Ukiyo-e is a genre of Japanese art which flourished from the 17th through 19th centuries. Its artists produced woodblock paintings of such subjects as female beauties; the term ukiyo-e translates as "picture of the floating world". Edo became the seat of government for the military dictatorship in the early 17th century; the merchant class at the bottom of the social order benefited most from the city's rapid economic growth. Many indulged in the entertainments of kabuki theatre and geisha of the pleasure districts; the term ukiyo came to describe this hedonistic lifestyle. Printed or painted ukiyo-e images of this environment emerged in the late 17th century and were popular with the merchant class, who had become wealthy enough to afford to decorate their homes with them; the earliest success was in the 1670s with Moronobu's paintings and monochromatic prints of beautiful women. Colour in prints came gradually—at first added by hand for special commissions. By the 1740s, artists such as Masanobu used multiple woodblocks to print areas of colour.
From the 1760s the success of Harunobu's "brocade prints" led to full-colour production becoming standard, each print made with numerous blocks. Specialists have prized the portraits of beauties and actors by masters such as Kiyonaga and Sharaku that came in the late 18th century. In the 19th century followed a pair of masters best remembered for their landscapes: the bold formalist Hokusai, whose Great Wave off Kanagawa is one of the best-known works of Japanese art. Following the deaths of these two masters, against the technological and social modernization that followed the Meiji Restoration of 1868, ukiyo-e production went into steep decline; some ukiyo-e artists specialized in making paintings. Artists carved their own woodblocks for printing; as printing was done by hand, printers were able to achieve effects impractical with machines, such as the blending or gradation of colours on the printing block. Ukiyo-e was central to forming the West's perception of Japanese art in the late 19th century–especially the landscapes of Hokusai and Hiroshige.
From the 1870s Japonism became a prominent trend and had a strong influence on the early Impressionists such as Degas and Monet, as well as Post-Impressionists such as van Gogh and Art Nouveau artists such as Toulouse-Lautrec. The 20th century saw a revival in Japanese printmaking: the shin-hanga genre capitalized on Western interest in prints of traditional Japanese scenes, the sōsaku-hanga movement promoted individualist works designed and printed by a single artist. Prints since the late 20th century have continued in an individualist vein made with techniques imported from the West. Japanese art since the Heian period had followed two principal paths: the nativist Yamato-e tradition, focusing on Japanese themes, best known by the works of the Tosa school; the Kanō school of painting incorporated features of both. Since antiquity, Japanese art had found patrons in the aristocracy, military governments, religious authorities; until the 16th century, the lives of the common people had not been a main subject of painting, when they were included, the works were luxury items made for the ruling samurai and rich merchant classes.
Works appeared by and for townspeople, including inexpensive monochromatic paintings of female beauties and scenes of the theatre and pleasure districts. The hand-produced nature of these shikomi-e limited the scale of their production, a limit, soon overcome by genres that turned to mass-produced woodblock printing. During a prolonged period of civil war in the 16th century, a class of politically powerful merchants had developed; these machishū had power over local communities. In the early 17th century Tokugawa Ieyasu unified the country and was appointed shōgun with supreme power over Japan, he consolidated his government in the village of Edo, required the territorial lords to assemble there in alternate years with their entourages. The demands of the growing capital drew many male labourers from the country, so that males came to make up nearly seventy percent of the population; the village grew during the Edo period from a population of 1800 to over a million in the 19th century. The centralized shogunate put an end to the power of the machishū and divided the population into four social classes, with the ruling samurai class at the top and the merchant class at the bottom.
While deprived of their political influence, those of the merchant class most benefited from the expanding economy of the Edo period, their improved lot allowed for leisure that many sought in the pleasure districts—in particular Yoshiwara in Edo—and collecting artworks to decorate their homes, which in earlier times had been well beyond their financial means. The experience of the pleasure quarters was open to those of sufficient wealth, manners, a
Mount Hiei is a mountain to the northeast of Kyoto, lying on the border between the Kyoto and Shiga Prefectures, Japan. The temple of Enryaku-ji, the first outpost of the Japanese Tendai sect of Buddhism, was founded atop Mount Hiei by Saichō in 788. Hōnen, Nichiren, Dōgen and Shinran all studied at the temple before leaving to start their own practices; the temple complex was razed by Oda Nobunaga in 1571 to quell the rising power of Tendai's warrior monks, but it was rebuilt and remains the Tendai headquarters to this day. The 19th-century Japanese ironclad Hiei was named after this mountain, as was the more famous World War II-era battleship Hiei, the latter having been built as a battlecruiser. Mount Hiei has been featured in many folk tales over the ages, it was thought to be the home of gods and demons of Shinto lore, although it is predominantly known for the Buddhist monks that come from the temple of Enryaku-ji. John Stevens wrote the book The Marathon Monks of Mount Hiei, chronicling the practice of walking long distances – up to 52 miles a day for 100 straight days, in an effort to attain enlightenment.
The practice of walking is known as the kaihōgyō. A 2010 US National Public Radio report described the sennichi kaihōgyō as...1,000 days of walking meditation and prayer over a seven-year period around Mount Hiei. Walked 26 miles a day for periods of either 100 or 200 consecutive days — a total distance about the same as walking around the Earth. Beyond the mountain itself, its forests, the views it affords – of Kyoto, of Ohara, of lake Biwa and Shiga – the main attraction is the temple complex of Enryaku-ji; the temple complex spreads out over the mountain, but is concentrated in three areas, connected by foot trails. There are more minor temples and shrines. Unusually, there are a number of French-themed attractions – the peak itself features the Garden Museum Hiei, themed on French impressionism, featuring gardens and French paintings, while there is a French-themed hotel, "L'hotel de Hiei"; the mountain is busiest during the daytime, but has some visitors in the evenings, for light-up displays and to see the night view of the surrounding towns.
The mountain is a popular area for hikers and a toll road provides access by automobile to the top of the mountain. There are two routes of funiculars: the Eizan Cable from the Kyoto side to the connecting point with an aerial tramway to the top, the Sakamoto Cable from the Shiga side to the foot of Enryaku-ji; the attractions on the mountain are quite spread out, so there are regular buses during the daytime connecting the attractions. The center for these is the bus center, in front of the entrance to the main temple complex at Tō-tō. Kaihōgyō Shugendō The 100 Views of Nature in Kansai Anthony Kuhn, "Monk's Enlightenment Begins With A Marathon Walk," National Public Radio. - Enryakuji
The Nakasendō called the Kisokaidō, was one of the five routes of the Edo period, one of the two that connected Edo to Kyoto in Japan. There were 69 stations between Edo and Kyoto, crossing through Musashi, Kōzuke, Mino and Ōmi provinces. In addition to Tokyo and Kyoto, the Nakasendō runs through the modern-day prefectures of Saitama, Nagano and Shiga, with a total distance of about 534 km. Unlike the coastal Tōkaidō, the Nakasendō traveled inland, hence its name, which can be translated as "中 = central; because it was such a well-developed road, many famous persons, including the haiku master Matsuo Bashō, traveled the road. Many people preferred traveling along the Nakasendō because it did not require travelers to ford any rivers. Around the beginning of the seventh century, during the beginning of Ritsuryō, the area that would make up the Nakasendō was developed to connect Kinai with the provinces of the Tōsandō that lie to the east. During the Sengoku period, which lasted from the 15th to 17th centuries, the Tōsandō was controlled by the Takeda, Ogasawara and Oda clans.
In order to connect the Tōsandō with the Tōkaidō, a road system was developed. This route is followed by the modern day national highways numbered 52, 151, 153, 22. In the early years of the Edo period, many political, legal and intellectual changes took place. Among them was the rejuvenation of Japan's thousand-year-old highway system. Five roads were formally nominated as official routes for the use of the shōgun and the other daimyō and to provide the Tokugawa shogunate with the communications network that it needed to stabilize and rule the country. One of these five roads was the Nakasendō, which stretched from Edo, from where the shogun wielded the real power, through the central mountain ranges of Honshu and on to Kyoto; until the establishment of these formal trade routes, many shorter routes had existed, connecting towns over various distances. For example, the Kisoji route's eleven post towns all become part of the Nakasendō. Prior to the Edo period, the route had been called both "Sandō" and "Tōsandō".
During the Edo period, the name was changed to Nakasendō and was written as both 中山道 and 中仙道, but the Tokugawa shogunate established 中山道 as the official name in 1716. Although there has been much modern development along the Nakasendō, a few stretches remain in its original form, while others have been restored in more recent decades; the most well-known section lies in the Kiso Valley, between Tsumago-juku in Nagano Prefecture and Magome-juku in Gifu Prefecture. The area was first made famous by the early 20th-century writer Shimazaki Tōson, who chronicled the effects of the Meiji Restoration on the valley in his landmark novel Before the Dawn; this eight-kilometer section of the Nakasendō can still be travelled along comfortably by foot, both Tsumago-juku and Magome-juku have preserved and restored the traditional architecture. The walk between the historical post towns requires two to three hours to walk, with forests, restored paving and fine views of waterfalls along the way. Although much of the Nakasendō no longer exists in its historic form, its route is now followed by modern roads.
In order, they are: National Route 17: Tokyo to Takasaki National Route 18: Takasaki to Karuizawa National Route 142: Saku to Shimosuwa National Route 20: Shimosuwa to Shiojiri National Route 19: Shiojiri to Ena National Route 21: Mitake to Maibara National Route 8: Maibara to Kusatsu National Route 1: Kusatsu to KyotoThe following railway lines follow the path of the former Nakasendō: the Takasaki Line, Shin'etsu Main Line, Chūō Main Line, Taita Line, Tōkaidō Main Line. 69 Stations of the Nakasendō Kōshū Kaidō Ōshū Kaidō Nikkō Kaidō
Isaac Titsingh FRS was a Dutch scholar, merchant-trader and ambassador. During a long career in East Asia, Titsingh was a senior official of the Dutch East India Company, he represented the European trading company in exclusive official contact with Tokugawa Japan, traveling to Edo twice for audiences with the shōgun and other high bakufu officials. He was the Dutch and VOC governor general in Bengal. Titsingh worked with his counterpart, Charles Cornwallis, governor general of the British East India Company. In 1795, Titsingh represented Dutch and VOC interests in China, where his reception at the court of the Qing Qianlong Emperor stood in stark contrast to the rebuff suffered by Britain's ambassador George Macartney in 1793, just prior to celebrations of Qianlong’s sixty-year reign. In China, Titsingh functioned as ambassador for his country at the same time as he represented the Dutch East India Company as a trade representative. Isaac Titsingh was born in Amsterdam, the son of Albertus Titsingh and his second wife, Catharina Bittner.
His baptism took place at the Amstelkerk in Amsterdam on 21 January 1745. His father was a prominent Amsterdam surgeon, he thus possessed the means for Titsingh to be brought up with an ‘enlightened education’ of the 18th century. Titsingh became a member of the Amsterdam Chirurgijngilde and received the degree of a Doctorate of Law from Leiden University in January 1765. In March 1764, Titsingh was appointed as 1766 went within his employment to Batavia. Titsingh was the commercial Opperhoofd or chief factor in Japan between 1779–1780, 1781–1783, in 1784; the singular importance of the head of the VOC in Japan during this period was enhanced by the Japanese policy of sakoku—imposed isolation. Because of religious proselytizing by Europeans during the 16th century, the Tokugawa shogunate introduced a policy in the early 17th century that no European or Japanese could enter or leave the Japanese archipelago on penalty of death; the sole exception to this "closed door" was the VOC "factory" on the island of Dejima in Nagasaki Bay, on the southern Japanese island of Kyūshū.
During this period of seclusion, Titsingh is believed to have been the first Freemason in Japan. In this controlled context, the traders became the sole official conduit for trade and for scientific-cultural exchanges between Europe and Japan; the VOC Opperhoofd was accorded the status of a tributary of the shōgun. Given the scarcity of such opportunities, Titsingh's informal contacts with bakufu officials and Rangaku scholars in Edo may have been as important as his formal audiences with the shōgun, Tokugawa Ieharu. During the 18th century there was an improvement of the social position of the Dutch merchants and the treatment of the Dutch vis-à-vis the Japanese, who showed a higher degree of respect and recognition than in the centuries before; the average Opperhoofd was not interested in the customs or culture of the Japanese. Titsingh showed an incredible interest and distinguished himself as an attentive observer of Japanese civilization for a European of his time when compared to his colleagues in Dejima.
Titsingh arrived in Nagasaki on 15 August 1779, where he took over the factory from Arend Willem Feith. He established amicable relations between the interpreters and Japanese. During his first audience with Ieharu in Edo from 25 March 1780 until 5 April 1780, he met a lot of Japanese nobles with whom he established vivid letter correspondence, he became prominent within the elite society of Edo and became friends with several daimyōs and retired daimyōs of the area. After a short return to Batavia in 1780, Titsingh returned to Nagasaki on 12 August 1781, due to his successes with the Dutch-Japanese trade in Dejima. There were no Dutch shipments from Batavia in 1782 due to the Fourth Anglo-Dutch War and thus the trading post in Dejima was cut off from communication with Java during this year. In this year Titsingh stayed in his position as Opperhoofd and concerned himself with befriending Japanese scholars, deepening relations with Japanese friends and researching on all scopes of Japanese customs and culture.
He achieved, due to the absence of Dutch shipping that year, important trade talks and great concessions with the Japanese on a long-debated increase to copper exports from Japan to the Dutch traders. Titsingh stayed a total of three years and eight months in Japan before leaving Nagasaki at the end of November 1784 to return to Batavia, where he arrived on 3 January 1785. In 1785, Titsingh was appointed director of the trading post at Chinsurah in Bengal. Titsingh was described by William Jones, the philologist and Bengal jurist, as "the Mandarin of Chinsura". Titsingh’s return to Batavia led to new positions as Ontvanger-Generaal and as Commissaris ter Zee. While at Batavia, he met with Lord Macartney, en route to China. Titsingh's comments were important factors in McCartney's decision to abandon a planned expedition to Japan in 1793. Mccartney's report to London explained: "... the expediency of attempting an intercourse with the Japanese subsists in its full force. Tho from the conversations I had at Batavia with a Dutch Gentleman of a liberal disposition, several years resident in Japan, Isaac Titsingh, I collected nothing that could induce m
Lake Biwa is the largest freshwater lake in Japan, located within Shiga Prefecture, northeast of the former capital city of Kyoto. Because of its proximity to the ancient capital, references to Lake Biwa appear in Japanese literature in poetry and in historical accounts of battles; the name Biwako was established in the Edo period. There are various theories about the origin of the name Biwako, but it is believed to be so named because of the resemblance of its shape to that of a stringed instrument called the biwa. Kōsō, a learned monk of Enryaku-ji in the 14th century, gave a clue to the origin of the name Biwako in his writing: "The lake is the Pure land of the goddess Benzaiten because she lives on Chikubu Island and the shape of the lake is similar to that of the biwa, her favorite instrument."The lake was known as the Awaumi or the Chikatsu Awaumi. The pronunciation Awaumi changed to the modern Ōmi as in the name of Ōmi Province; the lake is called Nio no Umi in literature. The area of this lake is about 670 km².
Small rivers drain from the surrounding mountains into Lake Biwa, its main outlet is the Seta River, which becomes the Uji River, combining with the Katsura and Kizu to become the Yodo River and flows into the Seto Inland Sea at Osaka Bay. It serves as a reservoir for the cities of Kyoto and Ōtsu and is a valuable resource for nearby textile industries, it provides drinking water for about 15 million people in the Kansai region. Lake Biwa is a breeding ground for freshwater fish, including trout, for the pearl culture industry; the Lake Biwa Canal, built in the late 1890s and expanded during the Taishō period played a role of great importance in the rekindling of Kyoto's industrial life, after a steep decline following the transfer of the capital to Tokyo. Lake Biwa is home to many popular beaches along the north-western shore, in particular, for example, Shiga Beach and Omi-Maiko; the Mizunomori Water Botanical Garden and The Lake Biwa Museum in Kusatsu are of interest. The Lake Biwa Marathon takes place in Otsu, the city at the southern end of the lake, annually since 1962.
Lake Biwa is of tectonic origin and is one of the world's oldest lakes, dating to at least 4 million years ago. This long uninterrupted age has allowed for a notably diverse ecosystem to evolve in the lake. Naturalists have documented more than 1000 species and subspecies in the lake, including about 60 endemic. Lake Biwa is an important place for water birds. About 5,000 water birds visit Lake Biwa every year. There are 46 native fish species and subspecies in the lake, including 11 species and 5 subspecies that are endemic or near-endemic; the endemic species are a true loach, two gobies, two silurid catfish and a cottid. The Biwa trout is endemic to the lake, but some maintain that it is a subspecies of the widespread masu salmon rather than a separate species; the remaining endemic fish are subspecies of Carassius auratus, Cobitis minamorii, Sarcocheilichthys variegatus and Squalidus biwae. Lake Biwa is the home of a large number of molluscs, including 38 freshwater snails and 16 bivalves; the biodiversity of the lake has suffered due to the invasion of foreign fish, the black bass and the bluegill.
Bluegill were presented to the Emperor and freed in the lake as a food source for other fish. Black bass were introduced as a sport fish. In July 2009, a largemouth bass weighing 10.12 kg was caught from the lake by Manabu Kurita. It has been certified by the International Game Fish Association to tie the largemouth bass world record held by George Perry for 77 years; the Awazu site, a submerged shell-midden of Lake Biwa, is an important archaeological site of the Jōmon period. It goes back to the beginning of the Initial Jōmon period, it lies near the southern end of Lake Biwa, close to Otsu City, at a depth of 2 to 3 meters from the bottom. The site shows the use of animal food resources by the Jōmon people, it demonstrates the importance of nut consumption in this period. Shell Midden No. 3 is dated to the Middle Jōmon period. An abundance of horse chestnuts were uncovered here; this indicates that, by this period, a sophisticated processing technology was mastered in order to remove the harmful tannic acid, make this food safe for consumption.
Ishiyama is another such site of the Early Jōmon period on Lake Biwa. Various environmental laws cover Lake Biwa: Legislation to prevent eutrophication was enacted in 1981 and first enforced on July 1, 1982; the legislation established standards for the nitrogen and phosphorus levels for agricultural and household water sources emptying into the lake. They banned people from using and selling synthetic detergents which contain phosphorus; the lake was designated as a UNESCO Ramsar Wetland in accordance with the Ramsar Convention. The object of this treaty is to sensibly use internationally valuable wetlands; the Kushiro marsh in Japan is under this treaty now. Reed colonies on the shore form give Lake Biwa its characteristic scenery; the reeds play an important role in purifying water as well as providing habi
Kōka is a city located in southern Shiga Prefecture, Japan. As of October 2016, the city has an estimated population of 89,881 and a population density of 190 persons per km2; the total area is 481.69 km2. The modern city of Kōka was established on October 1, 2004, from the merger of the former town of Kōka, absorbing the towns of Kōnan, Minakuchi and Tsuchiyama. Kōka is quite well known for its ninja history, fine quality ceramics and for containing two shukuba post stations from the historic Tōkaidō; the city launched a new English version of their homepage in April 2007, they have begun to promote themselves as a little-known, yet authentic, sightseeing destination. Koka is served by local buses as well as two train lines. Koka sits on the Kusatsu Line of the JR; the line runs from Kusatsu to Tsuge Station in Mie Prefecture. There are five stops in Koka - Kibukawa, Kōnan, Terashō, Kōka, Aburahi. Kibukawa Station has lines for the Shigaraki Kōgen Railway: Shigaraki Line and the Ohmi Railway: Main Line.
Kōga-ryū, the Koga Ninja school of ninjutsu Miho Museum Minakuchi Castle Shigaraki ware Media related to Kōka, Shiga at Wikimedia Commons Koka travel guide from Wikivoyage Kōka City official website Kōka City official website
Toyotomi Hideyoshi was a preeminent daimyō, general and politician of the Sengoku period, regarded as Japan's second "great unifier". He succeeded his former liege lord, Oda Nobunaga, brought an end to the Warring Lords period; the period of his rule is called the Momoyama period, named after Hideyoshi's castle. After his death, his young son Hideyori was displaced by Tokugawa Ieyasu. Hideyoshi is noted for a number of cultural legacies, including the restriction that only members of the samurai class could bear arms, he financed the construction and rebuilding of many temples standing today in Kyoto. He is known for ordering the Japanese invasions of Korea. Little is known for certain about Hideyoshi before 1570 when he begins to appear in surviving documents and letters, his autobiography starts in 1577 but in it, Hideyoshi spoke little about his past. According to tradition, he was born in the home of the Oda clan, he was born of no traceable samurai lineage. He had no surname, his childhood given name was Hiyoshi-maru although variations exist.
Yaemon died in 1543, when Hideyoshi was 7, the younger of two children, his sibling being an older sister. Many legends describe Hideyoshi being sent to study at a temple as a young man, but he rejected temple life and went in search of adventure. Under the name Kinoshita Tōkichirō, he first joined the Imagawa clan as a servant to a local ruler named Matsushita Yukitsuna, he travelled all the way to the lands of Imagawa Yoshimoto, daimyō of Suruga Province, served there for a time, only to abscond with a sum of money entrusted to him by Matsushita Yukitsuna. In 1558, he joined the Oda clan, now headed by Oda Nobunaga, as an ashigaru, he became one of Nobunaga's sandal-bearers and was present at the Battle of Okehazama in 1560 when Nobunaga defeated Imagawa Yoshimoto to become one of the most powerful warlords in the Sengoku period. According to his biographers, he supervised the repair of Kiyosu Castle, a claim described as "apocryphal", managed the kitchen. In 1561, Hideyoshi married One, Asano Nagakatsu's adopted daughter.
He carried out repairs on Sunomata Castle with his younger brother Toyotomi Hidenaga and Hachisuka Masakatsu and Maeno Nagayasu. Hideyoshi's efforts were well received, he constructed a fort in Sunomata, according to legend overnight, discovered a secret route into Mount Inaba after which much of the garrison surrendered. Hideyoshi was successful as a negotiator. In 1564, he managed to convince with liberal bribes, a number of Mino warlords to desert the Saitō clan. Hideyoshi approached many Saitō clan samurai and convinced them to submit to Nobunaga, including the Saitō clan's strategist, Takenaka Shigeharu. Nobunaga's easy victory at Inabayama Castle in 1567 was due to Hideyoshi's efforts, despite his peasant origins, Hideyoshi became one of Nobunaga's most distinguished generals taking the name Hashiba Hideyoshi; the new surname included two characters, one each from Oda's two other right-hand men, Niwa Nagahide and Shibata Katsuie. Hideyoshi led troops in the Battle of Anegawa in 1570 in which Oda Nobunaga allied with Tokugawa Ieyasu to lay siege to two fortresses of the Azai and Asakura clans.
He participated in the 1573 Siege of Nagashima. In 1573, after victorious campaigns against the Azai and Asakura, Nobunaga appointed Hideyoshi daimyō of three districts in the northern part of Ōmi Province. Based at the former Azai headquarters in Odani, Hideyoshi moved to Kunitomo and renamed the city Nagahama in tribute to Nobunaga. Hideyoshi moved to the port at Imahama on Lake Biwa. From there he began work on Imahama Castle and took control of the nearby Kunitomo firearms factory, established some years by the Azai and Asakura. Under Hideyoshi's administration, the factory's output of firearms increased dramatically, he fought in the Battle of Nagashino. Nobunaga sent Hideyoshi to Himeji Castle to conquer the Chūgoku region from the Mori clan in 1576, he fought in the 1577 Battle of Tedorigawa, the Siege of Miki, the Siege of Itami, the 1582 Siege of Takamatsu. After the assassinations at Honnō-ji of Oda Nobunaga and his eldest son Nobutada in 1582 at the hands of Akechi Mitsuhide, seeking vengeance for the death of his beloved lord, made peace with the Mōri clan and defeated Akechi at the Battle of Yamazaki.
At a meeting at Kiyosu to decide on a successor to Nobunaga, Hideyoshi cast aside the apparent candidate, Oda Nobutaka and his advocate, Oda clan's chief general, Shibata Katsuie, by supporting Nobutada's young son, Oda Hidenobu. Having won the support of the other two Oda elders, Niwa Nagahide and Ikeda Tsuneoki, Hideyoshi established Hidenobu's position, as well as his own influence in the Oda clan. Tension escalated between Hideyoshi and Katsuie, at the Battle of Shizugatake in the following year, Hideyoshi destroyed Katsuie's forces. Hideyoshi had thus consolidated his own power, dealt with most of the Oda clan, controlled 30 provinces. In 1582, Hideyoshi began construction of Osaka Castle. Built on the site of the temple Ishiyama Hongan-ji destroyed by Nobunaga, the castle would become the last stronghold of the Toyotomi clan after Hideyoshi's death. Nobunaga's other son, Oda Nobukatsu, remained hostile to Hideyoshi, he allied himself with Tokugawa Ieyasu, the two sides fought at the inconclusive Battle of Komaki and Nagakute.
It resulted in a stalemate, although Hideyoshi's forces were delivered a