s2 now has undulations and some of the light rays that were captured before are now lost; this decreases the transmission of the concentrator for incidence angle α, decreasing the acceptance angle. Any imperfection in the system such as: tracking inaccuracy imperfectly manufactured optics optical aberrations imperfectly assembled components movements of the system due to wind finite stiffness of the supporting structure deformation due to aging other imperfections in the systemcontributes to a decrease in the acceptance angle of the concentrator.

The acceptance angle may be seen as a "tolerance budget" to be spent on all these imperfections. At the end, the concentrator must still have enough acceptance to capture sunlight which has some angular dispersion θS when seen from earth, it is, therefore important to design a concentrator with the widest possible acceptance angle. That is possible using nonimaging optics, which maximize the acceptance angle for a given concentration. Figure "angular aperture of sunlight" on the right shows the effect of the angular dispersion of sunlight on the acceptance angle. Sunlight is not a set of parallel rays, but it has a given angular aperture θS, as indicated by the green rays. If the acceptance angle of the optic is wide enough, sunlight incident along the optical axis will be captured by the concentrator, as shown in the "angular aperture of sunlight" figure. However, for wider incidence angles α some light may be lost, as shown on the right. Parallel rays would be captured, but sunlight, due to its angular aperture, is lost.

Parallel rays and sunlight are therefore transmitted differently by a solar concentrator and the corresponding transmission curves are different. Different acceptance angles may be determined for parallel rays or for sunlight. For a given acceptance angle θ, for a point-focus concentrator, the maximum concentration possible, Cmax, is given by C m a x = n 2 sin 2 ⁡ θ,where n is the refractive index of the medium in which the receiver is immersed. In practice, real concentrators either have a lower than ideal concentration for a given acceptance or they have a lower than ideal acceptance angle for a given concentration; this can be summarized in the expression C A P = C sin ⁡ θ ≤ n,which defines a quantity CAP, which must be smaller than the refractive index of the medium in which the receiver is immersed

Drillia barkliensis

Drillia barkliensis is a species of sea snail, a marine gastropod mollusk in the family Drilliidae. The whorls are granulated minutely, with a tuberculated shoulder; the shell is chocolate- or orange-brown, the latter white-banded above the shoulder, sometimes with an inferior narrow darker band. The tubercles and the granules are white; the shell grows to a length of 25 mm. This species occurs in the Indian Ocean in the Pacific Ocean off New Caledonia. Adams, H. Descriptions of a new genus and fourteen new species of marine shells. Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London, 1869, 272–275, pl. 19 Michel, C.. Marine molluscs of Mauritius. Editions de l'Ocean Indien. Stanley, Rose Hill. Mauritius Tucker J. K. Catalogue of Recent and fossil turrids. Zootaxa 682: 1-1295 "Crassispira barkliensis". Retrieved 16 January 2019

The Intelligent Homosexual's Guide to Capitalism and Socialism with a Key to the Scriptures

The Intelligent Homosexual's Guide to Capitalism and Socialism with a Key to the Scriptures is a 2009 play by American playwright Tony Kushner. The title was inspired by George Bernard Shaw's The Intelligent Woman's Guide to Socialism and Capitalism and Mary Baker Eddy's Science and Health with Key to the Scriptures; the world premiere was directed by Michael Greif at the Guthrie Theater in Minneapolis, opening on May 15, 2009 in previews and running through June 28. The Public Theater and the Signature Theater Company co-produced a somewhat rewritten version of the play, which premiered Off-Broadway at the Public Theater on March 23, 2011 in previews, with opening on May 5 and closing on June 12; the play was directed by Michael Greif and featured Michael Cristofer, Linda Emond, Michael Esper and Stephen Spinella. Berkeley Repertory Theatre presented the play's West Coast premiere starting in May 2014. Berkeley Rep Artistic Director Tony Taccone directed, actors included Mark Margolis as Gus, Deirdre Lovejoy as Empty, Lou Liberatore as Pill.

The play received its London premiere in October 2016 at the Hampstead Theatre in a production directed by Michael Boyd and starring David Calder as Gus, Tamsin Greig as Empty. The play looks at the life of a 20th-century thinker, retired longshoreman Gus Marcantonio, who's feeling confused and defeated by the 21st century. In summer 2007, his sister, staying with him for a year, invites Gus's three children to a most unusual family reunion in their Brooklyn brownstone. Mark Benninghofen as Adam Butler Kathleen Chalfant as Benedicta Immacolata Marcantonio Sun Mee Chomet as Sooze Moon Marcantonio Michael Cristofer as Augusto Giuseppe Garibaldi Marcantonio Linda Emond as Maria Teresa Marcantonio Michael Esper as Eli Wolcott Charity Jones as Maeve Ludens Ron Menzel as Vito Marcantonio Michelle O'Neill as Shelle O'Neill Michael Potts as Paul Pierce Stephen Spinella as Pier Luigi Marcantonio Hampstead Theatre - October 2016 David Calder as Gus Richard Clothier as Pill Daniel Flynn as Adam Tamsin Greig as Empty Sara Kestelman as Clio Katie Leung as Sooze Luke Newberry as Eli Sirine Saba as Maeve Rhashan Stone as Paul Lex Shrapnel as V Katy Stephens as Shelle According to an article in the St. Paul Pioneer Press, only local critics were encouraged to review the play.

National critics like Ben Brantley of The New York Times, invited to review the play, were asked to wait for a future production. The reviews that have been published have been somewhat mixed, acknowledging that the play is in early stages, while praising many of its positive moments; the Star Tribune ran a review stating "The lines sound great in the actors' mouths, their performances are excellent and Greif dances this show across the Guthrie stage with humor and muscular strokes. It is a American work - a dense rush of ideas." While going on to observe that the "operatic cacophony at times skates precipitously close to the razor's edge of incoherence." Internet Off-Broadway Database listing Variety review, May 25, 2009 World Socialist Web Site review, 20 July, 2011 Play Guide for Guthrie Theater production