10cc are an English rock band formed in Stockport in 1972. They consisted of four musicians – Graham Gouldman, Eric Stewart, Kevin Godley, Lol Creme – who had written and recorded together since 1968; the group featured two songwriting teams. Stewart and Gouldman were predominantly pop songwriters, who created most of the band's accessible songs. By contrast and Creme were the predominantly experimental half of 10cc, featuring art school- and cinematically-inspired writing; every member of 10cc was a multi-instrumentalist, singer and producer, the writing teams switched partners, so that Godley/Gouldman or Creme/Stewart compositions were not uncommon. Most of the band's records were recorded at their own Strawberry Studios in Stockport and Strawberry Studios in Dorking, with most of those engineered by Stewart. From 1972 to 1978, 10cc had five consecutive UK top-ten albums: Sheet Music, The Original Soundtrack, How Dare You!, Deceptive Bends and Bloody Tourists. They had twelve singles reach the UK Top 40, three of which were the chart-toppers "Rubber Bullets", "I'm Not in Love" and "Dreadlock Holiday".

"I'm Not in Love" was their breakthrough worldwide hit and is known for its innovative backing track. Godley and Creme became a duo act. Stewart left the band in 1995. Since 1999, Gouldman has led a touring version of 10cc. Three of the founding members of 10cc were childhood friends in the Manchester area; as boys and Creme knew each other. Their first recorded collaboration was in 1964, when Gouldman's band The Whirlwinds recorded the Lol Creme composition, "Baby Not Like You", as the B-side of their only single, "Look At Me"; the Whirlwinds changed members and name, becoming The Mockingbirds. The Mockingbirds recorded five singles in 1965–66 without any success, before dissolving; the guitarist in both The Whirlwinds and The Mockingbirds was Stephen Jacobson, brother of well-known writer Howard Jacobson. In June 1967, Godley and Creme reunited and recorded a solitary single under the name "The Yellow Bellow Room Boom". In 1969, Gouldman took them to a Marmalade Records recording session; the boss, Giorgio Gomelsky, was impressed with Godley's falsetto voice and offered them a recording contract.

In September 1969, Godley & Creme recorded some basic tracks at Strawberry Studios, with Stewart on guitar and Gouldman on bass. The song, "I'm Beside Myself" b/w "Animal Song", was issued as a single, credited to Frabjoy and Runcible Spoon. Gomelsky planned to market Creme as a duo, in the vein of Simon & Garfunkel. Plans for an album by Frabjoy and Runcible Spoon faltered, when Marmalade ran out of funds. Solo tracks by Godley and Gouldman, however - both involved Stewart and Creme – were released on a 1969 Marmalade Records compilation album, 100 Proof. Gouldman's track was "The Late Mr. Late". Gouldman, had made a name for himself as a hit songwriter, penning "Heart Full of Soul", "Evil Hearted You" and "For Your Love" for The Yardbirds, "Look Through Any Window" and "Bus Stop" for The Hollies and "No Milk Today", "East West" and "Listen People" for Herman's Hermits. Meanwhile, the fourth future member of 10cc was tasting significant pop music success: guitarist Eric Stewart was a member of Wayne Fontana and the Mindbenders, a group that hit No.1 with "The Game of Love", scored a number of other mid-1960s hits.

When Fontana left the band in October 1965, the group became known as The Mindbenders, with Stewart as their lead vocalist. The band scored a hit with "A Groovy Kind of Love" and made an appearance in the 1967 film To Sir, with Love with "It's Getting Harder All the Time" and "Off and Running." In March 1968, Gouldman joined Stewart in The Mindbenders, replacing bassist Bob Lang and playing on some tour dates. Gouldman wrote two of the band's last three singles, "Schoolgirl" and "Uncle Joe the Ice Cream Man"; those singles did not chart and The Mindbenders broke up after a short tour of England in November. In the dying days of The Mindbenders, Stewart began recording demos of new material at Inner City Studios, a Stockport studio owned by Peter Tattersall, a former road manager for Billy J. Kramer and the Dakotas. In July 1968, Stewart joined Tattersall as a partner in the studio, where he could further hone his skills as a recording engineer. In October 1968, the studio was moved to bigger premises and renamed Strawberry Studios, after The Beatles' "Strawberry Fields Forever".

In 1969, Gouldman began using Strawberry to record demos of songs he was writing for Marmalade. He had become much more in demand as a songwriter than as a performer. By the end of the year, he too was a financial partner in the studios. By 1969, all four members of the original 10cc line-up were working together at Strawberry Studios. Around the same time, noted American bubblegum pop writer-producers Jerry Kasenetz and Jeffry Katz of Super K Productions came to England and commissioned Gouldman to write and produce formula bubblegum songs, many of which were recorded at Strawberry Studios, were either augmented or performed by varying

Michael Echeruo

Michael Joseph Chukwudalu Echeruo is a Nigerian academic and literary critic from Umunumo, Ehime-Mbano LGA, Imo State. He was educated at the University College, Ibadan from 1955 to 1960 and was contemporaries with a few notable writers and poets from the college, such as Christopher Okigbo, he earned his Master's and Ph D degrees from Cornell University, New York in 1963 and 1965 respectively. There he was a member of the Telluride House. One of the most versatile of African critics, he has published in English Elizabethan and Jacobean Drama, in the modern English novel. Echeruo was notable as a critic of western writers on Africa, as he viewed himself and his contemporaries as writers fighting for an African viewpoint instead of a western viewpoint on the continent, he is best known in poetry for his collection of Mortality. He is William Safire Professor of Modern Letters in the English Department of Syracuse University, a university in Syracuse, New York, United States, he serves as a member of the Modern Language Association of America Committee of the New variourum Shakespeare.

"Echeruo, Michael Joseph Chukwudalu". Contemporary African Database; the Africa Centre. Archived from the original on 2007-02-14. Retrieved 2007-04-06. "Professor Michael J. C. Echeruo". Syracuse University Online. Syracuse University. Archived from the original on 2007-06-22. Retrieved 2007-04-20. Simon Gikandi, ed.. Encyclopedia of African Literature. London, England: Routledge

Ulmus × hollandica 'Pioneer'

The hybrid elm cultivar Ulmus × hollandica'Pioneer' is an American clone arising from the crossing of two European species, Wych Elm U. glabra and Field Elm U. minor. Raised by the USDA station at Delaware, Ohio, in 1971,'Pioneer' was released to commerce in 1983.'Pioneer' is a fast-growing tree distinguished by a dense, globular crown, which as it matures becomes more broad than tall, like its U. glabra parent, casting a heavy shade. The leaves are deep green, similar in shape to the Wych Elm, colouring yellow and red in the fall; the perfect, apetalous wind-pollinated flowers appear in early March. The tree's resistance to Dutch elm disease, rated 4 out of 5, is somewhat less than more recent American hybrids, for this reason the tree was omitted from the elm trials in eastern Arizona conducted by the Northern Arizona University.'Pioneer' is severely damaged by the Elm Leaf Beetle Xanthogaleruca luteola, sustaining more foliar damage than any other cultivar in an assessment conducted as part of the National Elm Trial at U C Davis.

And Japanese Beetle. Tolerance of Elm Yellows in the United States was found to be poor; the tree's foliage was adjudged "resistant" to Black Spot by the Plant Diagnostic Clinic of the University of Missouri. Considered "quite hardy in Saint Paul", "definitely a good selection for the Twin Cities urban forest" although different in appearance to the American Elm.'Pioneer' has had a limited introduction to Europe, featuring in street tree trials in several Dutch cities in the late 1990s. The tree has reputedly been planted in Preston Park and along Tisbury Road, but does not feature in the NCCPG National Elm Collection held there. Bartlett Tree Experts, US. Acc. nos. 85–0195, 85–0199 Denver Botanic Gardens, US. No acc. details. Dominion Arboretum, Canada. No acc. details. Holden Arboretum, US. Acc. no. 90–58 New York Botanical Garden, US. Acc. no. 955/97 Smith College, US. Acc. no. 5603. University of Idaho Arboretum, US. One tree. Acc. no. 1990013 U S National Arboretum, Washington, D. C. US. Acc. no. 76233.

Grange Farm Arboretum, Sutton St. James, Lincolnshire, UK. Acc. No. 544 Bailey Nurseries, St. Paul, Minnesota, US. ForestFarm, Oregon, US. J. Frank Schmidt & Son Co. Boring, Oregon, US. Johnson's Nursery, Menomonee Falls, Wisconsin, US. Pea Ridge Forest, Missouri, US. Sun Valley Garden Centre, Eden Prairie, Minnesota, US. Noordplant, Netherlands. Van Den Berk Ltd. London, UK Westerveld Boomkwekerij B. V. Opheusden, Netherlands. Http:// Summary, inc. photographs, of elm cultivars resistant to Dutch elm disease available in the United States. Https:// Warren, K. J. Frank Schmidt & Son Co.. The Status of Elms in the Nursery Industry in 2000