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Ṛta

In the Vedic religion, Ṛta is the principle of natural order which regulates and coordinates the operation of the universe and everything within it. In the hymns of the Vedas, Ṛta is described as that, responsible for the proper functioning of the natural and sacrificial orders. Conceptually, it is allied to the injunctions and ordinances thought to uphold it, collectively referred to as Dharma, the action of the individual in relation to those ordinances, referred to as Karma – two terms which eclipsed Ṛta in importance as signifying natural and moral order in Hinduism. Sanskrit scholar Maurice Bloomfield referred to Ṛta as "one of the most important religious conceptions of the "Rigveda", going on to note that, "from the point of view of the history of religious ideas we may, in fact we must, begin the history of Hindu religion at least with the history of this conception". According to the Encyclopædia Britannica, Ṛta is "the word from which the Western notion of right is derived." Vedic ṛtá and its Avestan equivalent aṣ̌a are both thought by some to derive from Proto-Indo-Iranian *Hr̥tás "truth", which in turn may continue from a possible Proto-Indo-European *h2r-tós "properly joined, true", from a presumed root *h2er-.

The derivative noun ṛta is defined as "fixed or settled order, divine law or truth". As Mahony notes the term can be translated as "that which has moved in a fitting manner". Although this meaning is not cited by authoritative Sanskrit dictionaries it is a regular derivation from the verbal root ṛ, “to move” with ta, the suffix which forms the past participle, so it can be regarded as the putative origin of the word. More abstractly, it is translated as "universal law" or "cosmic order", or as "truth"; the latter meaning dominates in the Avestan cognate to aṣ̌a. The proper Sanskrit pronunciation of the word is ṛta, the ṛ being a vocalic r, like that in pert or dirt, when pronounced with a rhotic r, e.g. as in American, followed by a short a. The most common pronunciation of speakers of modern Indian languages is “rita”, with short i and short a, due to the loss of the vocalic r by the successor languages to Sanskrit, the prakrits and modern Indic languages; the term appears in post-Vedic texts, both as Ṛta and derivatives of the term.

For example, in the 2nd-century BCE text Mahabhasya of Patanjali, he explains Ṛtaka to be the grammatically correct form of name for a son, where the name would mean "truthling". In scholarship there is no common position about the origin of the concept of Ṛta. Similar concepts exist in many Indo-European cultures and the names can in addition be derived from an identical root word *h2r-tós; this is why some scholars take the position that the concepts in the Indo-European daughter cultures have a common ancestor in the Proto-Indo-European culture. In contrast Hermann Oldenberg surmised that the concept of Ṛta arose in the Indo-Aryan period from a consideration of the natural order of the world and of the occurrences taking place within it as doing so with a kind of causal necessity. Both Vedic Ṛta and Avestan aša were conceived of as having a tripartite function which manifested itself in the physical and ritual domains. In the context of Vedic religion, those features of nature which either remain constant or which occur on a regular basis were seen to be a manifestation of the power of Ṛta in the physical cosmos.

In the human sphere, Ṛta was understood to manifest itself as the imperative force behind both the moral order of society as well as the correct performance of Vedic rituals. The notion of a universal principle of natural order is by no means unique to the Vedas, Ṛta has been compared to similar ideas in other cultures, such as Ma'at in Ancient Egyptian religion and the Logos in Greek paganism, the Tao. Due to the nature of Vedic Sanskrit, a term such as Ṛta can be used to indicate numerous things, either directly or indirectly, both Indian and European scholars have experienced difficulty in arriving at fitting interpretations for Ṛta in all of its various usages in the Vedas, though the underlying sense of "ordered action" remains universally evident. In the Rigveda, the term Ṛta appears as many as 390 times, has been characterized as "the one concept which pervades the whole of Ṛgvedic thought".Ṛta appears most as representing abstract concepts such as "law", "commandment", "order", "sacrifice", "truth", "regularity", but occasionally as concrete objects such as the waters, the heavens or the sun as manifestations of the operation of Ṛta in the physical universe.

Ṛta is frequently used in reference to various Vedic deities. Thus, Bṛhaspati is referred to as possessing a powerful bow with "Ṛta as its string" and as one prepared to "mount the chariot of Ṛta". Epithets such as "born of Ṛta" and "protector of Ṛta" are applied to numerous divinities, as well as to the sacrificial fire and the sacrifice itself. Despite the abundance of such references, the gods are never portrayed as having command over Ṛta. Instead, the gods, like all created beings, remain subject to Ṛta, their divinity resides in their serving it in the role of executors, agents or instruments of its manifestation; as Day notes, the gods "do not govern Ṛt

Susan Cabot

Susan Cabot was an American film and television actress. She rose to prominence for her roles in a variety of Western films, including Tomahawk, The Duel at Silver Creek, Gunsmoke. After severing her contract with Universal Pictures in the mid-1950s, Cabot returned to performing in theater in New York, she subsequently returned to Hollywood in the part of the decade, appeared in a series of films by director Roger Corman, such as Sorority Girl, War of the Satellites, Machine-Gun Kelly. She made her final film appearance in The Wasp Woman. Cabot spent the following two decades in seclusion, though she did appear in Off-Broadway theatre in the early 1960s, made a 1970 television appearance on the series Bracken's World. By the 1980s, Cabot was suffering from severe mental illness, including depression, suicidal thoughts, irrational phobias. On December 10, 1986, Cabot's only child, 25-year-old Timothy Roman, bludgeoned her to death in their Los Angeles home with a weightlifting bar after Cabot purportedly awoke in a panicked state and attacked him.

Roman, who had dwarfism and suffered pituitary gland problems, pleaded guilty to voluntary manslaughter, was sentenced to three years' probation for her murder. Cabot was born Harriet Pearl Shapiro on July 9, 1927, to a Russian-Jewish family in Boston, Massachusetts, she led an early life filled with turmoil. She was subsequently raised in eight different foster homes, stated that she spent much of her childhood in the Bronx, it was posthumously revealed that, while in foster care, Cabot suffered emotional and sexual abuse, which triggered intense posttraumatic stress disorder. Cabot attended high school in Manhattan, found employment as an illustrator of children's books, she supplemented her income by working as a singer, performing at the Village Barn club in Manhattan. She married her first husband, the artist Martin Sacker, on July 30, 1944 in Washington, D. C. while still a minor. Sacker was a childhood friend, the marriage presented Cabot an opportunity to leave foster care. Cabot made her film debut in Twentieth Century Fox's film noir Kiss of Death, filmed in New York, playing a bit part as a restaurant patron.

She was subsequently spotted performing at the Village Barn by a talent scout for Columbia Pictures, who cast her in On the Isle of Samoa. This role led with Cabot signing a contract with Universal Pictures, her first film with the studio was the 1951 Western Tomahawk. The same year, Cabot divorced her husband and was subsequently romantically linked with King Hussein of Jordan for several years. Based on her performances in the On the Isle of Samoa and Tomahawk, Cabot was appeared as a lead in a series of roles in similar Western and Arabian-themed films, such as The Battle at Apache Pass and The Duel at Silver Creek, Son of Ali Baba. In 1953, she starred in a further two Westerns: Ride Clear of Diablo. Dissatisfied with her film offers, Cabot asked to be released from her contract in 1954, she returned to New York, resumed her stage career with a role in a [-directed, Washington D. C.-based production of Harold Robbins' A Stone for Danny Fisher. Cabot studied acting with Sanford Meisner in New York, continued to pursue a stage career, appearing in a short-lived run of the musical Shangri-La in Boston in 1959.

Cabot returned to Los Angeles and resumed a film career in the latter part of the 1950s, appearing in a series of films for Roger Corman: Carnival Rock, Sorority Girl, The Viking Women and the Sea Serpent, War of the Satellites, Machine Gun Kelly. The same year, she had a lead role in the Western Fort Massacre, opposite Joel McCrea. Cabot's final film role was in Corman's horror film The Wasp Woman. Speaking on her work with Corman, Cabot recalled it as "Totally mad, it was like a European movie," though she stated that Corman was "some kind of maverick... he's bright and fast-thinking." Cabot bore her only child, a son, in 1961. In 1968, she married her second husband Michael Roman with whom she raised her son, Timothy Scott Roman, before again divorcing in 1983. In the last years of her life, Cabot suffered from depression and suicidal thoughts, was prey to a wide range of irrational, powerful fears, she was under a licensed psychologist's care, but the psychologist found her so troubled and ill that the sessions became "emotionally draining."

Cabot became unable to care for herself. In late 1986, Cabot's mental health deteriorated significantly. Despite the squalor of the home's interior, Cabot still maintained a "adequate" income despite having retired from acting due to real estate investments and her fascination with vintage cars, which she acquired and resold. On December 10, 1986, Cabot's 25-year-old son, Timothy Scott Roman, beat her to death in her home in the Encino neighborhood of Los Angeles, with a weightlifting bar, he was charged with second-degree murder. At trial, Roman testified that his mother had awakened him while screaming, not recognizing him, calling for her mother, Elizabeth; when he attempted to call emergency services, she attacked him with a scalpel. Roman seized the bar from her and beat her on the head, he hid the bar and scalpel, told police that a man in a ninja mask had killed his mother. Roman's defen

Fran McCaffery

Francis John McCaffery is an American college basketball coach and the current men's basketball head coach at the University of Iowa. He has taken four Division I programs to postseason tournaments, including the Iowa Hawkeyes, who reached the finals of the 2013 National Invitation Tournament, he served as head coach of Lehigh University, UNC Greensboro, Siena. McCaffery played college basketball for one season at Wake Forest before transferring to Penn. In his playing days, he acquired the nickname of "White Magic", he began his college coaching career with a stint at Penn as an assistant coach. McCaffery became an assistant coach at Lehigh in 1983, he was the youngest head coach in Division I when he was promoted to head coach in 1985. Following his career at Lehigh, McCaffery spent 11 years as an assistant at Notre Dame. In 1999, he became the head coach of the UNC Greensboro Spartans. McCaffery had a 90–87 record through six seasons, he led the Spartans to the Southern Conference Championship and the NCAA Tournament in 2001.

In his five seasons at Siena, McCaffery guided the Saints to four 20-win seasons, including three consecutive MAAC Regular-Season and Conference Tournament Championships. These resulted in three consecutive berths to the NCAA Tournament, in which they defeated both Vanderbilt and Ohio State in the first rounds. McCaffery's tenure at Siena is considered the greatest in program history as he revived a program that had a record of 6–24 prior to his arrival, he maintained a 100% graduation rate for players completing their NCAA eligibility. McCaffery was introduced as the head coach of the Iowa Hawkeyes on March 29, 2010. At Lehigh, McCaffery led to a 49–39 record in his three-year term with the Mountain Hawks. In the 1987–1988 season, McCaffery led Lehigh to its second NCAA Tournament Appearance in program history. During Fran's years at Lehigh, they were called the Engineers. Lehigh changed their mascot. McCaffery posted a 90–87 record in six seasons. In his first year at the helm, Greensboro compiled a 15–13 record overall and a 9-7 Southern Conference mark, good for third place in the North Division.

It was the 18th-most improved record nationally among NCAA Division I teams. In McCaffery's second season, he guided the Spartans to unprecedented heights with a 19–12 record and the 2001 SoCon Tournament Championship; the Spartans defeated Chattanooga, 67–66, in the finals and received the SoCon's automatic bid to the NCAA Tournament. The following year McCaffery led the Spartans to their first 20-win season since joining the conference, it marked the first time. After falling to eventual tournament champion Davidson in the conference tournament semifinals, the Spartans were awarded a berth into the 2002 NIT, where they lost to eventual champion Memphis. In his final year in Greensboro, McCaffery brought the Spartans to the brink of the NCAA Tournament before a SoCon Championship game loss to Chattanooga, he led UNCG to a victory over Davidson in the semifinals, defeating a team, 16–0 in conference play. A big part of that success was SoCon Freshman of the Year Kyle Hines. Hines set UNCG and SoCon records for blocked shots, broke several other UNCG single-game and freshman single-season marks.

In 2005, the Siena Saints were picked to finish last in preseason polls for the Metro Atlantic Athletic Conference. However, McCaffery orchestrated the fifth greatest turnaround in all of Division 1 and guided Siena to a 15–13 record; the team earned several memorable victories in the regular season, including an 82–74 win against cross-town rival Albany, an 82–76 triumph at eventual MAAC champion Iona. The Saints clinched a first-round bye in the MAAC tournament with a 98–92 double-overtime victory over Niagara on the team's senior day. Siena's season ended with a 63–62 loss to St. Peter's in the MAAC quarterfinals. McCaffery guided Siena to a 20–12 record in 2007; the Saints began the season with an 11–10 record. However, the team won 9 of 10 games. Season highlights included a 76–75 double-overtime victory over rival Albany. Siena was one of the youngest teams in the conference with five underclassmen; the Saints reached the 2007 MAAC championship game and lost to Niagara 83–79. McCaffery coached three consecutive rookies of the year in their respective leagues.

Kyle Hines won the award in the Southern Conference in McCaffery's final year in UNC Greensboro. Kenny Hasbrouck captured the MAAC rookie of the year for the 2005–06 Saints, Edwin Ubiles shared the award with Canisius' Frank Turner for the 2006–07 season. On November 17, 2007, McCaffery guided Siena to a 79–67 victory over #20 ranked Stanford at the Times Union Center in Albany; the win was Siena's first over a ranked opponent since their first-round victory against the Cardinal in the 1989 NCAA tournament. Siena finished the regular season at 19–10 and 13–5, they tied with Rider for first place in the MAAC. The Saints defeated Manhattan and Rider on their way to winning the MAAC championship and an automatic NCAA tournament bid, it was the Siena's fourth trip to the NCAA Tournament and their first under the guidance of McCaffery. In March 2008, the 13th seeded Saints soundly defeated #4 Vanderbilt 83–62 in the first round of the NCAA Tournament in the Midwest Region. Siena's season ended one game short of the sweet sixteen in an 84–72 loss to 12th seeded Villanova.

Siena finished the season at 23–11. It was the most wins for a Siena team since the 1999–2000 season. Siena was ranked in preseason publications entering the 2008–09 season; the Saints convincingly won their first two games against Boise Cornell. McCaffery guided Siena to victories in 25 of their final 30 games. Sien