100-year flood

A one-hundred-year flood is a flood event that has a 1 in 100 chance of being equaled or exceeded in any given year. The 100-year flood is referred to as the 1% flood, since its annual exceedance probability is 1%. For coastal or lake flooding, the 100-year flood is expressed as a flood elevation or depth, may include wave effects. For river systems, the 100-year flood is expressed as a flowrate. Based on the expected 100-year flood flow rate, the flood water level can be mapped as an area of inundation; the resulting floodplain map is referred to as the 100-year floodplain. Estimates of the 100-year flood flowrate and other streamflow statistics for any stream in the United States are available. In the UK The Environment Agency publishes a comprehensive map of all areas at risk of a 1 in 100 year flood. Areas near the coast of an ocean or large lake can be flooded by combinations of tide, storm surge, waves. Maps of the riverine or coastal 100-year floodplain may figure in building permits, environmental regulations, flood insurance.

A common misunderstanding is that a 100-year flood is to occur only once in a 100-year period. In fact, there is a 63.4% chance of one or more 100-year floods occurring in any 100-year period. On the Danube River at Passau, the actual intervals between 100-year floods during 1501 to 2013 ranged from 37 to 192 years; the probability Pe that one or more floods occurring during any period will exceed a given flood threshold can be expressed, using the binomial distribution, as P e = 1 − n where T is the threshold return period, n is the number of years in the period. The probability of exceedance Pe is described as the natural, inherent, or hydrologic risk of failure. However, the expected value of the number of 100-year floods occurring in any 100-year period is 1. Ten-year floods have a 10% chance of occurring in any given year; the percent chance of an X-year flood occurring in a single year is 100/X. A similar analysis is applied to coastal flooding or rainfall data; the recurrence interval of a storm is identical to that of an associated riverine flood, because of rainfall timing and location variations among different drainage basins.

The field of extreme value theory was created to model rare events such as 100-year floods for the purposes of civil engineering. This theory is most applied to the maximum or minimum observed stream flows of a given river. In desert areas where there are only ephemeral washes, this method is applied to the maximum observed rainfall over a given period of time; the extreme value analysis only considers the most extreme event observed in a given year. So, between the large spring runoff and a heavy summer rain storm, whichever resulted in more runoff would be considered the extreme event, while the smaller event would be ignored in the analysis. There are a number of assumptions that are made to complete the analysis that determines the 100-year flood. First, the extreme events observed in each year must be independent from year to year. In other words, the maximum river flow rate from 1984 cannot be found to be correlated with the observed flow rate in 1985, which cannot be correlated with 1986, so forth.

The second assumption is that the observed extreme events must come from the same probability distribution function. The third assumption is that the probability distribution relates to the largest storm that occurs in any one year; the fourth assumption is that the probability distribution function is stationary, meaning that the mean, standard deviation and maximum and minimum values are not increasing or decreasing over time. This concept is referred to as stationarity; the first assumption is but not always valid and should be tested on a case by case basis. The second assumption is valid if the extreme events are observed under similar climate conditions. For example, if the extreme events on record all come from late summer thunderstorms, or from snow pack melting this assumption should be valid. If, there are some extreme events taken from thunder storms, others from snow pack melting, others from hurricanes this assumption is most not valid; the third assumption is only a problem when trying to forecast a low, but maximum flow event.

Since this is not a goal in extreme analysis, or in civil engineering design the situation presents itself. The final assumption about stationarity is difficult to test from data for a single site because of the large uncertainties in the longest flood records. More broadly, substantial evidence of climate change suggests that the probability distribution is changing and that managing flood risks in the future will become more difficult; the simplest implication of this is that not all of the historical data are, or can be, considered valid as input into the extreme event analysis. When these assumptions are violated there is an unknown amount of uncertainty introduced into the reported value of what the 100-year flood means in terms o

Sea-Doo Hydrocross

Sea-Doo Hydrocross is a driving game developed by Vicarious Visions and published by Vatical Entertainment. It was released on June 6, 2001 on the PlayStation after many delays, though the planned Nintendo 64, Dreamcast and Game Boy Color releases never came to fruition. Project lead was Bill Armintrout and game designer was Mitch Booker. At E3 2000, Vicarious Visions showed off two of their upcoming games: Polaris SnoCross and Sea-Doo Hydrocross; the former was said to be 80% complete at the time, with Sea-Doo HydroCross nearing completion. Both were meant to be published by Vatical Entertainment that year; the August 2000 issue of Nintendo Power said that both Cross games would see release in Fall 2000, confirmed as that September. The September issue of Nintendo Power revealed that both games had been delayed, said Sea-Doo Hydrocross would hit store shelves on November 21, a deadline, missed as well. In February 2001 that IGN had another interview with Vatical and confirmed that Sea-Doo Hydrocross was being tested by Nintendo, had been delayed till Spring, a deadline, missed.

Micro64 argues "This was the last time. This game never saw the light of day". Micro64 explained: Reasons as to why the game never got released are difficult to come up with, it was not due to the game being unfinished. This game was complete enough to be reviewed by Nintendo Power, to be rated by the ESRB and have its own box art and UPC, was in the process of being approved by Nintendo as of February 2001; the possibility of Nintendo not liking what they saw when approving it seems unlikely. Although the Nintendo 64 version never saw the light of day, the PS1 version of Sea-Doo Hydrocross did get released in the Summer of 2001; this was at a time when the PS1 was old news and lots of Sony gamers had moved onto the PS2. Strangely, this PS1 version was the last game published by Vatical as they seem to have disappeared shortly after... To my knowledge, a Nintendo 64 prototype copy of Sea-Doo Hydrocross has not been found. That's a shame because if there's one out there, it's more than a 100% finished version.

The game has five unique jet ski models, eight courses, a detailed Simulation mode, a fast-and-furious arcade mode, is based off the engine use in the video game Polaris SnoCross. It can be played with 1–2 players; the PlayStation Museum gave the game a rating of 3.5 stars. A preview of the game by Nintendo Power in September 2000 noted "the development team still has a lot of work to do if Sea-Doo is to compare favourably with Wave Race 64". Nintendo Power reviewed the game in its 139th issue, giving it an overall score of 5.6. It criticized lazily illustrated effects and glitchy backgrounds, it noted that "the handling is tight", but that the game's "arcade aspirations are bogged down by tame courses and tamer CPU rivals". Sea-Doo Hydrocross at MobyGames

Sima (Chinese surname)

Sima is a Chinese family name. It is one of the rare two-character Chinese family names, it is an occupation name meaning "control" "horses". The family name originated from one of the offices of the Three Excellencies of the Zhou dynasty; the name has been anglicised as "Szema". The Sima clan were said to be the descendants of the mythological figures Chongli, they served as xiaguan in the reigns of the mythical emperors Yao and Shun and through the Xia and Shang dynasties. During the Zhou dynasty, officials holding the appointment of xiaguan oversaw military affairs and were collectively known as "xiaguan sima". Cheng Boxiufu, a descendant of Chongli, helped King Xuan of the Zhou dynasty consolidate his rule over his kingdom. In return, the king awarded aristocratic status to Cheng Boxiufu's clan. Cheng Boxiufu and his descendants adopted Sima as their family name. In the late Zhou dynasty, the Sima clan migrated to the states of Wei and Qin; the Sima family in Qin included Sima Ji, a general who battled alongside Bai Qi during the Battle of Changping.

His fifth-generation descendant was Sima Tan, a Han dynasty court astrologer, his son was Sima Qian, the author of Records of the Grand Historian. In the late Qin dynasty, Sima Ang served as a general in the insurgent Zhao state and joined other rebel forces in overthrowing the Qin dynasty. After the fall of the Qin dynasty, Sima Ang declared himself the king of a separate state, with its capital in Henei. In the early Han dynasty, Sima Ang's kingdom became a commandery of the Han Empire and his descendants had lived there since. Sima Yi, a descendant of Sima Ang, served as an official, military general and regent of the Cao Wei state in the Three Kingdoms period, his grandson, Sima Yan, usurped the throne from the last Cao Wei emperor and established the Jin dynasty. After the Jin dynasty ended, many members of the Sima clan changed their surname to avoid persecution. Cheng Boxiufu, first took the title Sima as his surname Sima Niu, disciple of Confucius Sima Xin, Qin dynasty official and general King of Sai.

Sima Ang, Qin dynasty official King of Yin Sima Qian, historian during the Western Han dynasty and author of Records of the Grand Historian Sima Tan, historian during the Western Han dynasty Sima Xiangru, a minor official during the Western Han dynasty but better known for his poetic skills, Chinese wine business and controversial marriage to a widow Zhuo Wenjun after both eloped. Sima Lang, Sima Yi's elder brother, Han dynasty politician. Sima Fu, Sima Yi's younger brother, Cao Wei politician. Sima Yi, Cao Wei regent and politician. Sima Shi, Sima Yi's eldest son, Cao Wei general and regent. Sima Zhao, Sima Yi's second son, Cao Wei general and regent. Sima Wang, Sima Fu's son, Cao Wei politician. Sima Liang,Sima Yi's fourth son, first among the Eight Princes Sima Wei, fifth son of Emperor Wu of Jin, second among the Eight Princes Sima Lun, Sima Yi's youngest son, third among the Eight Princes Sima Jiong, son of Sima You, fourth among the Eight Princes Sima Yan, Sima Zhao's son, founding emperor of the Jin dynasty.

Sima Ai, sixth son of Emperor Wu of Jin, fifth among the Eight Princes Sima Ying, 16th son of Emperor Wu of Jin, sixth among the Eight Princes Sima Yong, Sima Fu's grandson, seventh among the Eight Princes Sima Yue, cousin of Emperor Wu of Jin, eighth among the Eight Princes Sima Guang and statesman during the Song dynasty, known for his monumental historical work Zizhi Tongjian and rivalry against contemporary Wang Anshi. There is a popular story of him, as a youth, saving someone who fell into a large water pot by smashing it with a rock. Sima Zhong, second emperor of the Jin dynasty Sima Chi, third emperor of the Jin dynasty Sima Ye, fourth emperor of the Jin dynasty Sima Rui, fifth emperor of the Jin dynasty and founder of the Eastern Jin dynasty Sima Shao, sixth emperor of the Jin dynasty Sima Yan, seventh emperor of the Jin dynasty Sima Yue, emperor of the Jin dynasty Sima Dan, emperor of the Jin dynasty Sima Pi, emperor of the Jin dynasty Sima Yi, emperor of the Jin dynasty Sima Yu, emperor of the Jin dynasty Sima Yao, emperor of the Jin dynasty Sima Dezong, emperor of the Jin dynasty Sima Dewen, last emperor of the Jin dynasty Sire Ma, Hong Kong actress from Chongqing born with the surname Sima.

Sima Nan, Chinese scholar, social commentator. Sima Pingbang, Chinese scholar, social commentator. Jin dynasty Records of the Grand Historian Family tree of Sima Yi Chinese emperors family tree #Jin Dynasty and Chu Fang, Xuanling. Book of Jin