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101st Airborne Division

The 101st Airborne Division is a specialized modular light infantry division of the US Army trained for air assault operations. The Screaming Eagles has been referred to as "the tip of the spear" by former U. S. Secretary of Defense Robert Gates and the most potent and tactically mobile of the U. S. Army's divisions by former Chief of Staff of the Army GEN Edward C. Meyer; the 101st Airborne is able to plan and execute brigade-size air assault operations capable of seizing key terrain in support of operational objectives, is capable of working in austere environments with limited or degraded infrastructure. These particular operations are conducted by mobile teams covering extensive distances and engaging enemy forces behind enemy lines. According to the author of Screaming Eagles: 101st Airborne Division, its unique battlefield mobility and high level of training have kept it in the vanguard of US land combat forces in recent conflicts. More the 101st Airborne has been performing foreign internal defense and counterterrorism operations within Iraq and Afghanistan.

The 101st Airborne Division has a history, nearly a century long. During World War II, it was renowned for its role in Operation Overlord, Operation Market Garden, the liberation of the Netherlands and its action during the Battle of the Bulge around the city of Bastogne, Belgium. During the Vietnam War, the 101st Airborne Division fought in several major campaigns and battles, including the Battle of Hamburger Hill in May 1969. In mid-1968, it was reorganized and redesignated as an airmobile division and in 1974 as an air assault division; the titles reflect the division's shift from airplanes to helicopters as the primary method of delivering troops into combat. Many current members of the 101st are graduates of the US Army Air Assault School, it is known as the ten toughest days in the US Army, its average attrition rate is 50 percent. Division headquarters is at Fort Campbell, Kentucky. In recent years, the division has served in Iraq and Afghanistan. At the height of the War on Terror, the 101st Airborne Division had over 200 aircraft.

The division now has over 100 aircraft. As of December 2017, the division had about 29,000 soldiers, down from 35,000 soldiers just three years prior because of budget restraints; the 101st Division headquarters was organized 2 November 1918 at Camp Shelby, having been constituted on 23 July in the National Army. World War I ended 9 days and the division was demobilized on 11 December 1918. In 1921, the division headquarters was reconstituted in the Organized Reserves, organized on 10 September 1921, at Milwaukee, Wisconsin, it was at this time that the "Screaming Eagle" became associated with the division, as a successor to the traditions of the Wisconsin volunteer regiments of the American Civil War. On 30 July 1942, the Army Ground Forces ordered the activation of two airborne divisions not than 15 August 1942; the 82nd Division, an Organized Reserve division, ordered into active military service in March 1942, was ordered to provide cadre to the 101st Division, the other division selected for the project, for all elements except parachute infantry.

As part of the reorganization of the 101st Division as an airborne division, the unit was disbanded on 15 August 1942 and reconstituted and reactivated in the Army of the United States. On 19 August 1942, its first commander, Major General William C. Lee, read out General Order Number 5: The 101st Airborne Division, activated on 16 August 1942, at Camp Claiborne, has no history, but it has a rendezvous with destiny. Due to the nature of our armament, the tactics in which we shall perfect ourselves, we shall be called upon to carry out operations of far-reaching military importance and we shall habitually go into action when the need is immediate and extreme. Let me call your attention to the fact that our badge is the great American eagle; this is a fitting emblem for a division that will crush its enemies by falling upon them like a thunderbolt from the skies. The history we shall make, the record of high achievement we hope to write in the annals of the American Army and the American people, depends wholly and on the men of this division.

Each individual, each officer and each enlisted man, must therefore regard himself as a necessary part of a complex and powerful instrument for the overcoming of the enemies of the nation. Each, in his own job, must realize that he is not only a means, but an indispensable means for obtaining the goal of victory, it is, not too much to say that the future itself, in whose molding we expect to have our share, is in the hands of the soldiers of the 101st Airborne Division. The pathfinders of the 101st Airborne Division led the way on D-Day in the night drop before the invasion, they left from RAF North Witham, having trained there with the 82nd Airborne Division. These night drops caused a lot of trouble for the gliders. Many crashed and equipment and personnel were lost; the 101st Airborne Division's objectives were to secure the four causeway exits behind Utah Beach between St Martin-de-Varreville and Pouppeville to ensure the exit route for the 4th Infantry Division from the beach that morning.

The other objectives included destroying a German coastal artillery battery at Saint-Martin-de-Varreville, capturing buildings nearby at Mésières believed used as barracks and a command post for the artillery battery, capturing the Douve River lock at La Barquette, capturing two footbridges spanning the Douve at La Porte opposite Brévands, destroying the highway bridges over the Douve at Saint-Côme-du-Mont, an

Ryan Shazier

Ryan Dean Shazier is an American football linebacker for the Pittsburgh Steelers of the National Football League. He was drafted by the Steelers in the first round of the 2014 NFL Draft, he played college football at Ohio State. Shazier committed to play for Urban Meyer at Florida but rescinded his commitment after Meyer resigned as the Gators head coach, he committed to play under Jim Tressel at Ohio State, but Tressel resigned five months and was replaced with Urban Meyer. As a true freshman, Shazier started 3 games, his first start came near the end of the season against Penn State. He started the next two games and ended his season with 57 tackles, 5 tackles for a loss, 3 sacks, 2 forced fumbles. In 2012, he started all 12 regular season games for Ohio State. Against Penn State, Shazier posted 8 tackles, 2 sacks, an interception in the third quarter that he returned for the game-deciding touchdown. In a victory against Wisconsin, he had 12 tackles, three tackles for a loss, he made a game-saving tackle on a goal line stand on fourth and inches.

He would finish 2012 leading the Big Ten with 17 tackles for a loss and place second in the league with 115 tackles. Shazier had 5 sacks and 3 forced fumbles for the season. Against Indiana in 2013, he posted more than 20 tackles and tied the school record with 16 solo tackles and 5 tackles for loss, he was voted a first-team All-American by the Associated Press, USA Today, ESPN.com, Sports Illustrated. His 101 solo tackles were the second best in the league and his 143 tackles led the Big Ten Conference, he had a career-high 6 sacks and 4 forced fumbles. On January 5, 2014, Shazier announced that he would forgo his senior season and enter the 2014 NFL Draft. Shazier finished his career at Ohio State with 315 tackles, 208 solo tackles, 14.5 sacks. Coming out of Ohio State, many analysts and scouts projected him as an early-to-mid first round draft selection, he was ranked the 19th best prospect by NFLDraftScout.com. He was invited to the NFL Combine and was able to perform all the workouts and positional drills except for the 40, 20, 10 yard dash.

Shazier participated at Ohio State's Pro Day and was able to finish the drills he didn't complete at the combine. He received numerous positive reviews for his athleticism, production, acceleration, strong hands, lateral movement. Most negative reviews by analysts were based on his lack of ideal size and his under developed vision, instincts and awareness; the Pittsburgh Steelers selected Shazier in the first round with the 15th overall pick in the 2014 NFL Draft. He was the third linebacker taken in the draft behind Anthony Barr. On June 5, 2014, the Pittsburgh Steelers signed Shazier to a guaranteed four-year, $9.50 million contract with a signing bonus of $5.23 million. Shazier began the season as the starting left inside linebacker, he made his professional regular season debut and first career start in the Steelers' home opener against the Cleveland Browns. In his first career game, he made a pass deflection; the following week against the Baltimore Ravens, he had 15 total tackles, with 11 of them being solo, in a 6–20 loss.

Shazier missed weeks 4–7 of his rookie season with a knee injury. He returned for his first game back from his injury on October 26, 2014, against the Indianapolis Colts, he finished. After playing two games, Shazier injured his ankle and missed another four games. After returning, Shazier made six combined tackles in a 27–17 victory over the Cincinnati Bengals on December 24. Following an 11–5 season the Steelers made the playoffs. In his first career playoff game, Shazier made 3 solo tackles and one assist in a 17–30 wild-card loss to the Baltimore Ravens. In his first season, he finished with a total of 36 tackles, 24 solo tackles, a pass deflection in five starts and eight games. After his rookie season, Shazier returned the next season to again be the starting inside linebacker. On September 10, 2015, Shazier made five solo tackles and two assists in the season opener at the New England Patriots; the next game against the San Francisco 49ers, he left the game with a shoulder injury in the fourth quarter after making a career-high 15 total tackles and 11 solo tackles.

He sacked 49ers quarterback Colin Kaepernick for his first career sack. Shazier missed weeks 3–6 with nerve damage in his shoulder. After returning, he made five solo tackles, one assist, a sack in a Week 10 win over the Cleveland Browns. On November 29, 2015, he sustained a concussion and left in the fourth quarter against the Seattle Seahawks. On December 20, 2015, Shazier made three solo tackles, three assists, three pass deflections in a 34–27 win over the Denver Broncos, he made his first career interception, after picking off Broncos quarterback Brock Osweiler. On January 9, 2016, during the AFC Wild Card game against the Cincinnati Bengals, Shazier stripped the ball from Jeremy Hill with 1:36 left in the fourth quarter; the ball was recovered by Ross Cockrell. Shazier finished the 18 -- 16 victory with two forced fumbles, he finished the season with 87 combined tackles, 3½ sacks, an interception in 12 starts and 12 games. Shazier returned to his starting inside linebacker role to begin the 2016 season.

He started the Steelers' season-opener against the Washington Redskins and made six combined tackles, two pass deflections, a forced fumble, intercepted Kirk Cousins as the Steelers routed the Redskins 38–16. The next game

Hermann Lotze

Rudolf Hermann Lotze was a German philosopher and logician. He had a medical degree and was well versed in biology, he argued that if the physical world is governed by mechanical laws and developments in the universe could be explained as the functioning of a world mind. His medical studies were pioneering works in scientific psychology. Lotze was born in Bautzen, Germany, the son of a physician, he was educated at the grammar school of Zittau. He attended the University of Leipzig as a student of philosophy and natural sciences, but entered as a student of medicine when he was seventeen. Lotze's early studies were governed by two distinct interests: the first was scientific, based upon mathematical and physical studies under the guidance of E. H. Weber, Alfred Wilhelm Volkmann, Gustav Fechner; the other was his aesthetic and artistic interest, developed under the care of the speculative theist Christian Hermann Weisse. Weisse influenced his anti-psychologistic approach to the historiography of philosophy.

He was attracted both by science and by the German idealism of Johann Gottlieb Fichte, Friedrich Wilhelm Joseph Schelling and Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel. Lotze's first essay was his dissertation De futurae biologiae principibus philosophicis, with which he gained the degree of doctor of medicine, four months after obtaining the degree of doctor of philosophy, he laid the foundation of his philosophical system in his Metaphysik and his Logik, short books published while still a junior lecturer at Leipzig University, whence he moved to Göttingen, succeeding Johann Friedrich Herbart in the chair of philosophy. His two early books remained unnoticed by the reading public, he first became known to a larger circle through a series of works which aimed at establishing the study of both the physical and mental phenomena of the human organism. He applied the same general principles, adopted in the investigation of inorganic phenomena; these works considered the human organism in its normal and diseased states.

They included his Allgemeine Pathologie und Therapie als mechanische Naturwissenschaften, the articles "Lebenskraft" and "Seele und Seelenleben" in Rudolf Wagner's Handwörterbuch der Physiologie, his Allgemeine Physiologie des Körperlichen Lebens, his Medizinische Psychologie oder Physiologie der Seele. When Lotze published these works, medical science was still under the influence of Schelling's philosophy of nature; the mechanical laws, to which external things were subject, were conceived as being valid only in the inorganic world. Mechanism was the unalterable connexion of every phenomenon a with other phenomena b, c, d, either as following or preceding it; the object of those writings was to establish the all-pervading rule of mechanism. But the mechanical view of nature is not identical with the materialistic. In the last of the above-mentioned works the question is discussed at great length how we have to consider mind, the relation between mind and body; these doctrines of Lotze, though pronounced with the distinct and reiterated reservation that they did not contain a solution of the philosophical question regarding the nature of mechanism, were by many considered to be the last word of the philosopher, a decisive rejection of the reveries of Schelling and the idealistic theories of Hegel.

Published as they were during the years when the modern school of German materialism was at its height, these works of Lotze were enrolled in the opposing camp of empirical philosophy. The misinterpretations which he had suffered induced Lotze to publish a small polemical pamphlet, in which he corrected two mistakes, his opposition to Hegel's formalism had induced some to associate him with the materialistic school, others to count him among the followers of Herbart. Lotze denied. However, he admitted that the monadology of Leibniz could be considered the forerunner of Herbart's teachings and of his own views. Lotze worked in a post-revolutionary time of transition between the idealistic and rationalist legacies of Leibniz and Hegel and the new materialism and scientific interpretation of reality, he believed that everywhere in the wide realm of observation we find three distinct regions: the region of facts, the region of laws and the region of standards of value. These three regions are separate only in our thoughts, not in reality.

Full understanding comes through conviction that the world of facts is the field in which those higher standards of moral and aesthetic value are being realized through the medium of laws. Such a union is, for him, only intelligible through the idea of a personal Deity, who in the creation and preservation of a world has voluntarily chosen certain forms and laws, through the natural operation of which the ends of His work are gained. Lotze proposed a view called teleological idealism, whose central principle is the principle of teleomechanism, the idea that, in logic and science, mechanism is compatible with teleology. Lotze's lectures ranged over a wide field: he delivered annually lectures on psychology and on logic (the latter including a survey of the entirety of philosophical research, Enc