100 Peaks of Taiwan
The Baiyue is a list of 100 mountain peaks in Taiwan. They were chosen by a group of prominent Taiwanese hikers from among the peaks known at the time to be over 3,000m in height. The selection criteria included uniqueness, danger, height, beauty and prominence; preference was also given to peaks already named and those with triangulation points. As such, "Top" does not refer strictly to the top peaks by elevation, but rather those high peaks most worth hiking. The list was intended to promote enthusiasm for high-altitude hiking in Taiwan. In the resulting list of one hundred peaks, 69 peaks were in the Central Mountain Range, the largest of Taiwan's five principal mountain ranges, while 19 were in the Xueshan Range, and 12 were in the Yushan Range. The Alishan Range and Coastal Mountain Range, being entirely below 3,000m, have no peaks in the list of Baiyue.
Taiwan has one of the highest densities of tall mountains in the world. In order to promote mountain hiking, the Taiwan Province Alpine Association began developing a list of top 100 peaks for Taiwan. Wen-An Lin, after a 1971 crossing of the Central Mountain Range, set about drawing up the list. After extensive consultation with Ching-Chang Tsai, Tian-Cheng Hsing, Tung-San Ting and other prominent hikers of the day, the list of Baiyue was finalized.
Upon completion of the list, hiking the Baiyue immediately became one of the primary goals of avid hikers in Taiwan. Finishing the Baiyue is no easy task, however. For aspiring Baiyue hikers, the Big Five, Pointy Three and Ominous One set of peaks, whose unique beauty best represents the majestic grandeur of Taiwan's high mountains, became a popular starting point. Other popular sets of peaks include the Precipitous Ten and the Four Beauties. Many begin with the more easily accessible peaks in the Hehuanshan area.
There are actually over 260 mountains over 3,000m in Taiwan, many of which did not make up the Baiyue but are nevertheless impressive. Therefore, some criticism remains over the inclusion of certain mountains in the list, or the exclusion of others, such as Chushan in the Dongjunshan Chain, and Mutelebushan near Xueshan's North Peak. It is argued that these and other more remarkable peaks should be in the Baiyue, while peaks like Jupenshan, Lushan, Nanhubeishan, Shenmazhenshan, Jianshan, and Bulakesangshan, which can hardly be called "peaks", should be taken off the list. Also, when resurveying was carried out long after the Baiyue list was completed, it was found that Liushunshan and Lushan were actually under 3,000m. However, as the Baiyue already enjoyed such widespread acceptance, they were not removed from the list and remain there to this day.
Complete listing of Baiyue
The following is a complete listing of the 100 Taiwanese mountain peaks commonly known as the Baiyue:
- The Big Five are the biggest of the big in each geographical region and are a must for all Baiyue hikers.
- During Japanese rule, these three all had the character for "high" (高) in their name. This list is seldom referred to now that the mountains' names have changed.
- The Precipitous Ten list is composed of prominent, steep peaks not included in the Big Five, Pointy Three and Ominous One.
- The Eight Beauties were chosen for their beautiful landscapes, gentle slope, meadows of short bamboo and lack of rock scrambling.
- The Level Nine are wide, flat peaks without large rocks or trees, only short bamboo. Comfortable, easy walking.
- The Pointy Three are well-known mountains with distinct pyramid-like peaks.
- The Gentle Ten have an overall smooth profile, with gentle slopes and little climbing or scrambling needed.
- The Rocky Ten have rocky peaks that require scrambling or climbing to summit.
- The Majestic Ten were chosen for their size and prominence, wide peaks, gentle slope and serene nature.
- Qilaishan North Peak, the Ominous One, is located along the northern end of the Central Mountain Range's central spine. The ascent is steep and difficult in parts, and the dark fragmented slate covering the western face has earned it the nickname "Black Qilai". Some sources spell Qilai "Chilai".
- The Lofty Nine are tall conspicuous peaks, catching the eye more than neighboring peaks.
- The Four Beauties are also known as the Wuling Sixiu due to their proximity to Wuling Farm. Each of these four peaks has its own unique characteristics. The "Four Beauties" initially chosen by Tian-Cheng Hsing were Chiyoushan, Taoshan, Shilunshan and Kalayeshan, while Pintianshan was listed as one of the Precipitous Ten. However, since Shilunshan was not a Baiyue, hikers began recognizing Pintianshan as one of the Four Beauties instead.
- The Verdant Ten have trails that wind through lush green forests of tall, twisting trees and bamboo.
- The Little Eight are small peaks with gentle slopes that can be easily reached as part of a longer trip.
- The Craggy Eight jut out from the surrounding terrain and are surrounded by cliffs and difficult terrain.
- The Narrow Eight have long narrow ridgelines with cliffs or steep slopes on both sides.
- These mountains rise up like a wall, wide and flat, blocking the view of a large area like a screen.
- The Simple Six trails are offshoots from another main trail, short in distance and not very strenuous. They are easy side trips when hiking the parent trail.
- The Remote Nine are on distant offshoots of their mountain range and are not easily combined with other peaks into a single journey.
- Steep mountains with cliffs and loose rocks.
- The Contiguous Six are near other high peaks, and can be reached along a ridge that extends down from the higher peak. They have fairly level trails, the peaks are named and there is some sort of survey marker.
Alternative names and other remarks
- Formerly known as Niitakayama, Mt. Morrison; This mountain is the highest point of Nantou County, Kaohsiung City, Chiayi County.
- Formerly known as Tsugitakayama, Mt. Sylvia; Highest point of Miaoli County, Taichung City.
- Other names: Mahuolasishan
- Other names: Wulamengshan
- Other names: Yuliyulishan
- Highest point of Taitung County
- Highest point of Yilan County
- Other names: Kayixishan
- Other names: Hongyeshan
- Other names: Baduowanuominshan
- Other names: Cloud Peak
- Other names: Qilaishan Main Peak
- Other names: Tabilashan
- Other names: Bayoushan
- Other names: Boqinxilunshan
- Other names: Tiancuifeng
- Other names: Xiaxueshashan
- Other names: Jiutongshan; Highest point of Hsinchu County
- Other names: Qusheshan, Gaotianshan
- Other names: Nanhunanshan
- Other names: Lagashan, Bainanshan
- Other names: Lagashan
- Other names: Baigoudashan
- Other names: Xinguanshan
- Other names: Adubanshan
- Other names: Yuluofushan
- Other names: Jiangzeshan
- Other names: Majiangzhizishan
- Formerly known as: Noutakayama
- Other names: Huoshan
- Other names: Xiaojianshan
- Other names: Ganzhuowanshan Southeast Peak
- Other names: Maxirouganshan
- Other names: Daguanshan
- Other names: Mameishan
- Other names: Jianshan
- Other names: Mingjianshan
- Other names: Nenggaoshan North Peak
- Other names: Central Range Point, Yam Peak
- Other names: Yezhenjialuosuishan
- Other names: Jialiupingshan
- Other names: Maibalabianshan
- Other names: Shanyuanshan
- Other names: Dawushan; Highest point in Pingtung County
- Other names: Luandashan
- Other names: Tacijilishan
- Other names: Andongjunshan
- Other names: Zhiyaganshan
- Other names: Wulagusanshan
- Other names: Yumabogeshan
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