10th Mountain Division

The 10th Mountain Division is a light infantry division in the United States Army based at Fort Drum, New York. Designated as a mountain warfare unit, the division is the only one of its size in the US military to receive intense specialized training for fighting in mountainous and arctic conditions. More the 10th Mountain has been conducting operations in Iraq and assisting Iraqi Security Forces. Activated as the 10th Light Division in 1943, the division was redesignated the 10th Mountain Division in 1944 and fought in the mountains of Italy in some of the roughest terrain in World War II. On 5 May 1945 the Division reached Nauders, beyond the Resia Pass, where it made contact with German forces being pushed south by the U. S. Seventh Army. A status quo was maintained until the enemy headquarters involved had completed their surrender to the Seventh. On the 6th, 10th Mountain troops met the 44th Infantry Division of Seventh Army. Following the war, the division was deactivated, only to be reactivated and redesignated as the 10th Infantry Division in 1948.

The division first acted as a training division and, in 1954, was converted to a full combat division and sent to Germany before being deactivated again in 1958. Reactivated again in 1985, the division was designated the 10th Mountain Division to tie it to the World War II division and to better describe its modern disposition. Since its reactivation, the division or elements of the division have deployed numerous times; the division has participated in Operation Desert Storm, Hurricane Andrew disaster relief, Operation Restore Hope and Operation Continue Hope, Operation Uphold Democracy, Operation Joint Forge, Operation Joint Guardian, several deployments as part of the Multinational Force and Observers. Since 2001, the 10th Mountain Division has been the most deployed unit in the US military, its combat brigades have seen over 20 deployments to both Iraq and Afghanistan in support of Operation Iraqi Freedom and Operation Enduring Freedom. The 10th Division was organized in 1918 as a Regular Army and National Army division for World War I.

However, it demobilized in February 1919 at Camp Funston, Kansas. It was redesignated the Panama Canal Division after the war and shares no connection with the 10th Mountain Division activated during World War II. In November 1939, during the Soviet Union's invasion of Finland, Russian efforts were frustrated following the destruction of two armored divisions by Finnish soldiers on skis; the conflict caught global attention as the outnumbered and outgunned Finnish soldiers were able to use the difficult local terrain to their advantage hampering the Soviet attacks and embarrassing their military. Upon seeing the effectiveness of these troops, Charles Minot Dole, the president of the National Ski Patrol, began to lobby the War Department of the need for a similar unit of troops in the United States Army, trained for fighting in winter and mountain warfare. In September 1940, Dole was able to present his case to General George Marshall, the U. S. Army Chief of Staff, who agreed with Dole's assessment, deciding to create a "Mountain" unit for fighting in harsh terrain.

The U. S. Army authorized the formation of the platoon sized Army Ski Patrol in November 1940; the first Patrol was formed at Camp Murray as part of the 41st Infantry Division under Lt. Ralph S. Phelps; the army, prompted by fears that its standing force would not perform well in the event of a winter attack on the Northeastern coast, as well as knowledge that the German Army had three mountain warfare divisions, approved the concept for a division. This required an overhaul of U. S. military doctrine, as the concept of winter warfare had not been tested in the army since 1914. At first, planners envisioned ten mountain divisions, but personnel shortages revised the goal to three; the 10th Mountain Division would be the only one brought to active duty. Military leaders continued to express concern of the feasibility of a division-sized mountain warfare unit until the fall of 1941, when they received reports that Greek mountain troops had held back superior numbers of unprepared Italian troops in the Albanian mountains during the Greco-Italian War.

The Italian military had lost a disastrous 25,000 men in the campaign because of their lack of preparedness to fight in the mountains. On 22 October 1941, General Marshall decided to form the first battalion of mountain warfare troops for a new mountain division; the Ski Patrol would assist in its training. On 8 December 1941, the day after the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor, the army activated its first mountain unit, the 87th Mountain Infantry Battalion at Fort Lewis, south of Tacoma, it was the first mountain warfare unit in U. S. military history. The National Ski Patrol took on the unique role of recruiting for the 87th Infantry Regiment and the division, becoming the only civilian recruiting agency in military history. Army planners favored recruiting experienced skiers for the unit instead of trying to train standing troops in mountain warfare, so Dole recruited from schools and ski clubs for the unit; the 87th trained in harsh conditions, including Mount Rainier's 14,411-foot peak, throughout 1942 as more recruits were brought in to form the division.

Initial training was conducted by Olympian Rolf Monsen. A new garrison was built for the division in central Colorado at Camp Hale, at an elevation of 9,200 feet above sea level; the 10th Light Division

Silesian Park

Silesian Park is a recreation complex in the center of the Upper-Silesian Metropolis at a border of Chorzów and Katowice in Silesia, Poland. Its formal name is "General Jerzy Ziętek Voivodeship Park of Culture and Recreation", named after Jerzy Ziętek, a Silesian politician who headed the 1950s initiative to create this park, it restored an industrially devastated piece of land in the middle of a urbanized area. It is managed by WPKiW S. A.. The area of the park is 620 hectares. By comparison, it's twice as big as Central Park in New York. In addition to the extensive green area, the following are located in the park: Silesian Stadium Silesian Zoological Garden Silesian Planetarium Silesian Amusement Park Upper Silesian Ethnographic Park Katowice International Fair Grounds Stadium of GKS Katowice Shooting range a swimming-pool complex a water sports center tennis courts the rose garden The Technical Progress Centre a hotel complex, the Polish Tourist' Society and the Polish Scouts' Association district centers, cafés and show pavilions where flower shows and other exhibits are held.

Website Park Website Silesian Planetarium Gallery

Luke Richardson House

The Luke Richardson House is a historic house at 204 Hancock Road in Dublin, New Hampshire. Built about 1820, it is a good local example of a mid-19th century farmhouse with modest Greek Revival features, it was listed on the National Register of Historic Places in 1983. The Luke Richardson House stands in a rural setting in eastern Dublin, on the south side of Hancock Road about 1 mile north of its junction with New Hampshire Route 101, it is a 2-1/2 story wood frame structure, with clapboarded exterior. It has an unusually narrow profile, with a two-bay front facade. A single-story porch extends along one side. An early 20th-century barn stands nearby on the property; the house was built c. 1820 by Luke Richardson, son of early settler Abijah Richardson, Sr, whose early homestead stands nearby. Luke Richardson operated a gristmill and sawmill on a nearby property, was instrumental in establishing a Trinitarian Congregational church in Dublin in 1827. Owners include Charles F. Appleton, who built a hydroelectric facility on Wilder Brook and provided Dublin with its first electric service, artist Tom Blackwell, who used the barn on the property as his studio.

Abijah Richardson Sr. Homestead Deacon Abijah Richardson House John Richardson Homestead National Register of Historic Places listings in Cheshire County, New Hampshire