"Master Harold"...and the Boys
"Master Harold"...and the boys is a play by Athol Fugard. Set in 1950, it was first produced at the Yale Repertory Theatre in March 1982 and made its premiere on Broadway on 4 May at the Lyceum Theatre, where it ran for 344 performances; the play takes place in South Africa during apartheid era, depicts how institutionalized racism, bigotry or hatred can become absorbed by those who live under it. It is said to be a semi-autobiographical play, as Athol Fugard's birth name was Harold and his boyhood was similar to Hally's, including his father being disabled, his mother running a tea shop to support the family, his relationship with his family's servants was similar to Hally's, as he sometimes considered them his friends, but other times treated them like subservient help, insisting that he be called "Master Harold", once spitting in the face of one he had been close to. The play was banned from production in South Africa, it was the first of Fugard's plays to premiere outside of South Africa.
The play recounts the long, rainy afternoon that Hally spends with Sam and Willie, two middle-aged African servants of his parents' household, in a tea shop owned by Hally's mother. Sam and Willie have cared for seventeen-year-old Hally his whole life. At the start of the play Sam and Willie are practicing ballroom steps in preparation for a major competition, while maintaining the tea shop. Business is slow due to the rain. Sam is revealed as being the more worldly of the two; when Willie, in broken English, describes his ballroom partner and girlfriend as lacking enthusiasm, Sam diagnoses the problem: Willie beats her if she doesn't know the steps. Hally arrives home from school, cheerfully asks if the two are ready for the competition. Sam is the unacknowledged yet de facto mentor to the boy since childhood, has always treated Hally as his nephew/ward. Sam hopes to skillfully guide Hally through the difficult passage from childhood into manhood, and thereby, takes up those values and viewpoints of an adult.
Willie, for his part, has always played the "loyal black". The conversation between the three moves from Hally's school-work, to an intellectual discussion on "A Man of Magnitude", where they mention various historical figures of the time and their contribution to society, to flashbacks of Hally and Willie when they lived in a Boarding House. Hally warmly remembers the simple act of flying a kite. Conversation turns to Hally's 500-word English composition; the play reaches an emotional apex as the beauty of the ballroom dancing floor is used as a transcendent metaphor for life. Despair returns: Sam had early on mentioned why Hally's mother is not present. However, indicating that his father had been in considerable pain the previous day, insisted that his father wasn't well enough to be discharged, that the call must've been about a bad turn, rather than a discharge notice. A call from Hally's mother at the hospital confirms that Hally's father, is manipulating the hospital into discharging him, although he is indeed, not feeling any better than before, so it's still unofficial, Hally remains hopeful that the discharge won't happen.
A second call from Hally's mother reveals that the discharge is official, Hally's father is now home. Hally is distraught about this news, since his father, who in addition to being crippled, is revealed to be a tyrannical alcoholic, his being home will make home life unbearable with his drinking and need for constant treatment, which includes demeaning tasks of having to massage his stump, empty chamber pots of urine. Hally vents to his two black friends years of anger, pain, viciously mocking his father and his condition, but when Sam chastises him for doing so, although ashamed of himself, turns on him, unleashing vicarious racism, that he learned from his father, creating permanent rifts in his relationship with both Sam and Willie. For the first time, apart from hints throughout the play, Hally begins explicitly to treat Sam and Willie as subservient help rather than as friends or playmates, insisting that Sam call him "Master Harold" and spitting on him, among other things. Sam is hurt and angry and both he and Willie are just short of attacking Hally, but they both understand that Hally is causing himself the most pain.
There is a glimmer of hope for reconciliation at the end, when Sam addresses Hally by his nickname again and asks to start over the next day, harkening back to the simple days of the kite. Hally, horrified about what he's done, is able to face Sam, responding without looking up "It's still raining, Sam. You can't fly kites on rainy days, remember," asks Willie to lock up the tea shop, walks out into the rain, as Sam mentions that the bench Hally sat on as he flew the kite said "Whites Only" but Hally was too excited to notice it, that he can leave it at any time; the play ends while Willie console each other by ballroom dancing together. John Simon, writing for the New York magazine, was measured in his review:Fugard has now per
Electrical engineering is a professional engineering discipline that deals with the study and application of electricity and electromagnetism. This field first became an identifiable occupation in the half of the 19th century after commercialization of the electric telegraph, the telephone, electric power distribution and use. Subsequently and recording media made electronics part of daily life; the invention of the transistor, the integrated circuit, brought down the cost of electronics to the point they can be used in any household object. Electrical engineering has now divided into a wide range of fields including electronics, digital computers, computer engineering, power engineering, telecommunications, control systems, radio-frequency engineering, signal processing and microelectronics. Many of these disciplines overlap with other engineering branches, spanning a huge number of specializations such as hardware engineering, power electronics and waves, microwave engineering, electrochemistry, renewable energies, electrical materials science, much more.
See glossary of electrical and electronics engineering. Electrical engineers hold a degree in electrical engineering or electronic engineering. Practising engineers may be members of a professional body; such bodies include the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers and the Institution of Engineering and Technology. Electrical engineers work in a wide range of industries and the skills required are variable; these range from basic circuit theory to the management skills required of a project manager. The tools and equipment that an individual engineer may need are variable, ranging from a simple voltmeter to a top end analyzer to sophisticated design and manufacturing software. Electricity has been a subject of scientific interest since at least the early 17th century. William Gilbert was a prominent early electrical scientist, was the first to draw a clear distinction between magnetism and static electricity, he is credited with establishing the term "electricity". He designed the versorium: a device that detects the presence of statically charged objects.
In 1762 Swedish professor Johan Carl Wilcke invented a device named electrophorus that produced a static electric charge. By 1800 Alessandro Volta had developed the voltaic pile, a forerunner of the electric battery In the 19th century, research into the subject started to intensify. Notable developments in this century include the work of Hans Christian Ørsted who discovered in 1820 that an electric current produces a magnetic field that will deflect a compass needle, of William Sturgeon who, in 1825 invented the electromagnet, of Joseph Henry and Edward Davy who invented the electrical relay in 1835, of Georg Ohm, who in 1827 quantified the relationship between the electric current and potential difference in a conductor, of Michael Faraday, of James Clerk Maxwell, who in 1873 published a unified theory of electricity and magnetism in his treatise Electricity and Magnetism. In 1782 Georges-Louis Le Sage developed and presented in Berlin the world's first form of electric telegraphy, using 24 different wires, one for each letter of the alphabet.
This telegraph connected two rooms. It was an electrostatic telegraph. In 1795, Francisco Salva Campillo proposed an electrostatic telegraph system. Between 1803-1804, he worked on electrical telegraphy and in 1804, he presented his report at the Royal Academy of Natural Sciences and Arts of Barcelona. Salva’s electrolyte telegraph system was innovative though it was influenced by and based upon two new discoveries made in Europe in 1800 – Alessandro Volta’s electric battery for generating an electric current and William Nicholson and Anthony Carlyle’s electrolysis of water. Electrical telegraphy may be considered the first example of electrical engineering. Electrical engineering became a profession in the 19th century. Practitioners had created a global electric telegraph network and the first professional electrical engineering institutions were founded in the UK and USA to support the new discipline. Francis Ronalds created an electric telegraph system in 1816 and documented his vision of how the world could be transformed by electricity.
Over 50 years he joined the new Society of Telegraph Engineers where he was regarded by other members as the first of their cohort. By the end of the 19th century, the world had been forever changed by the rapid communication made possible by the engineering development of land-lines, submarine cables, from about 1890, wireless telegraphy. Practical applications and advances in such fields created an increasing need for standardised units of measure, they led to the international standardization of the units volt, coulomb, ohm and henry. This was achieved at an international conference in Chicago in 1893; the publication of these standards formed the basis of future advances in standardisation in various industries, in many countries, the definitions were recognized in relevant legislation. During these years, the study of electricity was considered to be a subfield of physics since the early electrical technology was considered electromechanical in nature; the Technische Universität Darmstadt founded the world's first department of electrical engineering in 1882.
The first electrical engineering degree program was started at Massachusetts Institute of Technology in the physics department
Second Continental Congress
The Second Continental Congress was a convention of delegates from the Thirteen Colonies that started meeting in the spring of 1775 in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. It succeeded the First Continental Congress, which met in Philadelphia between September 5, 1774, October 26, 1774; the Second Congress moved incrementally towards independence. It adopted the Lee Resolution which established the new country on July 2, 1776, it agreed to the United States Declaration of Independence on July 4, 1776; the Congress acted as the de facto national government of the United States by raising armies, directing strategy, appointing diplomats, making formal treaties such as the Olive Branch Petition. The Second Continental Congress came together on May 11, 1775 reconvening the First Continental Congress. Many of the 56 delegates who attended the first meeting were in attendance at the second, the delegates appointed the same president and secretary. Notable new arrivals included John Hancock of Massachusetts.
Within two weeks, Randolph was summoned back to Virginia to preside over the House of Burgesses. Henry Middleton was elected as president to replace Randolph. Hancock was elected president on May 24. Delegates from twelve of the Thirteen Colonies were present when the Second Continental Congress convened. Georgia had not participated in the First Continental Congress and did not send delegates to the Second. On May 13, 1775, Lyman Hall was admitted as a delegate from the Parish of St. John's in the Colony of Georgia, not as a delegate from the colony itself. On July 4, 1775, revolutionary Georgians held a Provincial Congress to decide how to respond to the American Revolution, that congress decided on July 8 to send delegates to the Continental Congress, they arrived on September 13. The First Continental Congress had sent entreaties to King George III to stop the Coercive Acts; the Second Continental Congress met on May 10, 1775 to plan further responses if the British government had not repealed or modified the acts.
For the first few months of the war, the Patriots carried on their struggle in an ad-hoc and uncoordinated manner. They had seized arsenals, driven out royal officials, besieged the British army in the city of Boston. On June 14, 1775, the Congress voted to create the Continental Army out of the militia units around Boston and appointed George Washington of Virginia as commanding general. On July 6, 1775, Congress approved a Declaration of Causes outlining the rationale and necessity for taking up arms in the Thirteen Colonies. On July 8, they extended the Olive Branch Petition to the British Crown as a final attempt at reconciliation. Silas Deane was sent to France as a minister of the Congress, American ports were reopened in defiance of the British Navigation Acts; the Continental Congress had no explicit legal authority to govern, but it assumed all the functions of a national government, such as appointing ambassadors, signing treaties, raising armies, appointing generals, obtaining loans from Europe, issuing paper money, disbursing funds.
The Congress had no authority to levy taxes and was required to request money and troops from the states to support the war effort. Individual states ignored these requests. Congress was moving towards declaring independence from the British Empire in 1776, but many delegates lacked the authority from their home governments to take such a drastic action. Advocates of independence moved to have reluctant colonial governments revise instructions to their delegations, or replace those governments which would not authorize independence. On May 10, 1776, Congress passed a resolution recommending that any colony with a government, not inclined toward independence should form one that was. On May 15, they adopted a more radical preamble to this resolution, drafted by John Adams, which advised throwing off oaths of allegiance and suppressing the authority of the Crown in any colonial government that still derived its authority from the Crown; that same day, the Virginia Convention instructed its delegation in Philadelphia to propose a resolution that called for a declaration of independence, the formation of foreign alliances, a confederation of the states.
The resolution of independence was delayed for several weeks, as advocates of independence consolidated support in their home governments. On June 7, 1776, Richard Henry Lee offered a resolution before the Congress declaring the colonies independent, he urged Congress to resolve "to take the most effectual measures for forming foreign Alliances" and to prepare a plan of confederation for the newly independent states. Lee argued that independence was the only way to ensure a foreign alliance, since no European monarchs would deal with America if they remained Britain's colonies. American leaders had rejected the divine right of kings in the New World, but recognized the necessity of proving their credibility in the Old World. Congress formally adopted the resolution of independence, but only after creating three overlapping committees to draft the Declaration, a Model Treaty, the Articles of Confederation; the Declaration announced the states' entry into the international
Ljubljana is the capital and largest city of Slovenia. It has been the cultural, economic and administrative centre of independent Slovenia since 1991. During antiquity, a Roman city called. Ljubljana itself was first mentioned in the first half of the 12th century. Situated at the middle of a trade route between the northern Adriatic Sea and the Danube region, it was the historical capital of Carniola, one of the Slovene-inhabited parts of the Habsburg Monarchy, it was under Habsburg rule from the Middle Ages until the dissolution of the Austro-Hungarian Empire in 1918. After World War II, Ljubljana became the capital of the Socialist Republic of Slovenia, part of the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia, it retained this status until Slovenia became independent in 1991 and Ljubljana became the capital of the newly formed state. The origin of name of the city, Ljubljana, is unclear. In the Middle Ages, both the river and the town were known by the German name Laibach; this name was in official use as an endonym until 1918, it remains frequent as a German exonym, both in common speech and official use.
The city is alternatively named Lublana in many English language documents. The city is called Lublana in Silesian, Lubiana in Latin: Labacum and anciently Aemona. For most scholars, the problem has been in how to connect the German names; the origin from the Slavic ljub- "to love, like" was in 2007 supported as the most probable by the linguist Tijmen Pronk, a specialist in comparative Indo-European linguistics and Slovene dialectology, from the University of Leiden. He supported the thesis; the linguist Silvo Torkar, who specialises in Slovene personal and place names, argued at the same place for the thesis that the name Ljubljana derives from Ljubija, the original name of the Ljubljanica River flowing through it, itself derived from the Old Slavic male name Ljubovid, "the one of a lovely appearance". The name Laibach, he claimed, was a hybrid of German and Slovene and derived from the same personal name; the symbol of the city is the Ljubljana Dragon. It is depicted on the top of the tower of Ljubljana Castle in the Ljubljana coat of arms and on the Ljubljanica-crossing Dragon Bridge.
It symbolises power and greatness. There are several explanations on the origin of the Ljubljana Dragon. According to a Slavic myth, the slaying of a dragon releases the waters and ensures the fertility of the earth, it is thought that the myth is tied to the Ljubljana Marshes, the expansive marshy area that periodically threatens Ljubljana with flooding. According to the celebrated Greek legend, the Argonauts on their return home after having taken the Golden Fleece found a large lake surrounded by a marsh between the present-day towns of Vrhnika and Ljubljana, it was there. This monster has evolved into the dragon, it is more believable that the dragon was adopted from Saint George, the patron of the Ljubljana Castle chapel built in the 15th century. In the legend of Saint George, the dragon represents the old ancestral paganism overcome by Christianity. According to another explanation, related to the second, the dragon was at first only a decoration above the city coat of arms. In the Baroque, it became part of the coat of arms, in the 19th and the 20th century, it outstripped the tower and other elements in importance.
Around 2000 BC, the Ljubljana Marshes in the immediate vicinity of Ljubljana were settled by people living in pile dwellings. Prehistoric pile dwellings and the oldest wooden wheel in the world are among the most notable archeological findings from the marshland; these lake-dwelling people lived through hunting and primitive agriculture. To get around the marshes, they used dugout canoes made by cutting out the inside of tree trunks, their archaeological remains, nowadays in the Municipality of Ig, have been designated a UNESCO World Heritage Site since June 2011, in the common nomination of six Alpine states. The area remained a transit point for numerous tribes and peoples, among them the Illyrians, followed by a mixed nation of the Celts and the Illyrians called the Iapydes, in the 3rd century BC a Celtic tribe, the Taurisci. Around 50 BC, the Romans built a military encampment that became a permanent settlement called Iulia Aemona; this entrenched fort was occupied by the Legio XV Apollinaris.
In 452, it was destroyed by the Huns under Attila's orders, by the Ostrogoths and the Lombards. Emona housed 5,000 -- 6,000 played an important role during numerous battles, its plastered brick houses, painted in different colours, were connected to a drainage system. In the 6th century, the ancestors of the Slovenes moved in. In the 9th century, they fell while experiencing frequent Magyar raids. Not much is known about the area during the settlement of Slavs in the period between the downfall of Emona and the Early Middle Ages; the parchment sheet Nomina defunctorum, most written in the second half of 1161, mentions the nobleman Rudolf of Tarcento, a lawyer of the Patriarchate of Aquileia, who had bestowed a canon with 20 farmsteads beside the castle of Ljubljana to the Patriarchate. According to the historian Peter Štih's deduction, this happened between 1112 and 1125, thus representing the earliest mention of Ljubljana. Owned by a number of possessors, until the first half of the 12th century, the territory south of the Sava where the town of
The Pillowman is a 2003 play by Irish playwright Martin McDonagh. It received its first public reading in an early version at the Finborough Theatre, London, in 1995, it tells the tale of Katurian, a fiction writer living in a police state, interrogated about the gruesome content of his short stories and their similarities to a number of bizarre child murders occurring in his town. The play received the 2004 Olivier Award for Best New Play, the 2004-5 New York Drama Critics' Circle Award for Best New Foreign Play, two Tony Awards for production, it was nominated for the 2004 Evening Standard Award for Best New Play. Katurian, a writer of short stories that depict violence against children, has been arrested by two detectives and Tupolski, because some of his stories resemble recent child murders; when he hears that his brother Michal has confessed to the murders and implicated Katurian, he resigns himself to being executed but attempts to save his stories from destruction. The play contains both narrations and reenactments of several of Katurian's stories, including the autobiographical "The Writer and the Writer's Brother", which tells how Katurian developed his disturbed imagination by hearing the sounds of Michal being tortured by their parents.
Katurian: A writer of gruesome short stories involving children. His disturbed imagination was the result of having heard his brother being abused when they were younger, he killed his parents and looked after his brother. He is shocked by his arrest. Michal: Katurian's brother, "slow to get things" following his years of abuse at the hands of his parents, he is taken into jail along with Katurian. Tupolski: The lead detective and the "good cop" in the interrogation. Cold and uncaring, he sees himself as detached from the people he aims to save, shocking his younger partner Ariel. Ariel: A brutal and violent detective who has a vendetta against anyone who commits crimes against children because of abuse in his own past, he ends up being more sympathetic toward his stories than Tupolski is. Minor characters include the parents/foster parents, The Little Jesus, a boy. Ariel and Tupolski interrogate Katurian in a police room, adopting a good cop/bad cop routine with Ariel playing the bad cop. At first Katurian does not know why he is being questioned, thinks he is under suspicion of running political messages against the totalitarian dictatorship through his stories.
The detectives and Katurian discuss grisly stories involving children. Ariel leaves the room, soon after Michal is heard screaming in the next room. Ariel returns, his hand covered in blood from torturing Michal, tells Katurian that Michal has just confessed to killing three children, in association with Katurian; the first two children were murdered according to the patterns of the stories "The Little Apple Men" and "The Tale of the Town on the River." Katurian denies the allegations, stating that although his stories are gruesome it is the job of a storyteller to tell a story. In his own narrative, Katurian describes being raised by loving parents who encouraged him to write, for many years he wrote happy stories. However, at night he began to hear sounds of torture from the next room, as a result he began to write more disturbing stories. One night, a note is slipped under the door, claiming that Katurian's brother has been tortured nightly for seven years as part of an artistic experiment to get Katurian to become a great writer.
Katurian breaks down the door, only to find his parents, who were playing a trick on him, pretending to be torturing a child. However, when Katurian returns years he discovers his brother's dead body hidden under the mattress, clutching the manuscript of a beautiful story, better than any of Katurian's, which Katurian burns. Katurian interrupts his narrative to say that this ending was fabricated when he wrote the story: when he broke down the door, he found Michal still alive. Katurian smothered his parents with a pillow that night in vengeance for his disabled brother and the abuse he suffered. Katurian and Michal are together in a cell. Michal reveals that he had not been tortured, but rather cooperated with Ariel screaming when Ariel asked him to. At Michal's request, Katurian tells him the story of "The Pillowman", about a man made of pillows who convinces children to kill themselves so they can be spared a horrible future. Michal admits to having killed the children, claiming that Katurian told him to do it through his stories.
Michal says that he murdered the third child after hearing Katurian's story "The Little Jesus", one of his most violent. Michal tells Katurian that he had read the written version of "The Writer and the Writer's Brother", resented the changes from their lives, wishing that Katurian had written a happy ending for the two brothers. Katurian lulls Michal to sleep by telling him one of his happier stories, "The Little Green Pig" smothers him to save him the pain of being executed. Katurian calls to the detectives, announcing his intention to confess to the crimes on the condition that his stories are preserved. Katurian tells the others the story of "The Little Jesus", thought to inspire the third murder. A young girl believes that she is the second coming of Jesus, blesses unsavory characters, to the dismay of her parents and annoyance of others; when her parents are killed in a horrific accident, she is sent to live with abusive foster parents. Annoyed by her pretensions, the foster parents crucify her and bury her alive so that she might rise again in three days, but she does not.
Katurian writes out his false confession and adds the names of his mother and father to the list of people he's killed. When Katurian sees
Oz (TV series)
Oz is an American television drama series created by Tom Fontana, who wrote or co-wrote all of the series' 56 episodes. It was the first one-hour dramatic television series to be produced by the premium cable network HBO. Oz ran for six seasons. "Oz" is the nickname for the Oswald State Correctional Facility Oswald State Penitentiary, a fictional level 4 maximum-security state prison. The nickname "Oz" is a reference to the classic film The Wizard of Oz, which popularized the phrase "There's no place like home." In contrast, a poster for the series uses the tagline: "It's no place like home". Moreover, most of the series' story arcs are set in "Emerald City", a wing named after a setting from the fictional Land of Oz in L. Frank Baum's Oz books, first described in The Wonderful Wizard of Oz; the majority of Oz's story arcs are set in "Emerald City", named for a setting from The Wonderful Wizard of Oz. In this experimental unit of the prison, unit manager Tim McManus emphasizes rehabilitation and learning responsibility during incarceration, rather than carrying out purely punitive measures.
Emerald City is an controlled environment, with a managed balance of members from each racial and social group, intended to ease tensions among these various factions. Under McManus and Warden Leo Glynn, all inmates in "Em City" struggle to fulfill their own needs; some fight for power -- either over other inmate factions and individuals. Others, corrections officers and inmates alike want to survive, some long enough to make parole and others just to see the next day; the show's narrator, inmate Augustus Hill, explains the show, provides context, thematic analysis, a sense of humor. Oz chronicles McManus' attempts to keep control over the inmates of Em City. There are many groups of inmates throughout the show, not everyone within each group survives the show's events. There are the African-American Homeboys and Muslims, the Wiseguys, the Aryan Brotherhood, the Latinos of El Norte, the Irish, the Gays, the Bikers, the Christians and many other individuals not affiliated with one particular group.
In contrast to the dangerous criminals, character Tobias Beecher gives a look at a law-abiding man who made one fatal drunk-driving mistake. Actors listed as "recurring" are credited as "also starring" in the opening title sequence, actors listed as "guests" are credited in the end credits. Oz took advantage of the freedoms of premium cable to show elements of coarse language, drug use, frontal nudity and male rape, as well as ethnic and religious conflicts that would have been unacceptable to traditional advertiser-supported American broadcast television. In Australia, Oz was screened uncensored on the free-to-air channel, SBS; this was the case in Brazil, where it was aired by the SBT Network Corporation, late at night. In Bosnia and Herzegovina, it was aired on the federal TV station called FTV. In Canada, Oz aired on the Showcase Channel at Friday 10 p.m. EST. In Croatia and Slovenia, the show was aired late at night on public, non-commercial, state-owned channels HRT, ETV, RTV SLO, respectively.
In Denmark, it appeared late at night on the non-commercial public service channel DR1. In Finland, it broadcast on the free-to-air channel Nelonen. In France, the show aired on commercial cable channel'Serie Club,' late at night. In Malaysia, full episodes of Oz aired late at night on ntv7, while the censored version aired during the day. In the Netherlands, Oz aired on the commercial channel RTL 5. In New Zealand Oz aired on The Box at 9.30pm on Wednesdays in the early 2000s. In Norway and Sweden, it aired on TV3 late at night. In Panama, Oz aired on RPC-TV Channel 4 in a late-night hour. In Portugal, Oz aired late at night on SIC one of the SIC channels in the cable network. In Serbia, Oz aired on RTV BK Telecom. In Spain, the show aired on premium channel Canal+. In Turkey, Oz was aired on Cine5. In Japan, it aired on SuperChannel from 29th December 2001 to 22nd July 2005. On April 21, 2009, Variety announced that starting May 31, DirecTV will broadcast all 56 episodes in their original form without commercials and in up-scaled "high definition" on The 101 Network available to all subscribers.
The episodes will be available through DirecTV's On Demand service. The series was co-produced by HBO and Rysher Entertainment, the underlying U. S. rights lie with HBO. The international rights were owned by Rysher Paramount Pictures/Domestic Television after that company acquired Rysher. CBS Studios International owns the international TV rights, Paramount Home Entertainment/CBS DVD owns the international DVD rights. HBO Home Video has released all six seasons of Oz on DVD in Region 1 and Region 2; the Region 1 releases contain numerous special features including commentaries, deleted scenes and featurettes. The Region 2 releases do not contain
Director of National Intelligence
The Director of National Intelligence is the United States government Cabinet-level official—subject to the authority and control of the President of the United States—required by the Intelligence Reform and Terrorism Prevention Act of 2004 to: serve as head of the sixteen-member United States Intelligence Community and oversee the National Intelligence Program. The Director produces the President's Daily Brief, a top-secret document including intelligence from all the various agencies, given each morning to the President of the United States; the PDB is seen by the President and those approved by the President. On July 30, 2008, President George W. Bush issued Executive Order 13470, amending Executive Order 12333 to strengthen the DNI's role. Further, by Presidential Policy Directive 19 signed by Barack Obama in October 2012, the DNI was given overall responsibility for Intelligence Community whistleblowing and source protection. Under 50 U. S. C. § 403-3a, "under ordinary circumstances, it is desirable" that either the Director or the Principal Deputy Director of National Intelligence be an active-duty commissioned officer in the armed forces or have training or experience in military intelligence activities and requirements.
Only one of the two positions can be held by a military officer at any given time. The statute does not specify what rank the commissioned officer will hold during his or her tenure in either position; the DNI is appointed by the President and is subject to confirmation by the Senate, serves at the pleasure of the President. The current DNI is Dan Coats, nominated for the office on January 5, 2017, by then-President-elect Donald Trump; the DNI and Principal Deputy Director of National Intelligence both resigned with effect on January 20, Trump's Inauguration day. Pending Coats' confirmation, Mike Dempsey was acting DNI from January 20, became a member of President Trump's Cabinet on February 8, the first time that the DNI was a Cabinet-level position; the United States Senate Intelligence Committee held Coats' confirmation hearing on February 28, which approved Coats on March 9, by a 13–2 vote. The Senate confirmed his nomination with an 85–12 vote on March 15, he was sworn into office the next day.
Before the DNI was formally established, the head of the Intelligence Community was the Director of Central Intelligence, who concurrently served as the Director of the Central Intelligence Agency. The 9/11 Commission recommended establishing the DNI position in its 9/11 Commission Report, not released until July 22, 2004, as it had identified major intelligence failures that called into question how well the intelligence community was able to protect U. S. interests against foreign terrorist attacks. Senators Dianne Feinstein, Jay Rockefeller and Bob Graham introduced S. 2645 on June 19, 2002, to create the Director of National Intelligence position. Other similar legislation soon followed. After considerable debate on the scope of the DNI's powers and authorities, the United States Congress passed the Intelligence Reform and Terrorism Prevention Act of 2004 by votes of 336–75 in the House of Representatives, 89–2 in the Senate. President George W. Bush signed the bill into law on December 17, 2004.
Among other things, the law established the DNI position as the designated leader of the United States Intelligence Community and prohibited the DNI from serving as the CIA Director or the head of any other Intelligence Community element at the same time. In addition, the law required the CIA Director to "report" his agency's activities to the DNI. Critics say compromises during the bill's crafting led to the establishment of a DNI whose powers are too weak to adequately lead and improve the performance of the US Intelligence Community. In particular, the law left the United States Department of Defense in charge of the National Security Agency, the National Reconnaissance Office, the National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency; the first Director of National Intelligence was US Ambassador to Iraq John Negroponte, appointed on February 17, 2005, by President George W. Bush, subject to confirmation by the Senate, it was reported that President Bush's first choice for DNI was former Director of Central Intelligence Robert M. Gates, serving as president of Texas A&M University, but who declined the offer.
Negroponte was confirmed by a Senate vote of 98 to 2 in favor of his appointment on April 21, 2005, he was sworn in by President Bush on that day. On February 13, 2007, John Michael McConnell became the second Director of National Intelligence, after Negroponte was appointed Deputy Secretary of State. Donald M. Kerr was confirmed by the U. S. Senate to be Principal Deputy Director of National Intelligence on October 4, 2007, sworn in on October 9, 2007. Kerr, from Virginia, was most the Director of the National Reconnaissance Office, the Duty Director for Science and Technology at the US CIA and earlier in his career the Assistant Director of the Justice Department's FBI. Declan McCullagh at News.com wrote on August 24, 2007, that the DNI site was configured to repel all search engines to index any page at DNI.gov. This made the DNI website invisible to all search engines and in turn, any search queries. Ross Feinstein, Spokesman for the DNI, said that the cloaking was removed as of September 3, 2007.
"We're not sure how got there" – but it was again somehow hidden the next day. Anot