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.38 Special

The.38 Smith & Wesson Special is a rimmed, centerfire cartridge designed by Smith & Wesson. It is most used in revolvers, although some semi-automatic pistols and carbines use this round. The.38 Special was the standard service cartridge of most police departments in the United States from the 1920s to 1990s, was a common sidearm cartridge used by soldiers in World War II. In other parts of the world, it is known by its metric designation of 9×29.5mmR or 9.1×29mmR. Known for its accuracy and manageable recoil, the.38 Special remains one of the most popular revolver cartridges in the world more than a century after its introduction. It is used for target shooting, formal target competition, personal defense, for hunting small game. The.38 Special was introduced in 1898 as an improvement over the.38 Long Colt which, as a military service cartridge, was found to have inadequate stopping power against the charges of Filipino Muslim warriors during the Philippine–American War. Upon its introduction, the.38 Special was loaded with black powder, but the cartridge's popularity caused manufacturers to offer smokeless powder loadings within a year of its introduction.

Despite its name, the caliber of the.38 Special cartridge is actually.357 inches, with the ".38" referring to the approximate diameter of the loaded brass case. This came about because the original.38-caliber cartridge, the.38 Short Colt, was designed for use in converted.36-caliber cap-and-ball Navy revolvers, which had cylindrical firing chambers of 0.374-inch diameter, requiring heeled bullets, the exposed portion of, the same diameter as the cartridge case. Except for case length, the.38 Special is identical to the.38 Short Colt.38 Long Colt, and.357 Magnum. This allows the.38 Special round to be safely fired in revolvers chambered for the.357 Magnum, the.38 Long Colt in revolvers chambered for.38 Special, increasing the versatility of this cartridge. However, the longer and more powerful.357 Magnum cartridge will not chamber and fire in weapons rated for.38 Special, which are not designed for the increased pressure of the magnum rounds. Both.38 Special and.357 Magnum will chamber in Colt New Army revolvers in.38 Long Colt, due to the straight walled chambers, but this should not be done under any circumstances, due to dangerous pressure levels, up to three times what the New Army is designed to withstand.

The.38 Special was designed in 1898 to be a higher velocity round, with better penetration properties than the.38 Long Colt, in Government Service in the Philippines during the Spanish–American War. The.38 Long Colt revolver round wouldn't penetrate the insurgent Philippine Morro warrior shields, the Government contracted the new revolver round to Smith & Wesson. The.38 Special held a minimum of 21 grains of black powder, 3 grains more than the current.38 Long Colt, it was 100 to 150 feet per second faster with a 158 grain bullet. During the late 1920s, in response to demands for a more effective law enforcement version of the cartridge, a new standard-velocity loading for the.38 Special was developed by Western Cartridge Company. This.38 Special variant incorporated a 200 grains round-nosed lead'Lubaloy' bullet, the.38 Super Police. Remington-Peters introduced a similar loading. Testing revealed that the longer, heavier 200 grains.357-calibre bullet fired at low velocity tended to'keyhole' or tumble upon impact, providing more shock effect against unprotected personnel.

At the same time, authorities in Great Britain, who had decided to adopt the.38 caliber revolver as a replacement for their existing.455 service cartridge tested the same 200 grains bullet in the smaller.38 S&W cartridge. This cartridge was called the.38 S&W Super Police or the.38/200. Britain would adopt the.38/200 as its standard military handgun cartridge. In 1930, Smith & Wesson introduced a large frame.38 Special revolver with a 5-inch barrel and fixed sights intended for police use, the Smith & Wesson.38/44 Heavy Duty. The following year, a new high-power loading called the.38 Special Hi-Speed with a 158 grains metal-tip bullet was developed for these revolvers in response to requests from law enforcement agencies for a handgun bullet that could penetrate auto bodies and body armor. That same year, Colt Firearms announced that their Colt Official Police would handle'high-speed'.38 Special loadings. The.38/44 high-speed cartridge came in three bullet weights: 158 grains, 150 and 110 grains, with either coated lead or steel jacket, metal-piercing bullets.

The media attention gathered by the.38/44 and its ammunition led Smith & Wesson to develop a new cartridge with a longer case length in 1934—this was the.357 Magnum. During World War II, some U. S. aircrew were issued.38 Special S&W Victory revolvers as sidearms in the event of a forced landing. In May 1943, a new.38 Special cartridge with a 158 grains, full-steel-jacketed, copper flash-coated bullet meeting the requirements of the rules of land warfare was developed at Springfield Armory and adopted for the Smith & Wesson revolvers. The new military.38 Special loading propelled its 158 grains bullet at a standard 850 ft/s from a 4-inch revolver barrel. During the war, many U. S. naval and marine aircrew were issued red-tipped.38 Special tracer rounds using either a 120 or 158 gr bullet for emergency signaling purposes. In 1956, the U. S. Air Force adopted the Cartridge, Calibe

2015 Tour de France, Stage 1 to Stage 11

The 2015 Tour de France was the 102nd edition of the race, one of cycling's Grand Tours. The Tour started in Utrecht, Netherlands on 4 July and finished on the Champs-Élysées in Paris on 26 July. On 13 July, between stages nine and ten there was a rest day in Pau. 4 July 2015 — Utrecht, 13.8 km individual time trial The Tour began on 4 July in the Netherlands, with an individual time trial that started and finished at Jaarbeurs, Utrecht. Because of its length, it did not qualify as a prologue; the course, which featured 20 turns and two roundabouts, was mildly technical. The first rider off the start ramp was Daniel Teklehaimanot of MTN–Qhubeka, who became the first black African to compete in a Tour de France. Jos van Emden of LottoNL–Jumbo set the first good benchmark time, clocking in at 15' 11", he remained atop the leaderboard until Rohan Dennis of BMC Racing Team took over with a time of 14' 56". Dennis, who had clocked an average speed of 55.446 km/h, held on to win the stage and became the first yellow jersey wearer of the race.

With his performance, he established a new record for average speed in a Tour de France individual time trial. Tony Martin of Etixx–Quick-Step took second, finishing five seconds behind Dennis. Fabian Cancellara, who came into the event with five previous Tour de France opening time trial victories, finished six seconds off Dennis' time and took third. In the battle for the general classification, Thibaut Pinot of FDJ had one of the best times among the favorites for overall classification, 41 seconds behind Dennis, despite not having a reputation as a good time trialist. Tejay van Garderen and Vincenzo Nibali set good times, finishing one and two seconds behind Pinot, respectively. Stage 1 result and general classification 5 July 2015 — Utrecht to Zeeland, 166 km This flat stage started in Utrecht; the riders rode underneath the Dom Tower and went to De Meern. The race headed through Gouda before an intermediate sprint in Rotterdam; the peloton continued west through Spijkenisse and Hellevoetsluis, before crossing Haringvliet and Grevelingen.

The finish was on Neeltje Jans, an artificial island at the entrance to the Scheldt estuary, in the province of Zeeland. Cycling commentators suggested before the race that strong winds off the sea could have a major impact splitting the peloton into echelons. Before the start, at km 0, an honorary start in Utrecht, which involved the playing of the French and Dutch national anthems in the presence of Jan van Zanen, Mayor of Utrecht, Christian Prudhomme, the race director and cycling legends Bernard Hinault and Joop Zoetemelk. After the ceremonies, the race begun, a breakaway formed, which consisted of Team Europcar's Bryan Nauleau, Jan Barta of Bora–Argon 18, Stef Clement representing IAM Cycling and Bretagne–Séché Environnement's Armindo Fonseca; the quartet weren't allowed a significant time gap, with their maximum lead over the peloton remaining below three minutes throughout the stage. At the intermediate sprint in Rotterdam, won by Barta, their lead was a mere 30". Whilst he, Clement and Fonesca tried to continue riding before the yellow jersey group, they were caught with 62 km to go.

It was that the race headed towards the open sea, large echelons were formed. The riders were split into three groups, however the last two of those merged; when the situation became clear, 2nd and 3rd placed Tony Martin and Fabian Cancellara, sprinters Mark Cavendish and André Greipel and GC favourites Alberto Contador, Chris Froome and Tejay van Garderen were all shown to be in the first group, whilst leader Rohan Dennis and other GC favourites Vincenzo Nibali, Nairo Quintana, Joaquim Rodríguez and Thibaut Pinot were all in the second group. Thanks to work from world champion Michał Kwiatkowski, Team Sky, Tinkoff–Saxo and BMC Racing Team, the gap continued to increase reaching over one minute; this was a clear blow to the chances of those caught in the second group. During the sprint finish, Cavendish had his leadout man Mark Renshaw helping him. However, as Cavendish said, Renshaw got out of the way too early making for a long sprint; this allowed Greipel and Cancellara to catch up. Greipel won a close sprint finish, with Sagan second and Cancellara third.

Cavendish came fourth. Had he continued, come in third, his teammate Tony Martin would have taken the yellow jersey. Instead, the time bonus for his position was sufficient to grant the yellow jersey to Cancellara; the second group arrived 1'28" behind the winners. 6 July 2015 — Antwerp to Huy, 159.5 km The tour moved to Belgium for the third stage, starting in Antwerp and ending in Huy. The stage proper began at the end of the neutral zone in Boechout, south-west of Antwerp, continued through Lierre, Aarschot and Hannut. Andenne was followed by the first climb of the tour, the category 4 Côte de Bohissau. Following a sprint at Havelange, the tour went over the category 4 Côte de Ereffe and the Côte de Cherave on the outskirts of Huy; the stage finished on the category 3 Mur de Huy, a 1.3 km climb with a maximum gradient of 19% in the final few hundred metres. Like in the previous stage, the day's breakaway was formed after the start. Bryan Nauleau and Jan Barta were in it again, like the day before, joined by Martin Elmiger representing IAM Cycling and MTN–Qhubeka's Serge Pauwels, again making a quartet.

This time, they were allowed a bigger lead, as it reached four minutes before the peloton began the chase. Barta won the most combative rider of the day award; as they were being caught, when

Clifton–Aldan station

Clifton–Aldan station is a SEPTA station in Clifton Heights, Pennsylvania. It serves the Media/Elwyn Line and is nearby the Clifton–Aldan station of the SEPTA Route 102 trolley, it has a 110-space parking lot. In 2013, this station saw 329 alightings on an average weekday; the Clifton–Aldan trolley stop is a separate station requiring additional fare. The trolley stop is on the portion of the line where the tracks run in the streets rather than on their own right-of-way. Trolleys run beneath a narrow and low 13 feet 4 inches bridge over Springfield Road with a parallel pedestrian tunnel before approaching the regional railroad station. South of the station, the Route 102 line moves from Springfield Road to Woodlawn Avenue. A shelter for the northbound trolley exists on Woodlawn Avenue near the corner of Springfield Road. According to the Pennsylvania Railroad Stations Past & Present website, Clifton-Aldan Station was built in 1880 by the Pennsylvania Railroad as Aldan Station, in the style of a stone Victorian farm house 21/2 stories high.

Parking is available on the south side of the tracks on the corner of Springfield Road and West Maryland Avenue as well as on the north side of the tracks along Jefferson Street between South Springfield Road and South Penn Street. On May 28, 2009, SEPTA approved a $2.6 million rehabilitation effort which will include Clifton-Aldan station. Clifton–Aldan has two low-level side platforms. SEPTA – Clifton-Aldan Media/Elwyn and SHL Stations SEPTA Media/Elwyn & Route 102 Clifton-Aldan Station Springfield Road entrance to regional rail from Google Maps Street View Station House from Google Maps Street View Light Rail Station from Google Maps Street View