1080p is a set of HDTV high-definition video modes characterized by 1,920 pixels displayed across the screen horizontally and 1,080 pixels down the screen vertically. The term assumes a widescreen aspect ratio of 16:9, implying a resolution of 2.1 megapixels. It is marketed as Full HD or FHD, to contrast 1080p with 720p resolution screens. 1080p can sometimes be informally referred to as 2K. 1080p video signals are supported by ATSC standards in the United States and DVB standards in Europe. Applications of the 1080p standard include television broadcasts, Blu-ray Discs, Internet content such as YouTube videos and Netflix TV shows and movies, consumer-grade televisions and projectors, computer monitors and video game consoles. Small camcorders and digital cameras can capture still and moving images in 1080p resolution. Any screen device that advertises 1080p refers to the ability to accept 1080p signals in native resolution format, which means there are a true 1920 pixels in width and 1080 pixels in height, the display is not over-scanning, under-scanning, or reinterpreting the signal to a lower resolution.
The HD ready 1080p logo program, by DIGITALEUROPE, requires that certified TV sets support 1080p 24 fps, 1080p 50 fps, 1080p 60 fps formats, among other requirements, with fps meaning frames per second. For live broadcast applications, a high-definition progressive scan format operating at 1080p at 50 or 60 frames per second is being evaluated as a future standard for moving picture acquisition. Although 24 frames per second is used for shooting the movies. EBU has been endorsing 1080p50 as a future-proof production format because it improves resolution and requires no deinterlacing, allows broadcasting of standard 1080i25 and 720p50 signal alongside 1080p50 in the current infrastructure and is compatible with DCI distribution formats.1080p50/p60 production format requires a whole new range of studio equipment including cameras and editing systems, contribution links as it has doubled the data rate of current 50 or 60 fields interlaced 1920x1080 from 1.485 Gbit/s to nominally 3 Gbit/s using uncompressed RGB encoding.
Most current revisions of SMPTE 372M, SMPTE 424M and EBU Tech 3299 require YCbCr color space and 4:2:2 chroma subsampling for transmitting 1080p50 and 1080p60 signal. Studies from 2009 show that for digital broadcasts compressed with H.264/AVC, transmission bandwidth savings of interlaced video over progressive video are minimal when using twice the frame rate. In the United States, the original ATSC standards for HDTV supported 1080p video, but only at the frame rates of 23.976, 24, 25, 29.97 and 30 frames per second. In July 2008, the ATSC standards were amended to include H.264/MPEG-4 AVC compression and 1080p at 50, 59.94 and 60 frames per second. Such frame rates require H.264/AVC High Profile Level 4.2, while standard HDTV frame rates only require Level 4.0. This update is not expected to result in widespread availability of 1080p60 programming, since most of the existing digital receivers in use would only be able to decode the older, less-efficient MPEG-2 codec, because there is a limited amount of bandwidth for subchannels.
In Europe, 1080p25 signals have been supported by the DVB suite of broadcasting standards. The 1080p50 format is considered to be a future-proof production format and a future broadcasting format. 1080p50 broadcasting should require the same bandwidth as 1080i50 signal and only 15–20% more than that of 720p50 signal due to increased compression efficiency, though 1080p50 production requires more bandwidth or more efficient codecs such as JPEG 2000, high-bitrate MPEG-2, or H.264/AVC and HEVC. In September 2009, ETSI and EBU, the maintainers of the DVB suite, added support for 1080p50 signal coded with MPEG-4 AVC High Profile Level 4.2 with Scalable Video Coding extensions or VC-1 Advanced Profile compression. EBU requires that legacy MPEG-4 AVC decoders should avoid crashing in the presence of SVC or 1080p50 packets. SVC enables forward compatibility with 1080p50 and 1080p60 broadcasting for older MPEG-4 AVC receivers, so they will only recognize baseline SVC stream coded at a lower resolution or frame rate and will gracefully ignore additional packets, while newer hardware will be able to decode full-resolution signal.
In June 2016, EBU announced the "Advanced 1080p" format which will include UHD Phase A features such as high-dynamic-range video at 10 and 12 bit color and BT.2020 color gamut, optional HFR 100, 120/1.001 and 120 Hz. The ITU-T BT.2100 standard that includes Advanced 1080p video was subsequently published in July 2016. In practice, 1080p refers to a 1920×1080 raster with a 16:9 picture aspect ratio and a 1:1 pixel aspect ratio; the following is a list other resolutions with a picture height of 1080 lines that are sometimes used in practice. In the United States, 1080p over-the-air are being broadcast experimentally using ATSC 3.0 on NBC Affiliate WRAL-TV in North Carolina, with select stations in the US announcing that there will be new ATSC 3.0 technology that will be transmitted with 10
The Circus Tavern is an entertainment venue in Purfleet, England which hosts functions, cabaret acts and is a nightclub venue. However, it is most famous as having been a long-time venue of the PDC World Darts Championship; the Circus Tavern opened its doors as an Entertainment Complex in 1974 and continues to host a wide range of public sporting events, cabaret shows and a multitude of private hire events including weddings and film crew hires. Its capacity is 1100 seated; the Circus Tavern was the venue of the PDC World Darts Championships from its inauguration event in 1994, up until 2007, broadcast on Sky Sports. Phil Taylor reached the final in all 14 of the PDC World Darts Championship tournaments that were held at the Circus Tavern, winning 11 of those 14 finals; the last World Championship match held at the Circus Tavern was the 2007 PDC World Darts Championship final, where Raymond van Barneveld came from 0–3 down in sets to defeat Phil Taylor, 7–6 in sets, after a sudden death leg.
Many people consider this match to be the greatest in the history of darts. At the time of the match, it was not known that it would be the last World Championship to be held at the Circus Tavern. On 2 April 2007, Barry Hearn announced that the 2008 PDC World Darts Championship would be held at the Alexandra Palace in London. Other darts events were held at the Circus Tavern in the three years following. In 2008, the Circus Tavern was the venue for the opening round and the play-offs of the BetFred League of Legends, broadcast on Setanta Sports. In 2009 and 2010, the Players Championship Finals were held at the Circus Tavern, broadcast on ITV, featuring the top 32 players from the previous year's Players Championship Order of Merit. In 2019, the BDO signed a contract to hold the World Masters at the Circus Tavern. There were two other televised darts events held at the Circus Tavern, as listed below: The Battle of the Champions on 29 June 1997, broadcast on Sky Sports; this event featured Dennis Priestley defeating John Part 3–0 in sets in the battle between the 1994 World Champions, Eric Bristow defeating Alan Evans 3–0 in sets in a Legends match between two old rivals, reigning PDC World Champion Phil Taylor defeating 1995 BDO World Champion Richie Burnett 4–1 in sets in the Main Event.
The Showdown on 21 November 2004, broadcast on Sky Box Office. This event featured Eric Bristow defeating John Lowe 6–1 in legs in a Legends match between the two old rivals, Roland Scholten defeating Wayne Mardle 6–5 in legs in the second match, the Main Event between the reigning PDC World Champion Phil Taylor and the reigning BDO World Champion Andy Fordham. Intended to be best of 13 sets, Taylor was leading 5–2 when Fordham suffered breathing difficulties and was forced to retire. Official website
Mount Terra Nova is a snow-covered mountain, 2,130 m, between Mount Erebus and Mount Terror on Ross Island. It was first mapped by the Discovery expedition in 1901-04, named for Terra Nova, the relief ship for this expedition and the British Antarctic Expedition, 1910-13. Terra Nova Saddle is one of three prominent snow saddles on Ross Island, this one at c. 1,400 m between Mount Erebus and Mount Terra Nova. It is named in association with Mount Terra Nova. Terra Nova Glacier is a glacier about 5 nautical miles long in north–central Ross Island, it flows north from the saddle between Mount Terra Nova into Lewis Bay. It is so named for its proximity to Mount Terra Nova. List of volcanoes in Antarctica This article incorporates public domain material from the United States Geological Survey document "Mount Terra Nova"