Holland & Holland
Holland & Holland is a British gunmaker and clothing retailer based in London, which offers handmade sporting rifles and shotguns. The company holds two royal warrants. Holland & Holland was founded by Harris Holland in 1835. At first, the guns bore the inscription H. Holland, without an address, it is probable that these were built in the trade to his design, it is not known when Harris Holland started his own manufacturing, but it is estimated to be in the 1850s. This start makes him unusual among the London Best makers, as others such as Purdey, Boss and Lancaster had apprenticed with Joseph Manton, while others such as Beesley and Atkin apprenticed with Purdey or Boss. In 1883, Holland & Holland entered the trials organized by the magazine The Field and won all of the rifle categories; this set a new standard of excellence for the competition among English gunmakers. In 1885, patents were granted to Holland & Holland for their Paradox gun, a shotgun with rifling in the front two inches of the barrel.
In 1908, they patented the detachable lock feature for sidelock shotguns. The last major development in the evolution of the sidelock side-by-side gun occurred in 1922, when the H&H assisted-opening mechanism was patented; this gun, the self-opening Royal side-by-side, has been hugely influential in gun-making throughout the world. In the period after World War II under the leadership of new owner and Managing Director Malcolm Lyell, the company made sorties to India, where guns from the famous collections of the princes and maharajahs were bought back, developing an important market for second-hand pieces. In 1989, all remaining shares in H&H were bought by the French cosmetics group Chanel. Since the factory building, in use since 1898, has been extensively renovated and equipped with modern technology. Guns such as the Royal Over & Under or side-by-side double-barreled shotguns were improved and reintroduced, they are available from 4 bore to.360 inch. A hand-built gun from H&H can cost around £60,000 for a shotgun and close to £100,000 for some rifles, with prices doubling with luxury engraving, there is a waiting period of 2–3 years between ordering and delivery.
During the Second World War, Holland & Holland, along with a few other select companies, fitted the telescopic sights to the Lee-Enfield No.4T sniper rifle. In the 1990s, Holland & Holland started on a major program of expansion; the company has gunrooms in Moscow. Its gun room in New York City closed in 2017; the company's London flagship store on Bruton Street has been renovated and expanded. Harris Holland was born in 1806 in London. Although accounts of his background are somewhat sketchy, it is believed that his father was an organ builder, while Harris had a tobacco wholesale business in London, he was successful, as he was seen at various pigeon shoots at important London clubs, as well as leasing a grouse moor in Yorkshire. Having no children of his own, he took on his nephew Henry Holland as an apprentice in 1861. In 1867 Henry became a partner and in 1876 the name changed to Holland & Holland. Although Henry was a full partner, Harris kept strict control and was the only one who could sign a cheque until he died in 1896.
Cartridges developed by Holland & Holland:.240 Apex introduced in 1920, produced in belted and rimmed versions..244 H&H Magnum introduced in 1955..297/250 Rook introduced before 1880..275 H&H Magnum introduced in 1912, produced in belted and rimmed versions..295 Rook..300 H&H Magnum introduced in 1912, produced in belted and rimmed versions..375 Flanged Nitro Express introduced in 1899..375 H&H Magnum introduced in 1912, produced in belted and rimmed versions...400/375 Belted Nitro Express introduced in 1905..400 H&H Magnum introduced in 2003..500/450 Nitro Express introduced in the late 1890s..465 H&H Magnum introduced in 2003..500/465 Nitro Express introduced in 1907..600/577 Rewa introduced in 1929..700 Nitro Express introduced in 1988. Paradox gun introduced in 1886, the first ball and shot gun it has been produced in 4, 8, 10, 12, 16, 20, 28 bores. James Purdey & Sons John Rigby & Company Westley Richards BibliographyDallas, Donald. Holland & Holland: The Royal Gunmaker. London, UK: Quiller Press.
.458 Winchester Magnum
The.458 Winchester Magnum is a belted, straight-taper cased, dangerous game rifle cartridge. It was introduced commercially in 1956 by Winchester and first chambered in the Winchester Model 70 African rifle, it was designed to compete against the.450 Nitro Express and the.470 Nitro Express cartridges used in big bore British double rifles. The.458 Winchester Magnum remains one of the most popular dangerous game cartridges, most major ammunition manufacturers offer a selection of.458 ammunition. The.458 Winchester Magnum was designed for hunting dangerous game animals by emulating the performance of powerful English double rifle cartridges in a bolt-action rifle. The use of a bolt-action rifle offered hunters a cheaper alternative to the big-bore double rifle, ammunition could be manufactured using available tooling. The.458 Winchester Magnum soon became a success. Soon game wardens, wildlife managers, professional hunters switched to the.458 Winchester Magnum as their duty rifle. The cartridge would become the standard African dangerous game cartridge in short order.
By 1970 issues with the cartridge began to surface. Winchester had been using compressed loads of ball powder as a propellant for.458 Winchester Magnum. Due to clumping of the powder charge and the erratic burn characteristics associated with such loads, performance of the cartridge came into question. While Winchester addressed this issue, the stigma remained, the cartridge’s performance on dangerous game was suspect. However, the.458 Winchester Magnum remained the standard of measure for dangerous game cartridges. Other.458 cartridges and various.416 cartridges have gained wider acceptance, but the 458 Win Mag remains one of the popular choices. The.458 Winchester Magnum was designed from the outset to duplicate the performance level of the.450 Nitro Express and the.470 Nitro Express, which had become the mainstay of African dangerous game hunters. The.450 Nitro Express had been rated to launch a 480 gr bullet at 2,150 ft/s out of a 28 in barrel while the.470 Nitro Express would launch a 500 gr bullet at 2,125 ft/s out of a 31 in barrel.
The design criteria for the.458 Winchester Magnum called for it to launch a 510 gr bullet at 2,150 ft/s out of a 26 in barrel. SAAMI compliant.458 Winchester Magnum cartridge schematic: All dimensions in inches. The.458 Winchester Magnum's case was based on a.375 H&H case shortened to 2.5 in and renecked to accept a.458 in bullet. The cartridge remains the largest of the standard length magnum cartridge family released by Winchester, which includes the somewhat obsolete.264 Winchester Magnum and the popular.338 Winchester Magnum. SAAMI recommends a 6 groove with a twist ratio of 1:14 with a bore Ø of.450 in and a groove Ø of.458 in with each groove having an arc length of.150 in. While case volume varies between manufacturers, the typical Winchester case capacity is 95 grain of H2O. Maximum recommended pressure given by SAAMI is 53,000 c.u.p. While the CIP mandates a maximum pressure of 4,300 bar; the original specifications for the cartridge called for a 510 gr bullet to be fired at a velocity of 2,150 ft/s through a 26 in barrel.
Winchester surpassed this performance with their.458 Magnum cartridge. Current performance standards for the cartridge allow it to launch a 500 gr bullet at a velocity of about 2,150 ft/s through a 24 in barrel; the 500 gr bullet is seen as the standard weight for a 45 caliber rifle bullet. This bullet has a sectional density of.341, which provides the bullet a high penetrative value at a given velocity. Among standard sporting cartridge bullets, the 45 caliber 500 gr bullet has the highest sectional density. While bullets such as the 250 gr 30 caliber bullet with a sectional density of.374 and a 600 gr 45 caliber with a sectional density of.409 exist these weights are not seen as a standard for those calibers. The.458 Winchester Magnum loaded with the 500 gr solid bullet provides adequate penetration for dangerous game up to and including elephant. Due to the cartridge's short case and powder column, longer bullets and those with a lower weight to length ratio—such as mono-metal bullets like the A-Square Monolithic Solid and the Barnes Banded Solids—may take up valuable powder space and lead to lower velocities and reduced performance.
Hence, the reason for companies such as A-Square loading the.458 Winchester Magnum and the.458 Lott with the 465 gr Monolithic Solid instead of the 500 gr, reserved for cartridges with large powder capacities such as the.450 Assegai and the.460 Weatherby Magnum. Bullets that tend to have a high weight to length ratios such as now discontinued 500 gr Speer African Grand Slam solid tend to work better in the.458 Winchester Magnum. With modern powders the.458 Winchester Magnum is capable of launching a 300 gr bullet at 2,600 ft/s, a 350 gr bullet at 2,500 ft/s, a 400 gr bullet at 2,400 ft/s, the 450 gr bullet at 2,300 ft/s. However, as no mainline ammunition manufacturer provides sub-500 gr.458 Winchester ammunition this is a choice for those who load their own ammunition or have access to custom-loaded ammunition. The.458 Winchester Magnum was designed for use against heavy thick skinned African game species such as elephant and African Cape buffalo. The exceptional sectional density of the 500 gr bullet combined with a muzzle velocity of bet
Handloading or reloading is the process of loading firearm cartridges or shotgun shells by assembling the individual components, rather than purchasing assembled, factory-loaded ammunition. The term handloading is the more general term, as it refers to assembly of ammunition using components from any source. Reloading refers more to the assembly of ammunition re-using cases or shells from fired ammunition; the terms are used interchangeably, as the techniques are the same whether using new or fired components. The differences lie in the preparation of the shells. Economy, increased accuracy, commercial ammunition shortages, hobby interests are all common motivations for handloading both cartridges and shotshells. Reloading fired cartridge cases can save the shooter money, or provides the shooter with more, higher quality, ammunition within a given budget. Reloading may not be cost effective for occasional shooters, as it takes time to recoup the cost of the required equipment, but those who shoot on a regular basis will see benefit as the brass cartridge case or shotgun shell hull can be reused many times.
Besides economy, the ability to customize the performance of ammunition is a common goal. Hunters may desire cartridges with specialized bullets or specific performance as regards bullet and velocity. Target shooters seek the best achievable accuracy, as well as the best shot-to-shot consistency, or precision. Shotgunning enthusiasts can make specialty rounds not available in commercial inventories at any price. Many handloaders customize their cartridges and shells to their specific firearms in pursuit of accuracy: they can assemble precision ammunition using cartridge cases that have been fire formed in the chamber of a specific firearm. Handloaders have the flexibility to make reduced-power rounds for hunting rifles, such as handloading to an equivalent of a milder-recoiling round to encourage recoil-averse hunters to become proficient with a full-power one. Rather than purchasing a special purpose rifle, which many novice hunters would outgrow within a few hunting seasons, a single rifle can be used with special handloaded rounds until such time more powerful rounds are desired and become appropriate.
This use of specialized handloading techniques provides significant cost savings when a hunter in a family has a full-power rifle and a new hunter in the family wishes to learn the sport. This technique enables hunters to use the same rifle and caliber to hunt a wider variety of game. Collectors of obsolete firearms who want to shoot those guns must handload because appropriate cartridges or shotshells are no longer commercially produced. Handloaders can create cartridges for which no commercial equivalent exists - wildcat cartridges; as with any hobby, the pure enjoyment of the reloading process may be the most important benefit. Recurring shortages of commercial ammunition are reasons to reload cartridges and shotshells; when commercial supplies dry up, store-bought ammunition is not available at any price, having the ability to reload one's own cartridges and shotshells economically provides an ability to continue shooting despite shortages. There are three aspects to ballistics: internal ballistics, external ballistics, terminal ballistics.
Internal ballistics refers to things that happen inside the firearm during and after firing, but before the bullet leaves the muzzle. The handloading process can realize increased accuracy and precision through improved consistency of manufacture, by selecting the optimal bullet weight and design, tailoring bullet velocity to the purpose; each cartridge reloaded can have each component matched to the rest of the cartridges in the batch. Brass cases can be matched by volume and concentricity, bullets by weight and design, powder charges by weight, case filling, packing scheme. In addition to these critical items, the equipment used to assemble the cartridge has an effect on its uniformity/consistency and optimal shape/size. Modern handloading equipment enables a firearm owner to tailor fresh ammunition to a specific firearm, to measured tolerances far improving the comparatively wide tolerances within which commercial ammunition manufacturers must operate. Where the most extreme accuracy is demanded, such as in rifle benchrest shooting, handloading is a fundamental prerequisite for success.
The basic piece of equipment for handloading is the press. A press is a device that uses compound leverage to push the cases into the dies that perform the loading operations. Presses vary from simple, inexpensive single stage models, to complex progressive models that will eject a loaded cartridge with each pull of a lever, at rates of 10 rounds a minute. Inexpensive'tong' tools have been used for reloading since the mid-19th century, they can be caliber specific or have interchangeable dies. Reloading presses are categorized by the letter of the alphabet that they most resemble: "O", "C", "H"; the sturdiest presses, suitable for bullet swaging functions as well as for normal reloading die usage, are of the "O" type. Heavy steel encloses the single die on these presses. Sturdy presses for all but bullet swaging use often
The 12.7×108mm cartridge is a 12.7 mm heavy machine gun and anti-materiel rifle cartridge used by the former Soviet Union, the former Warsaw Pact, modern Russia and other countries. It is used in the same roles as the NATO.50 BMG cartridge. The two differ in bullet shape and weight, the casing of the 12.7×108mm is longer, its larger case capacity allow it to hold more of a different type of powder. The 12.7×108mm can be used to engage a wide variety of targets on the battlefield, will destroy unarmored vehicles, penetrate armored vehicles and damage external ancillary equipment on armored vehicles such as tanks. It will ignite gasoline and - since 2019 - diesel fuel. Armor-piercing.50 cal ammunition will penetrate around 25 mm of armor. Normal full metal jacket.50 cal ammunition will only dimple tank armor. The 12.7×108mm has 22.72 ml H2O cartridge case capacity. 12.7×108 maximum cartridge dimensions. All sizes in millimetres. Americans would define the shoulder angle at alpha/2 ≈ 18.16 degrees.
According to guidelines the 12.7×108mm case can handle up to 360 MPa piezo pressure. In C. I. P. Regulated countries every rifle cartridge combo has to be proofed at 125% of this maximum CIP pressure to certify for sale to consumers, it is claimed that the US.50 BMG cartridge can be fired in Soviet/Russian 12.7×108mm machine guns. The 12.7×108mm was called a ".51-caliber." This claimed interchangeability is an assumption made from the 12.7×108mm being listed as ".511-caliber" in US intelligence publications during the Vietnam War. The bullets used for both cartridges are ~.51 inches in diameter..50 caliber, 1/2 of an inch, is the diameter of the hole bored down the barrel of the gun first. Rifling is cut all around the bored hole to a depth of.005". Thus.500 +.005 +.005 =.510." Upon firing the bullet engages the rifling, and.005" grooves are pressed into the surface of the bullet to impart spin to stabilize the bullet. Despite the similar bullet diameters, the dimensional differences between the two cartridges would prevent either being chambered in a firearm designed for the other.
People's Republic of China: 12.7mm Type 54. Falcon OP-99 anti-material rifle Zastava M12 Black Spear anti-materiel sniper rifle AMR-2 anti-materiel sniper rifle DShK heavy machine gun Berezin UB aircraft machine gun CS/LM5 Gatling machine gun M17G 12.7mm hatch machine gun NSV heavy machine gun Kord heavy machine gun Type 77 heavy machine gun W85/QJC88 heavy machine gun QJZ89 heavy machine gun PDSHP anti-materiel sniper rifle ČZW-127 anti-materiel sniper rifle V-94 anti-tank/anti-materiel rifle KSVK anti-materiel sniper rifle Zijiang & Poly M99-I/M99B-I/M06 anti-materiel sniper rifle Zijiang LR-2/LR-2A anti-materiel sniper rifle Gepard anti-materiel rifles M93 sniper rifle Vidhwansak anti-materiel rifle 6P62 anti-materiel assault rifle OSV-96 anti-materiel sniper rifle QBU-10 anti-materiel sniper rifle Zastava M02 Coyote heavy machine gun Yak-B 12.7mm Gatling gun SVN-98 experimental anti-materiel rifle Zastava M87 heavy machine gun Yu-12.7 aircraft gun.50 BMG 20 mm caliber 14.5×114mm Koll, Christian.
Soviet Cannon - A Comprehensive Study of Soviet Arms and Ammunition in Calibres 12.7mm to 57mm. Austria: Koll. p. 72. ISBN 978-3-200-01445-9. Борцов А.Ю. "Пятилинейный", Мастер-ружье issue 110, May 2006, pp. 56–62 12.7×108 large-caliber cartridges Russian Ammunition Page
The.50 Browning Machine Gun is a cartridge developed for the Browning.50 caliber machine gun in the late 1910s, entering official service in 1921. Under STANAG 4383, it is a standard cartridge for NATO forces as well as many non-NATO countries; the cartridge itself has been made in many variants: multiple generations of regular ball, armor-piercing and saboted sub-caliber rounds. The rounds intended. The.50 BMG cartridge is used in long-range target and anti-materiel rifles, as well as other.50-caliber machine guns. A wide variety of ammunition is available, the availability of match grade ammunition has increased the usefulness of.50 caliber rifles by allowing more accurate fire than lower quality rounds. John Browning had the idea for this round during World War I in response to a need for an anti-aircraft weapon, based on a scaled-up.30-06 Springfield design, used in a machine gun based on a scaled-up M1919/M1917 design that Browning had developed around 1900. Armor-piercing incendiary tracer rounds were effective against aircraft, the AP rounds and armor-piercing incendiary rounds were excellent for destroying concrete bunkers and lighter armored fighting vehicles.
The API and APIT rounds left a flash and smoke on contact, useful in detecting strikes on targets. The development of the.50 BMG round is sometimes confused with the German 13.2 mm TuF, developed by Germany for an anti-tank rifle to combat British tanks during WWI and against aircraft. According to the American Rifleman: "Actually, the Browning.50 originated in the Great War. American interest in an armor-piercing cartridge was influenced by the marginal French 11 mm design, prompting U. S. Army Ordnance officers to consult Browning, they wanted a heavy projectile at 2700 feet per second. Browning pondered the situation and, according to his son John, replied,'Well, the cartridge sounds pretty good to start. You make up some cartridges and we'll do some shooting.'"The American Rifleman further explains that development was "eputedly influenced by Germany's 13.2x92 mm SR anti-tank rifle" and that "Ordnance contracted with Winchester to design a.50-cal. Cartridge. Subsequently, Frankford Arsenal took over from Winchester, producing the historic.50 BMG or 12.7x99 mm cartridge.
The Army returned to John Browning for the actual gun. Teamed with Colt, he produced prototypes ready for testing and completed them by Nov. 11, 1918—the Great War's end."The round was put into use in the M1921 Browning machine gun. This gun was developed into the M2HB Browning which with its.50 caliber armor-piercing cartridges went on to function as an anti-aircraft and anti-vehicular machine gun, with a capability of perforating 0.875 inches of face-hardened armor steel plate at 100 yards, 0.75 inches at 547 yards. The concept of a.50 caliber machine gun was not an invention of this era. During World War II the.50 BMG was used in the M2 Browning machine gun, in both its "light barrel" aircraft mount version and the "heavy barrel" version on ground vehicles, for anti-aircraft purposes. An upgraded variant of the M2 Browning HB machine gun used during World War II is still in use today. Since the mid-1950s, some armored personnel carriers and utility vehicles have been made to withstand 12.7 mm machine gun fire, restricting the destructive capability of the M2.
It still has more penetrating power than lighter weapons such as general-purpose machine guns, though it is heavier and more cumbersome to transport. Its range and accuracy, are superior to light machine guns when fixed on tripods, it has not been replaced as the standard caliber for Western vehicle-mounted machine guns. Decades the.50 BMG was chambered in high-powered rifles as well. The Barrett M82.50 caliber rifle and variants were developed during the 1980s and have upgraded the anti-materiel power of the military sniper. A skilled sniper can neutralize an infantry unit by eliminating several targets without revealing his precise location; the long range between firing position and target allows time for the sniper to avoid enemy retaliation by either changing positions or by safely retreating. A common method for understanding the actual power of a cartridge is comparison of muzzle energies. The.30-06 Springfield, the standard caliber for American soldiers in both World Wars and a popular caliber amongst American hunters, can produce muzzle energies between 2,000 and 3,000 foot-pounds force.
The.50 BMG round can produce between 10,000 and 15,000 foot-pounds force, depending on its powder and bullet type, as well as the weapon it is fired from. Due to the high ballistic coefficient of the bullet, the.50 BMG's trajectory suffers less "drift" from cross-winds than smaller and lighter calibers, making the.50 BMG a good choice for high-powered sniper rifles. The.50 BMG cartridge has a capacity of 290 grains H2O. The round is a scaled-up version of the.30-06 Springfield but uses a case wall with a long taper to facilitate feeding and extrac
.585 Hubel express
The.585 Hubel Express is a large center-fire cartridge. Designed by Ed Hubel during the early 1990s with the intention to obtain the maximum potency from a Gibbs rifle. Constructed using the bases of the.585 GMA
The.585 Gehringer is a wildcat elephant gun cartridge based on the.585 Nyati. The cartridge retains the.585" bullet diameter but the case has been lengthened and the rim diameter reduced to fit bolt faces designed for cartridges similar to the.416 Rigby. It was designed over several years by Karl Gehringer, member of the Australian wrestling team, during service in the Australian Armed Forces. 3.25" Bertram brass can be used as a basis for.585 Gehringer cases. Cases need to be trimmed to 3.06" length and the rims rebated to fit a.416 Rigby bolt face. Case capacity is 200 grains to case mouth. Like most elephant gun cartridges the purpose was stopping power on large dangerous game at close quarters. Power is dependent on the practicalities of gun recoil. Like most 3"+.585" wildcats, the.585 Gehringer will exceed 2,600 ft/s with a 750gn bullet for near 11,400 ft⋅lbf muzzle energy. In 2001, Woodleigh 750gn softpoint and FMJ bullets were tested to 2,350 ft/s as a suitable hunting load. Geoff McDonald of Woodleigh provided a special run of 900gn softpoints for the rifle.
The test rifle was a CZ-550 in.416 Rigby fitted with a 25".577 Tobler barrel of 1:22 twist rate chambered with a 2.8" Nyati reamer. Stephen W. Templar. Rexgun. RexGun by Dr Stephen Templar. P. 91. ISBN 978-0-615-22413-8