International Standard Book Number
The International Standard Book Number is a unique numeric commercial book identifier. An ISBN is assigned to each edition and variation of a book, for example, an e-book, a paperback and a hardcover edition of the same book would each have a different ISBN. The ISBN is 13 digits long if assigned on or after 1 January 2007, the method of assigning an ISBN is nation-based and varies from country to country, often depending on how large the publishing industry is within a country. The initial ISBN configuration of recognition was generated in 1967 based upon the 9-digit Standard Book Numbering created in 1966, the 10-digit ISBN format was developed by the International Organization for Standardization and was published in 1970 as international standard ISO2108. Occasionally, a book may appear without a printed ISBN if it is printed privately or the author does not follow the usual ISBN procedure, this can be rectified later. Another identifier, the International Standard Serial Number, identifies periodical publications such as magazines, the ISBN configuration of recognition was generated in 1967 in the United Kingdom by David Whitaker and in 1968 in the US by Emery Koltay.
The 10-digit ISBN format was developed by the International Organization for Standardization and was published in 1970 as international standard ISO2108, the United Kingdom continued to use the 9-digit SBN code until 1974. The ISO on-line facility only refers back to 1978, an SBN may be converted to an ISBN by prefixing the digit 0. For example, the edition of Mr. J. G. Reeder Returns, published by Hodder in 1965, has SBN340013818 -340 indicating the publisher,01381 their serial number. This can be converted to ISBN 0-340-01381-8, the check digit does not need to be re-calculated, since 1 January 2007, ISBNs have contained 13 digits, a format that is compatible with Bookland European Article Number EAN-13s. An ISBN is assigned to each edition and variation of a book, for example, an ebook, a paperback, and a hardcover edition of the same book would each have a different ISBN. The ISBN is 13 digits long if assigned on or after 1 January 2007, a 13-digit ISBN can be separated into its parts, and when this is done it is customary to separate the parts with hyphens or spaces.
Separating the parts of a 10-digit ISBN is done with either hyphens or spaces, figuring out how to correctly separate a given ISBN number is complicated, because most of the parts do not use a fixed number of digits. ISBN issuance is country-specific, in that ISBNs are issued by the ISBN registration agency that is responsible for country or territory regardless of the publication language. Some ISBN registration agencies are based in national libraries or within ministries of culture, in other cases, the ISBN registration service is provided by organisations such as bibliographic data providers that are not government funded. In Canada, ISBNs are issued at no cost with the purpose of encouraging Canadian culture. In the United Kingdom, United States, and some countries, where the service is provided by non-government-funded organisations. Australia, ISBNs are issued by the library services agency Thorpe-Bowker
Feleti Vakaʻuta Sevele, Lord Sevele of Vailahi was the Prime Minister of the Kingdom of Tonga from 30 March 2006 to 22 December 2010. Lord Sevele was born in Ma’ufanga, Nuku’alofa and he began his high school education at Apifoʻou College in Tonga, went to school in Fiji at St Johns College in Levuka on the island of Ovalau, and the Marist Brothers High School, Suva. Upon returning to Tonga he was employed by the Tonga Commodities Board, as chief economist for the South Pacific Commission and he subsequently worked as Director of Catholic Education, a consultant, and businessman. Sevele was first elected as one of nine Peoples Representatives to the Legislative Assembly or Fale Alea in the 1999 election and re-elected in subsequent elections. In March 2005 he was appointed to the Cabinet as Minister for Labour and Industries, as Minister he negotiated Tongas becoming a member of the World Trade Organization in December 2005. In early 2006 he presented an Employment Relations Bill to Cabinet, based on the Fijian Bill of the same name, Sevele is the countrys third non-noble Prime Minister after Shirley Waldemar Baker and Siosateki Tonga.
Seveles role was permanent by King Tāufaʻāhau Tupou IV, when he appointed Dr Sevele as the Prime Minister of Tonga on 30 March 2006. On 19 September 2007, Sevele was received by Philippine President Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo in Malacañang and he attended the Asian Development Banks Mobilizing Aid for Trade conference. Sevele did not seek re-election at the 2010 elections, following the completion of his term as Prime Minister he was created a Tongan life peer by King George Tupou V with the noble title of Lord Sevele of Vailahi. Profile at Tongan Government website Pacific Magazine Matangi Tonga Photos of Prime Minister Seveles trip to Los Angeles and Honolulu November 2007
Thumb Ahoeitu Tupou VI is the King of Tonga. He is the brother and successor of the late King George Tupou V. He was officially confirmed by his brother on 27 September 2006 as the heir presumptive to the Throne of Tonga and he was born in Nukuʻalofa, the third son and youngest child of King Tāufaʻāhau Tupou IV. He was educated at The Leys School, from 1973–77 and he attended the University of East Anglia, where he read Development Studies, from 1977 to 1980. He started his career in the military, joining the naval arm of the Tonga Defence Services in 1982 and he graduated from the US Naval War College as part of Class 33 in 1988. From 1990 to 1995 he commanded the Pacific-class patrol boat VOEA Pangai and he graduated with a masters in Defence Studies from the University of New South Wales in 1997 and with a MA in International Relations from Bond University in 1999. In 1998 he ended his career to become part of the government, first as the defence minister. He took over these posts from his elder brother Tupoutoʻa, at that time still the crown prince, soon he was appointed as Prime Minister on 3 January 2000, a function he kept until his sudden resignation on 11 February 2006.
Its reason has never made clear, but was probably due to the unrest from a series of pro-democracy protests calling since mid-2005 for a lesser role for the royal family in government. His appointed successor, Feleti Sevele, was Tongas first prime minister who was not an estate holder or a member of the 33 noble families that make up the Tongan aristocracy. In 2008 ʻAhoʻeitu was appointed Tongas first High Commissioner to Australia, in 2013 he was appointed as Chancellor of the University of the South Pacific. HRH Tupoutoʻa ʻUlukalala – Siaosi Manumataongo ʻAlaivahamamaʻo ʻAhoʻeitu Konstantin Tukuʻaho and he married on 12 July 2012 the Hon. Sinaitakala Fakafanua, daughter of late High Chief Kinikinilau Fakafanua and HRH Princess Ofeina, Lady Fakafanua, both King Tupou VIs first cousins. HRH Prince Taufaʻahau Manumataongo – Taufaʻahau Manumataongo Tukuʻaho, HRH Prince Ata – Viliami ʻUnuaki-ʻo-Tonga Mumui Lalaka-Mo-e-ʻEiki Tukuʻaho. It is customary in Tongan culture that princes get a traditional chiefly title and these titles may be used in any order.
Nevertheless, the sequences Lavaka Ata ʻUlukālala and ʻUlukālala Lavaka Ata were most common, as such he was until his accession to the throne known as Tupoutoʻa Lavaka. His elder son, Siaosi, is to be addressed by the title of ʻUlukālala of Fangatongo, while his second son. He was assisted by Reverend Dr ‘Ahio and Reverend Dr Tevita Havea, the president, the celebrations included many international invited guests, and an estimated 15,000 people, mostly expatriate Tongans, flew in to join the celebrations. During the ceremony, Tupou VI was anointed with oil, adorned with a ring
Legislative Assembly of Tonga
The Legislative Assembly of Tonga has 26 members in which 17 members elected by majority of the people for a 5-year term in multi-seat constituencies via the single non-transferable vote system. There are 9 members elected by the 33 hereditary nobles of Tonga, the Assembly is controlled by the speaker of the House who is elected by majority of the elected members of Parliament and constitutionally appointed by the king. A Legislative Assembly providing for representation of nobles and commoners was established in 1862 by King George Tupou I and this body met every four years and was continued in the 1875 Constitution. An increase in the number of nobles from twenty to thirty saw the Assembly grow to 70 members, amendments in 1914 saw a reduction in the size of the Assembly and annual sittings. The principle of representation of nobles and commoners was retained. The Legislative Assembly is presided over by a Speaker, appointed by the monarch, the current Speaker is Lord Tuʻivakanō. A complete list of the Speakers is below, Until 2010, the government was appointed by the monarch without reference to Parliament, the last term under the old system was the 2008 Tongan Legislative Assembly.
Political reform in 2010 saw the Prime Minister elected by Parliament from among its members, gloria Poleo Politics of Tonga List of legislatures by country Official website
Sedition is overt conduct, such as speech and organization, that tends toward insurrection against the established order. Sedition often includes subversion of a constitution and incitement of discontent to lawful authority, Sedition may include any commotion, though not aimed at direct and open violence against the laws. Seditious words in writing are seditious libel, a seditionist is one who engages in or promotes the interests of sedition. Typically, sedition is considered an act, and the overt acts that may be prosecutable under sedition laws vary from one legal code to another. Where the history of legal codes has been traced, there is a record of the change in the definition of the elements constituting sedition at certain points in history. This overview has served to develop a sociological definition of sedition as well, the term sedition in its modern meaning first appeared in the Elizabethan Era as the notion of inciting by words or writings disaffection towards the state or constituted authority.
Australias sedition laws were amended in anti-terrorism legislation passed on 6 December 2005, updating definitions, opponents of these laws have suggested that they could be used against legitimate dissent. He had brushed aside recommendations to curtail new clauses outlawing “urging conduct” that “assists” an “organisation or country engaged in armed hostilities” against the Australian military and these laws were amended in Australia on 19 September 2011. The ‘sedition’ clauses were repealed and replaced with ‘urging violence’, during World War II former Mayor of Montreal Camillien Houde campaigned against conscription in Canada. On 2 August 1940, Houde publicly urged the men of Quebec to ignore the National Registration Act, three days later, he was placed under arrest by the Royal Canadian Mounted Police on charges of sedition. After being found guilty, he was confined in internment camps in Petawawa, upon his release on 18 August 1944, he was greeted by a cheering crowd of 50,000 Montrealers and won back his position as the Mayor of Montreal in the election in 1944.
A Sedition Ordinance had existed in the territory since 1970, which was consolidated into the Crime Ordinance in 1972. The bill was shelved following massive opposition from the public, in 2010, writer Arundhati Roy was sought to be charged with sedition for her comments on Kashmir and Maoists. Two individuals have been charged with sedition since 2007, binayak Sen, an Indian paediatrician, public health specialist, and activist was found guilty of sedition. He is national Vice-President of the Peoples Union for Civil Liberties and they were sentenced to life imprisonment, but he got bail in Supreme Court on 16 April 2011. On 10 September 2012, Aseem Trivedi, a political cartoonist, was sent to judicial custody till 24 September 2012 on charges of sedition over a series of cartoons against corruption. Trivedi was accused of uploading ugly and obscene content to his website, trivedis arrest under sedition has been heavily criticised in India. The Press Council of India termed it a stupid move, in February 2016, JNU student union president Kanhaiya Kumar was arrested on charges of Sedition under section 124-A of Indian Penal Code
University of the South Pacific
The University of the South Pacific, or USP is an intergovernmental organisation and public research university with a number of locations spread throughout a dozen countries in Oceania. It is a centre for teaching and research on Pacific culture. USPs academic programmes are recognised worldwide, attracting students and staff throughout the Pacific region. USP is owned by the governments of 12 Pacific island countries, uSPs main campus, called Laucala, is located in Fiji. The Alafua Campus in Samoa hosts the School of Agriculture and Food Technology, in addition, USP operates 11 regional centres based in Pacific islands countries. The entire region served by USP covers 33 million km2 of the Pacific ocean, in contrast, the total land mass of territories served corresponds to the area of Denmark. Populations of member countries vary from Tokelau with 1,500 people to Fiji with more than 900,000 people, the total population of the region is about 1.3 million
Stuff. co. nz is a New Zealand news website published by Fairfax Digital, a division of Fairfax New Zealand Ltd, a subsidiary of Australian company Fairfax Media Ltd. It is a web portal to other Fairfax websites, as of June 2012, the website had an Alexa rank in New Zealand of 8, the sites main competitor, The New Zealand Herald website, had a rank of 9. The site statistics for April 2012 were 4.9 million unique browsers, the development of Stuff was supported and governed by, the INL Board, Mike Robson, INL CEO, and Don Higgins, Corporate Development Manager. Mark Wierzbicki, INL Internet Business Manager, lead development and ongoing management of the Stuff site, advertising agency Saatchi & Saatchi conceived the name Stuff, and INL had to buy the domain name from a cyber squatter. In its first month, the site had 120,000 unique visitors, at the time, Mark Wierzbicki, described the name as a copywriters dream, although he conceded that its not without risk, especially if we stuff up. The start up website was built by a group of companies in Wellington led by project managers Bill Alp and Will Everitt.
On 30 June 2003, INL sold its assets including The Dominion Post, The Press. Fairfax upgraded the website in December 2006, and again on 4 March 2009, the first mobile phone news service from Stuff began in 2003, in a partnership with Vodafone New Zealand. On 21 April 2009, Stuff launched a mobile site. For larger news events, the site creates a dedicated section, such as for the Bain family murders retrial. During the trial of Clayton Weatherston, press. co. nz, the article was quickly withdrawn, and Fairfax executive editor Paul Thompson said it was a mistake we take very seriously. The site has won awards including the Newspaper Publishers Association awards Best News Website for 2010 and 2011. The earliest articles still available on Stuff are from around August 2007, on 17 April 2013, to celebrate the passing of same-sex marriage in New Zealand, the colour of the Stuff logo was changed from black to the colours associated with the pride flag. The editor of Stuff at the time, Mark Stevens, openly declared his support in August 2012, Media of New Zealand Official website Archivestuff
The terms common people, common man, commoners, or the masses denote a broad social division referring to ordinary people who are members of neither royalty nor nobility nor the priesthood. Since the 20th century, the common people has been used in a more general sense to refer to typical members of society in contrast to highly privileged. In Europe, a concept analogous to common people arose in the Classical civilization of ancient Rome around the 6th century BC. The division may have been instituted by Servius Tullius, as an alternative to the clan based divisions that had been responsible for internecine conflict. The ancient Greeks generally had no concept of class and their leading social divisions were simply non-Greeks, free-Greeks, with the growth of Christianity in the 4th century AD, a new world view arose that would underpin European thinking on social division until at least early modern times. Saint Augustine postulated that social division was a result of the Fall of Man, the three leading divisions were considered to be the priesthood, the nobility, and the common people.
Sometimes this would be expressed as those who prayed, those who fought, the Latin terms for the three classes – oratores and laboratores – are often found even in modern textbooks, and have been used in sources since the 9th century. This threefold division was formalised in the system of social stratification. They were the third of the Three Estates of the Realm in medieval Europe, consisting of peasants, social mobility for commoners was limited throughout the Middle Ages. Generally, the serfs were unable to enter the group of the bellatores, commoners could sometimes secure entry for their children into the oratores class, usually they would serve as rural parish priests. There were cases of serfs becoming clerics in the Holy Roman Empire, though from the Carolingian era, of the two thousand bishops serving from the 8th to the 15th century, just five came from the peasantry. Up until the late 15th-century European social order was relatively stable, there were periods where the common people felt oppressed in certain regions, but often they were content with their lot.
The social and political order of medieval Europe was shaken by the development of the cannon in the 15th century. Up until that time a noble with a force could hold their castle or walled town for years even against large armies -. Once effective cannons were available, walls were of far less defensive value and this change of orientation among the nobles left the common people less content with their place in society. A similar trend occurred regarding the clergy, where many priests began to abuse the power they had due to the sacrament of contrition. An early major social upheaval driven in part by the common peoples mistrust of both the nobility and clergy occurred in Great Britain with the English Revolution of 1642, after the forces of Oliver Cromwell triumphed, movements like the Levellers rose to prominence demanding equality for all. According to historian Roger Osbourne, the Colonels speech was the first time a prominent person spoke in favour of male suffrage
This article is about the international version. For the domestic version, see Radio New Zealand National, RNZ International or Radio New Zealand International, sometimes abbreviated to RNZI, is a division of Radio New Zealand and the official international broadcasting station of New Zealand. It broadcasts a variety of news, current affairs and sports programmes in English, the stations mission statement requires it to promote and reflect New Zealand in the Pacific, and better relations between New Zealand and Pacific countries. As the only radio station in New Zealand, RNZ International broadcasts to several island nations. It has studios in Radio New Zealand House, Wellington and a transmitter at Rangitaiki in the middle of the North Island and its broadcasts cover from East Timor in the west across to French Polynesia in the east, covering all South Pacific countries in between. The station targets Micronesia, Papua New Guinea, Samoa, the signal can be heard in Europe and North America.
RNZ International was launched in 1948 as Radio New Zealand, a subsidiary of what was the New Zealand Broadcasting Corporation and it utilised two 7.5 kW transmitters at Titahi Bay which had been left behind by the US military during World War II. It briefly closed before reopening in 1976, under the policy of the third Labour government. From 1987, the Government faced growing pressure to have an active foreign policy towards the Pacific region. It upgraded the station, installed a new 100 kW transmitter, the station adopted new digital technology and launched a website in 2000. SIBC general manager Patterson Mae was accused of undermining the principles of press freedom, in 1998 and again in 2000 RNZI won a Commonwealth Broadcasting Associations Rolls-Royce Award for Excellence. At a function of the Association for International Broadcasting in London, November 2007, the association praised the station for what it said was an ability and clarity of vision - and for the delivery of something it said was valued by audiences throughout the region.
RNZI won the award for Most Innovative Partnership, as of 2015, RNZI has 13 staff. These include manager Linden Clark, technical manager Adrian Sainsbury, news editor Walter Zweifel, myra Oh, Colette Jansen, Damon Taylor, Dominic Godfrey and Jeremy Veal serve as technical producers and continuity announcers. Aside from Radio Australia, RNZI is the only international state-owned public broadcaster covering the Pacific region and its news service focuses on South Pacific countries, and includes news bulletins in eight languages. Vinnie Wylie heads the stations coverage, and freelancers are often used for on-the-ground reporting. The stations news service focuses on news that relates to New Zealand and it predominantly cites Government and opposition leaders and the spokespeople of non-government organisations and government departments. RNZI regularly covers the Papua conflict and interviews exiled Koteka tribal leader Benny Wenda on his visits to New Zealand and it has reported on Vanuatus Parliamentary debate on the conflict, Indonesian estimates of the death toll and West Papua National Liberation Army claims of militant arrests