In NATO and most other western countries, motorized infantry is infantry, transported by trucks or other un-protected motor vehicles. It is distinguished from mechanized infantry, carried in armoured personnel carriers or infantry fighting vehicles, from light infantry, which can operate autonomously from supporting elements and vehicles for long periods and may be airborne. In Russia and the former Soviet Union, the term motostrelki is used to indicate mechanized infantry. Motorizing infantry is the first stage towards the mechanization of an army. Civilian trucks are adaptable to military uses of transporting soldiers, towing guns, carrying equipment and supplies; that increases the strategic mobility of infantry units, which would otherwise rely on marches or railroads. In practice, armies have found it advantageous to develop trucks to military specifications, such as all-wheel drive, to have vehicles that function reliably in extremes of weather and terrain. Motorization provides no direct tactical advantage in small-unit combat, as trucks and jeeps are vulnerable to artillery and small arms fire.
However, in larger battles, motorized infantry has an advantage in mobility allowing them to move to critical sectors of the battlefield faster, allowing better response to enemy movements, the ability to outmaneuver the enemy. The disadvantage of motorization is; the British created the Experimental Mechanized Force between the wars to test the capabilities of all-arms formations of mechanized units, this included motorized infantry. The speed advantages of motorized infantry first became important in World War II in the German Blitzkrieg. While it was no more robust than the regular infantry that moved on foot, its increased speed became decisive in the Blitzkrieg strategy, as it could follow the panzer forces and defend its flanks. Notwithstanding the obvious advantages of motorization, most countries opted for only partial motorization of their infantry because of the cost and logistical implications caused by the deployment of so many vehicles.. Large armies were affected by such factors.
The bulk of German and Soviet infantry remained on foot, but US infantry divisions could, if needed, redirect the activities of enough trucks to motorize an infantry regiment. Infantry divisions of the British Empire could motorize chosen subordinate units, but infantry advanced on foot. After the Cold War, motorization of infantry is now becoming more popular since humanitarian deployments are more prevalent with troops acting as quasi-police units. There is a trend for motorized infantry to be up-armored to protect against improvised explosive devices. Infantry mobility vehicle Dragoon Mounted infantry Tank desant Notes Bibliography
1st Armoured Division (Poland)
The Polish 1st Armoured Division was an armoured division of the Polish Armed Forces in the West during World War II. Created in February 1942 at Duns in Scotland, it was commanded by Major General Stanisław Maczek and at its peak numbered 16,000 soldiers; the division served in the final phases of the Battle of Normandy in August 1944 during Operation Totalize and the Battle of Chambois and continued to fight throughout the campaign in Northern Europe as part of the First Canadian Army. After the fall of Poland and France in 1940, the remaining Poles that had fought in both campaigns retreated with the British Army to the United Kingdom. Stationed in Scotland the Polish 1st Armoured Division was formed as part of the Polish I Corps under Wladyslaw Sikorski, which guarded 200 kilometres of British coast in 1940-1941; the commander of the Division, General Stanislaw Maczek, was Poland’s premier mechanized commander, many of his subordinate officers from the unit he commanded in 1939, the 10th Mechanized Brigade, had made their way to Britain with him.
They were organized on the British Armoured Division model, equipped with British uniforms and tanks. They were equipped and trained on Crusader tanks but in late 1943 and early 1944 these were replaced with Sherman tanks and Cromwell tanks, they participated in war games together with the 4th Canadian Armoured Division. By the end of July 1944, the 1st Armoured had been transferred to Normandy, its final elements arriving on 1 August; the unit was attached to the First Canadian Army as part of the 21st Army Group. This may have been done to help in communication, as the vast majority of Poles did not speak English when they arrived in United Kingdom from 1940 onwards; the Division joined combat on 8 August during Operation Totalize. It twice suffered serious casualties as a result of "friendly fire" from Allied aircraft, but achieved a victory against the Wehrmacht in the battles for Mont Ormel, the town of Chambois; this series of offensive and defensive operations came to be known as the Battle of Falaise, in which a large number of German Army and SS divisions were trapped in the Falaise Pocket and subsequently destroyed.
Maczek's division had the crucial role of closing the pocket at the escape route of the trapped German divisions, hence the fighting was desperate and the 2nd Polish Armoured Regiment, 24th Polish Lancers and 10th Dragoons, supported by the 8th and 9th Infantry Battalions, took the brunt of German attacks by units attempting to break free from the pocket. Surrounded and running out of ammunition, they withstood incessant attacks from multiple fleeing panzer divisions for 48 hours until they were relieved. After the Allied armies broke out from Normandy, the Polish 1st Armoured Division pursued the Germans along the coast of the English Channel, it liberated, among others, the towns of Saint-Omer, Oostnieuwkerke, Tielt and Ghent. A successful outflanking manoeuvre planned and performed by General Maczek allowed the liberation of the city of Breda without any civilian casualties; the Division spent the winter of 1944-1945 on the south bank of the river Rhine, guarding a sector around Moerdijk, Netherlands.
In early 1945, it was transferred to the province of Overijssel and started to push with the Allies along the Dutch-German border, liberating the eastern parts of the provinces of Drenthe and Groningen including the towns of Emmen and Stadskanaal. In April 1945, the 1st Armoured entered Germany in the area of Emsland. On 6 May, the Division seized the Kriegsmarine naval base in Wilhelmshaven, where General Maczek accepted the capitulation of the fortress, naval base, East Frisian Fleet and more than 10 infantry divisions. There the Division ended the war and, joined by the Polish 1st Independent Parachute Brigade, undertook occupation duties until it was disbanded in 1947; the majority of its soldiers opted not to return to Poland, which fell under Soviet occupation, preferring instead to remain in exile. Many artefacts and memorabilia belonging to Maczek and the 1st Polish Armoured Division are on display in the Polish Institute and Sikorski Museum in London. 1st Armoured Division - General Stanisław Maczek - comprising:- 10th Armoured Cavalry Brigade - Col. T. Majewski 1st Armoured Regiment - Lt.
Col. Aleksander Stefanowicz 2nd Armoured Regiment - Lt. Col. S. Koszustki 24th Polish Uhlan Regiment - Lt. Col. J. Kański 10th Dragoons Regiment - Lt. Col. Władysław Zgorzelski3rd Infantry Brigade - Col. Marian Wieroński 1st Podhale Rifles Battalion - Lt. Col. K. Complak 8th Rifle Battalion - Lt. Col. Aleksander Nowaczyński 9th Rifle Battalion - Lt. Col. Zygmunt Szydłowski 1st Polish Independent HMG Squadron - Maj. M. KochanowskiDivisional Artillery - Col. B. Noel 1st Motorized Artillery Regiment - Lt. Col. J. Krautwald de Annau 2nd Motorized Artillery Regiment - Lt. Col. K. Maresch 1st Anti-Tank Regiment - Major R. Dowbór 1st Anti-Aircraft Regiment - Lt. Col. O. Eminowicz Maj. W. BerendtOther Units 10th Mounted Rifle Regiment (a
Poland the Republic of Poland, is a country located in Central Europe. It is divided into 16 administrative subdivisions, covering an area of 312,696 square kilometres, has a temperate seasonal climate. With a population of 38.5 million people, Poland is the sixth most populous member state of the European Union. Poland's capital and largest metropolis is Warsaw. Other major cities include Kraków, Łódź, Wrocław, Poznań, Gdańsk, Szczecin. Poland is bordered by the Baltic Sea, Russia's Kaliningrad Oblast and Lithuania to the north and Ukraine to the east and Czech Republic, to the south, Germany to the west; the establishment of the Polish state can be traced back to AD 966, when Mieszko I, ruler of the realm coextensive with the territory of present-day Poland, converted to Christianity. The Kingdom of Poland was founded in 1025, in 1569 it cemented its longstanding political association with the Grand Duchy of Lithuania by signing the Union of Lublin; this union formed the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth, one of the largest and most populous countries of 16th and 17th century Europe, with a uniquely liberal political system which adopted Europe's first written national constitution, the Constitution of 3 May 1791.
More than a century after the Partitions of Poland at the end of the 18th century, Poland regained its independence in 1918 with the Treaty of Versailles. In September 1939, World War II started with the invasion of Poland by Germany, followed by the Soviet Union invading Poland in accordance with the Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact. More than six million Polish citizens, including 90% of the country's Jews, perished in the war. In 1947, the Polish People's Republic was established as a satellite state under Soviet influence. In the aftermath of the Revolutions of 1989, most notably through the emergence of the Solidarity movement, Poland reestablished itself as a presidential democratic republic. Poland is regional power, it has the fifth largest economy by GDP in the European Union and one of the most dynamic economies in the world achieving a high rank on the Human Development Index. Additionally, the Polish Stock Exchange in Warsaw is the largest and most important in Central Europe. Poland is a developed country, which maintains a high-income economy along with high standards of living, life quality, safety and economic freedom.
Having a developed school educational system, the country provides free university education, state-funded social security, a universal health care system for all citizens. Poland has 15 UNESCO World Heritage Sites. Poland is a member state of the European Union, the Schengen Area, the United Nations, NATO, the OECD, the Three Seas Initiative, the Visegrád Group; the origin of the name "Poland" derives from the West Slavic tribe of Polans that inhabited the Warta river basin of the historic Greater Poland region starting in the 6th century. The origin of the name "Polanie" itself derives from the early Slavic word "pole". In some languages, such as Hungarian, Lithuanian and Turkish, the exonym for Poland is Lechites, which derives from the name of a semi-legendary ruler of Polans, Lech I. Early Bronze Age in Poland begun around 2400 BC, while the Iron Age commenced in 750 BC. During this time, the Lusatian culture, spanning both the Bronze and Iron Ages, became prominent; the most famous archaeological find from the prehistory and protohistory of Poland is the Biskupin fortified settlement, dating from the Lusatian culture of the early Iron Age, around 700 BC.
Throughout the Antiquity period, many distinct ancient ethnic groups populated the regions of what is now Poland in an era that dates from about 400 BC to 500 AD. These groups are identified as Celtic, Slavic and Germanic tribes. Recent archeological findings in the Kujawy region, confirmed the presence of the Roman Legions on the territory of Poland; these were most expeditionary missions sent out to protect the amber trade. The exact time and routes of the original migration and settlement of Slavic peoples lacks written records and can only be defined as fragmented; the Slavic tribes who would form Poland migrated to these areas in the second half of the 5th century AD. Up until the creation of Mieszko's state and his subsequent conversion to Christianity in 966 AD, the main religion of Slavic tribes that inhabited the geographical area of present-day Poland was Slavic paganism. With the Baptism of Poland the Polish rulers accepted Christianity and the religious authority of the Roman Church.
However, the transition from paganism was not a smooth and instantaneous process for the rest of the population as evident from the pagan reaction of the 1030s. Poland began to form into a recognizable unitary and territorial entity around the middle of the 10th century under the Piast dynasty. Poland's first documented ruler, Mieszko I, accepted Christianity with the Baptism of Poland in 966, as the new official religion of his subjects; the bulk of the population converted in the course of the next few centuries. In 1000, Boleslaw the Brave, continuing the policy of his father Mieszko, held a Congress of Gniezno and created the metropolis of Gniezno and the dioceses of Kraków, Kołobrzeg, Wrocław. However, the pagan unrest led to the transfer of the capital to Kraków in 1038 by Casimir I the Restorer. In 1109, Prince Bolesław III Wrymouth defeated the King of Germany Henry V at the Battle of Hundsfeld, stopping the Ge
The Beskids or Beskid Mountains is a traditional name for a series of mountain ranges in the Carpathians, stretching from the Czech Republic in the west along the border of Poland with Slovakia up to Ukraine in the east. The highest mountain in the Beskids is Hoverla, at 2,061 m metres, located in the Ukrainian Chornohora range; the origin of the name beskydy has not been conclusively established. A Thracian or Illyrian origin has been suggested, however, as yet, no theory has majority support among linguists; the word appears in numerous mountain names throughout the Carpathians and the adjacent Balkan regions, like in Albanian bjeshkë. The Slovak name Beskydy refers to the Polish Bieszczady Mountains, not a synonym for the entire Beskids but one single range, belonging to the Eastern Beskids. According to another linguistic theory, it may be related to Middle Low German beshêt, beskēt, meaning watershed; the term was used for hundreds of years to describe the mountain range separating the old Kingdom of Hungary from the old Kingdom of Poland.
In 1269, the Beskids were known by the Latin name "Beschad Alpes Poloniae". The Beskids are 600 km in length and 50–70 km in width, they stand along the southern border of Lesser Poland with northern Slovakia, stretching to the Moravia and Czech Silesia regions of the eastern Czech Republic and to Carpathian Ruthenia in western Ukraine. Parts form the European Watershed, separating the Oder and Vistula basins in the north from the Eastern Slovak Lowland, part of the Great Hungarian Plain drained by the Danube River. Geologically all of the Beskids stand within the Outer Western Carpathians and the Outer Eastern Carpathians. In the west they begin at the natural pass of the Moravian Gate, which separates them from the Eastern Sudetes, continue east in a band to the north of the Tatra Mountains, end in Ukraine; the eastern termination of the Beskids is disputed. According to older sources, the Beskids end at the source of the Tisza River, while newer sources state that the Beskids end at the Uzhok Pass at the Polish-Ukrainian border.
Multiple traditions and nationalities have developed overlapping variants for the divisions and names of the Beskid ranges. According to the divisions of the Carpathians, they are categorized within: Western Beskids Western section of the Western Beskids: Hostýn-Vsetín Mountains → e1 Moravian-Silesian Beskids → e2 Turzovka Highlands → e3 Jablunkov Furrow → e4 Rožnov Furrow → e5 Jablunkov Intermontane → e6 Silesian Beskids → e7 Żywiec Basin → e8 Northern section of the Western Beskids: Little Beskids → f1 Maków Beskids → f2 Island Beskids → f3 Gorce Mountains → f4 Rabka Basin → f5 Sącz Basin → f6 Central section of the Western Beskids: Orava Beskids + Żywiec Beskids → g1 Kysuce Beskids +Żywiec Beskids → g2 Orava Magura → g3 Orava Highlands → g4 Sub-Beskidian Furrow → g5 Sub-Beskidian Highlands → g6 Eastern section of the Western Beskids: Beskid Sądecki → h1 Čergov → h2 Pieniny → h3 West Beskidian Foothills, in the Czech Republic and Poland Silesian-Moravian Foothills → d1 Silesian Foothills → d2 Wieliczka Foothills → d3 Wiśnicz Foothills → d4 Central Beskids or Low Beskids Busov, in Slovakia Ondava Highlands Low Beskid + Laborec Highlands Beskidian Southern Foothills Central Beskidian Piedmont, in Poland Rożnów Piedmont Ciężkowice Piedmont Strzyżów Piedmont Dynów Piedmont Przemyśl Piedmont Gorlice Depression Jasło-Krosno Basin Jasło Piedmont Bukowsko Piedmont Eastern Beskids are divided into two parallel ridges: Wooded Beskids and Polonynian Beskids.
Wooded Beskids Bieszczady Mountains → c1 Sanok-Turka Mountains → c3 Skole Beskids → c2 Gorgany → c4 Pokuttia-Bucovina Beskids → c5 Polonynian Beskids Smooth Polonyna → c6 Polonyna Borzhava → c7 Polonyna Kuk (
Ckm wz. 30
Ckm wz. 30 is a Polish-made clone of the American Browning M1917 heavy machine gun. Produced with various modifications such as greater caliber, longer barrel and adjustable sighting device, it was an improved although unlicensed copy of its predecessor, was the standard machine gun of the Polish Army since 1931. After Poland regained her independence in 1918, her armed forces were armed with a variety of different weapons a legacy of the armies of her former occupying powers; as with their rifles and carbines, the machine guns used by the Polish Army in the Polish-Soviet War included Russian 7.62 mm M1910 Maxim, Austrian 1907 8 mm Schwarzlose MG M.07/12, German 7.9 mm Maschinengewehr 08 and French 8 mm Hotchkiss Mle 1914. Such diversity was a logistical nightmare, in the early 1920s the General Staff of the Polish Army decided to replace all older machine guns with a new design built to Polish designations; the Hotchkiss machine gun, proven during the Polish-Soviet War, adapted to the standard Polish 7.92 mm round, had the most supporters.
In late 1924 and early 1925, 1,250 were ordered from France and the Polish Ministry of War started talks on buying the license for manufacturing copies in Poland. However, the first tests of the post-war Hotchkiss machine guns proved that the new production were well below both Polish needs and maker's specifications, the talks came to a halt. By the end of 1927 the ministry organized a contest for a new standard all-purpose heavy machine gun. Four companies took part in the competition: the American Colt company with the M1928, a Czechoslovakian-built rechambered version of Schwarzlose M.7/12, the British Vickers machine gun converted to 7.92mm caliber, Hotchkiss with improved wz.25 model. All initial tests were won by Browning; the tests were repeated in 1928, again the American weapon won so the Polish ministry decided to purchase a license. The price was however high and Colt demanded an order for 3,000 guns in its own factories, it turned out that neither the Colt company nor its European representative, the Vickers-Armstrong, had patented the design in Poland.
In addition, the documentation of a purchased license for Browning Automatic Rifle, via Colt's agent, Belgian company Fabrique Nationale de Herstal, was faulty, deliveries were delayed, which discouraged the Polish from further orders abroad. Because of that, the Polish ministry decided to order the preparation of a local version of the Browning M1917 at Fabryka Karabinow in Warsaw. In mid-1930 the first test models were sent to various testing ranges. In March 1931 the first 200 models were sent to front-line units for further tests under the designation of Ckm wz.30. Serial production started by the end of that year. Among the most notable differences between the original and the Polish clone were: Different calibre, adapted to the Polish standard 7.92×57mm Mauser ammunition Loophole iron sights replaced with V-notch sights Butt handle of the weapon was lengthened for easier carriage Longer barrel for greater precision and accuracy Rifle lock was modified for easier exchange of used-up barrels The lock was modified for easier handling New mounting was adapted, with a mast for anti-aircraft fire Sights were adapted for anti-aircraft fire as well as a handle for aiming in the air was added Added flame suppressorThree types of a tripod mounting were developed and used in Poland.
First was wz.30 mounting for infantry, superseded with improved wz.34 mounting. Cavalry adopted more modern wz.36 mounting instead. All tripods could be used for anti-aircraft fire, using a mast, transported in a rear leg in case of infantry mountings, or folded below the barrel and fulfilling a role of a recoil shock absorber, in case of the cavalry mounting. Following the first tests, a series of additional modifications was introduced. In 1938 the trigger mechanism was replaced with a new, more reliable system. In addition, the lock was replaced for easier keeping the weapon in good condition; the modified design received the designation of ckm wz.30a, though the name was used by the soldiers themselves. The new version was the basis of a ckm wz.30/39T design, designed for export to Turkey and adapted to Turkish standard 7.65×53mm Argentine ammunition. However, the design was never introduced in large numbers as the Turkish competition was halted after World War II broke out. In the late 30s, Wilniewczyc and Skrzypinski designed experimental barrels with a rifled oval barrel bore.
The barrels were expensive to produce, but gave a significant increase of the accuracy and longevity of the barrel. Altogether, between 1931 and 1939, the Fabryka Karabinow in Warsaw built at least 8,401 ckm wz.30 for the Polish Army, in addition to 200 of information series. In addition, quite a big number - over 1,700 - was exported by the SEPEWE syndicate to Republican Spain. There were trials to sell them to other countries, like Romania, Estonia and Argentina, but in spite of favourable participation in contests, the state factory had no resources to credit deliveries. Among others, in 1936 in Argentina the wz.30 machine gun was evaluated as more reliable and accurate than original Browning M1928, but Colt could ensure more favourable conditions of delivery. In 1938 Turkey ordered 500 wz.30/39T machine guns and at least part of this contract was fulfilled. Captured weapons w
Hungary is a country in Central Europe. Spanning 93,030 square kilometres in the Carpathian Basin, it borders Slovakia to the north, Ukraine to the northeast, Austria to the northwest, Romania to the east, Serbia to the south, Croatia to the southwest, Slovenia to the west. With about 10 million inhabitants, Hungary is a medium-sized member state of the European Union; the official language is Hungarian, the most spoken Uralic language in the world, among the few non-Indo-European languages to be spoken in Europe. Hungary's capital and largest city is Budapest; the territory of modern Hungary was for centuries inhabited by a succession of peoples, including Celts, Germanic tribes, West Slavs and the Avars. The foundations of the Hungarian state were established in the late ninth century CE by the Hungarian grand prince Árpád following the conquest of the Carpathian Basin, his great-grandson Stephen I ascended the throne in 1000, converting his realm to a Christian kingdom. By the 12th century, Hungary became a regional power, reaching its cultural and political height in the 15th century.
Following the Battle of Mohács in 1526, Hungary was occupied by the Ottoman Empire. It came under Habsburg rule at the turn of the 18th century, joined Austria to form the Austro–Hungarian Empire, a major European power; the Austro-Hungarian Empire collapsed after World War I, the subsequent Treaty of Trianon established Hungary's current borders, resulting in the loss of 71% of its territory, 58% of its population, 32% of ethnic Hungarians. Following the tumultuous interwar period, Hungary joined the Axis Powers in World War II, suffering significant damage and casualties. Hungary became a satellite state of the Soviet Union, which contributed to the establishment of a socialist republic spanning four decades; the country gained widespread international attention as a result of its 1956 revolution and the seminal opening of its previously-restricted border with Austria in 1989, which accelerated the collapse of the Eastern Bloc. On 23 October 1989, Hungary became a democratic parliamentary republic.
Hungary is an OECD high-income economy and has the world's 58th largest economy by PPP. It ranks 45th on the Human Development Index, owing in large part to its social security system, universal health care, tuition-free secondary education. Hungary's rich cultural history includes significant contributions to the arts, literature, sports and technology, it is the 13th most popular tourist destination in Europe, attracting 15.8 million international tourists in 2017, owing to attractions such as the largest thermal water cave system in the world, second largest thermal lake, the largest lake in Central Europe and the largest natural grasslands in Europe. Hungary's cultural and academic prominence classify it as a middle power in global affairs. Hungary joined the European Union in 2004 and has been part of the Schengen Area since 2007, it is a member of numerous international organizations, including the United Nations, NATO, WTO, World Bank, the AIIB, the Council of Europe, the Visegrád Group.
The "H" in the name of Hungary is most due to early founded historical associations with the Huns, who had settled Hungary prior to the Avars. The rest of the word comes from the Latinized form of Byzantine Greek Oungroi. According to an explanation,the Greek name was borrowed from Old Bulgarian ągrinŭ, in turn borrowed from Oghur-Turkic Onogur. Onogur was the collective name for the tribes who joined the Bulgar tribal confederacy that ruled the eastern parts of Hungary after the Avars; the Hungarian endonym is Magyarország, composed of ország. The word magyar is taken from the name of one of the seven major semi-nomadic Hungarian tribes, magyeri; the first element magy is from Proto-Ugric *mäńć-'man, person' found in the name of the Mansi people. The second element eri,'man, lineage', survives in Hungarian férj'husband', is cognate with Mari erge'son', Finnish archaic yrkä'young man'; the Roman Empire conquered the territory west of the Danube between 35 and 9 BC. From 9 BC to the end of the 4th century, Pannonia was part of the Roman Empire, located within part of Hungary's territory.
Around AD 41–54, a 500-strong cavalry unit created the settlement of Aquincum and a Roman legion of 6,000 men was stationed here by AD 89. A civil city grew in the neighbourhood of the military settlement and in AD 106 Aquincum became the focal point of the commercial life of this area and the capital city of the province of Pannonia Inferior; this area now corresponds to the Óbuda district of Budapest, with the Roman ruins now forming part of the modern Aquincum museum. Came the Huns, a Central Asian tribe who built a powerful empire. After Hunnish rule, the Germanic Ostrogoths and Gepids, the Avar Khaganate, had a presence in the Carpathian Basin. In the 9th century, East Francia, the First Bulgarian Empire and Great Moravia ruled the territory of the Carpathian Basin; the freshly unified Hungarians led by Árpád, settled in the Carpathian Basin starting in 895. According to linguistic evidence, they originated from an ancient Uralic-speaking population that inhabited the forested area between the Volga River and the Ural Mountains.
As a federation of united tribes, Hungary was established in 895, some 50 years after the division of the Carolingian Empire at the Treaty of Verdun in 843, before the unification of the Anglo-Saxon king
General Stanisław Maczek was a Polish tank commander of World War II, whose division was instrumental in the Allied liberation of France, closing the Falaise pocket, resulting in the destruction of 14 German Wehrmacht and SS divisions. A veteran of World War I, the Polish-Ukrainian and Polish–Soviet Wars, Maczek was the commander of Poland's only major armoured formation during the September 1939 campaign, commanded a Polish armoured formation in France in 1940, he was the commander of the famous 1st Polish Armoured Division, of the I Polish Army Corps under Allied Command in 1942–45. Stanisław Władysław Maczek was born on 31 March 1892 in the Lwów suburb of Szczerzec in Austro-Hungarian Galicia, his father was a lawyer. His family was of distant Croatian extraction. After graduating from the grammar school at Drohobycz in 1910, he attended the philosophy faculty of Lwów University where he studied Polish philology. Among his tutors were the renowned Polish philologists Wilhelm Bruchnalski and Józef Kallenbach, He attended lectures by Kazimierz Twardowski.
During his studies he served in the Strzelec paramilitary organization, in which he received basic military training. After the outbreak of World War I, Maczek interrupted his studies, hoping to join Józef Piłsudski's Polish Legions, but instead was drafted into the Austro-Hungarian Army. After receiving a brief officer training, Maczek was sent to the Italian Front of World War I. An NCO in the Tyrolean Regiment of the K.u. K. Army, he was promoted to second lieutenant in 1916 and in 1918 to lieutenant; as the only Polish battalion commander in Austria-Hungary's Alpine regiments, Maczek gained experience in mountain warfare, which proved valuable in his career. On 11 November 1918, after receiving news of the Armistice, Maczek disbanded his battalion and returned to the newly reborn Poland. Three days he arrived at Krosno, where he joined the Polish Army. Assigned the command of a Krosno battalion, Maczek began a limited offensive against the forces of the West Ukrainian People's Republic with the aim of relieving his besieged hometown.
However, due to insufficient support, after initial successes at Ustrzyki, Chyrów and Felsztyn, the Polish offensive got bogged down and the Polish-Ukrainian War turned into trench warfare for the rest of the winter. In April 1919 Maczek was withdrawn from his unit and became the organizer and commander of the so-called'flying' company as part of Gen. Aleksandrowicz's 4th Infantry Division; this unit, created on Maczek's initiative, was modelled after the German Sturmbataillone of World War I, was entirely motorized and well-equipped with heavy machine guns. The unit was formed from the battle-hardened troops of the Krosno battalion and its combat value was well above the average of the Polish Army of the time. Hence, it served in a "firefighter" capacity, plugging holes that appeared in the defensive lines, but fighting with distinction in the Polish spring offensive, it took part in some of the heaviest fighting of the war, including the battles for Drohobycz, Stanisławów, Buczacz and the ZUNR capital, Stryj.
After the end of the Polish-Ukrainian fighting, Maczek was confirmed in the rank of major with seniority from 1 June 1919. He was attached to General Iwaszkiewicz's Polish 2nd Army as a staff officer. Bored with staff duties, Maczek asked his superiors to give him command over a front-line unit, his wish was fulfilled only after the start of the Polish-Bolshevik War, when the 2nd Army suffered a defeat in initial clashes with Semyon Budyonny's 1st Cavalry Army. In Jarosław, Maczek formed a new'flying' rifle battalion composed of fresh recruits and horseless uhlans. Despite insufficient training, the unit was moved to the front and Maczek again acted as a "firefighter", moving his unit to wherever it was needed, his unit covered the retreat of the Polish forces at Mosty Wielkie, after which it was attached to Gen. Juliusz Rómmel's 1st Cavalry Division, it took part in the Polish assault on Waręż near Zamość, a tactical counter-assault on the rear of Budyonny's advancing Cossacks directly preceding the victorious battle of Komarów.
After the end of hostilities, Maczek's battalion was named after him, although it was disbanded shortly after the signing of the treaty of Riga. Maczek remained in active service. Between 1921 and 1923 he commanded an infantry battalion within the Lwów-based 26th Infantry Regiment. On 1 August 1923 he was promoted to lieutenant colonel and sent to the Higher Military School in Warsaw, he served until 1927 as head of Section II in Lwów. That year he moved to Grodno, where he became deputy commander of the 76th Infantry Regiment. In 1929, after finishing his training, he became commander of the Grodno-based 81st Infantry Regiment, holding that post until 1934. During that time, on 1 January 1931, he was promoted to colonel. In 1935 he was transferred to Częstochowa, where he became commander of infantry in the 7th Infantry Division. In October 1938 Maczek's experience as a commander of "flying" troops received recognition from his superiors, he was given command of the Polish 10th Motorized Cavalry Brigade, the first motorized formation in the Polish Army.
On the outbreak of war in September 1939, the 10th Motorized Cavalry Brigade was attached to the Kraków Army defending Lesser Poland and Silesia. Equipped with only li