SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

112th United States Congress

The One Hundred Twelfth United States Congress was a meeting of the legislative branch of the United States federal government, from January 3, 2011, until January 3, 2013. It convened in Washington, D. C. on January 3, 2011, ended on January 3, 2013, 17 days before the end of the presidential term to which Barack Obama was elected in 2008. Senators elected to regular terms in 2006 completed those terms in this Congress; this Congress included the last House of Representatives elected from congressional districts that were apportioned based on the 2000 census. In the 2010 midterm elections, the Republican Party won the majority in the House of Representatives. While the Democrats kept their Senate majority, it was reduced from the previous Congress; this was the first Congress in which the House and Senate were controlled by different parties since the 107th Congress, the first Congress to begin that way since the 99th Congress. It was the first Congress since the 36th Congress, over 150 years, in which the Republican Party held the House but not the Senate.

In this Congress, the House of Representatives had the largest number of Republican members, 242, since the 80th Congress. This was the first, thus far only, Congress since the 79th that did not include a member of the Kennedy family. January 6, 2011: On the second day of the 112th Congress, the House of Representatives read a modified version of the U. S. Constitution, a first. January 8, 2011: 2011 Tucson shooting: Representative Gabrielle Giffords and nineteen other people were shot by a gunman in Tucson, Arizona. Six of them, including a federal judge and a congressional aide, died. Votes on the House floor were suspended for one week. January 25, 2011: 2011 State of the Union Address March 19, 2011: The United States initiated Operation Odyssey Dawn as part of the international military intervention in the Libyan Civil War; the intervention continued under the auspices of NATO as Operation Unified Protector until the end of military operations in October 2011. May 2, 2011: Navy SEALs killed al-Qaeda leader Osama bin Laden in Operation Neptune Spear.

April 9, 2011: A last-minute deal between both parties averts a partial shutdown of the federal government. August 2, 2011: The 2011 debt-ceiling crisis ends with the Budget Control Act of 2011. December 18, 2011: The United States completed its withdrawal of troops from Iraq, formally ending the Iraq War. January 24, 2012: 2012 State of the Union Address June 28, 2012: In National Federation of Independent Business v. Sebelius, the Supreme Court upheld the Affordable Care Act's constitutionality but found the expansion of Medicaid unconstitutionally coercive on the states. November 6, 2012: 2012 general elections, including: United States House of Representatives elections, 2012, in which Democrats gained eight seats, but not enough to retake the majority United States Senate elections, 2012, in which Democrats gained two seats in their majority 2012 United States presidential election, in which Barack Obama was re-elected to a second term December 14, 2012: The Sandy Hook Elementary School shooting leaves 28 dead, prompts debate on gun control in the United States.

January 1, 2013: United States fiscal cliff avoided. A failure to pass a 2011 federal budget nearly led to a shutdown of non-essential government services on April 9, 2011, with the furlough of 800,000 government employees appearing imminent. President Obama met Senate Majority Leader Harry Reid and House Speaker John Boehner in the days preceding the deadline but was unable to come to an agreement to pass a budget. A one-week budget was proposed to allow more time for negotiations. Obama said; this was backed by Senate Democrats who objected to such cuts as that of Planned Parenthood. However, an agreement was reached between the two parties for a one-week budget to allow for more time to negotiate after Republicans dropped their stance on the Planned Parenthood issue; the two parties agreed on a 2011 federal budget the following week. There were many reactions to the possible shutdown with some saying the economy could be hurt during a fragile recovery and others saying the lack of an unnecessary bureaucracy would not be noticed.

There was criticism that while senators and representatives would continue to get paid others such as the police and military personnel would either not be paid for their work or have their payments deferred. On August 2, 2011, the United States public debt was projected to reach its statutory maximum. Without an increase in that limit the U. S. Treasury would be unable to borrow money to pay its bills. Although previous statutory increases have been routine, conservative members of the House refused to allow an increase without drastically reducing government spending. Over several weeks and months, negotiators from both parties, both houses, the White House worked to forge a compromise; the compromise bill, the Budget Control Act of 2011, was enacted on August 2. April 15, 2011: 2011 United States federal budget, Pub. L. 112–10 August 2, 2011: Budget Control Act of 2011, Pub. L. 112–25 September 16, 2011: Leahy-Smith America Invents Act, Pub. L. 112–29 October 21, 2011: United States-Korea Free Trade Agreement Implementation Act, Pub.

L. 112–41 October 21, 2011: United States-Colombia Trade Promotion Agreement Implementation Act, Pub. L. 112–42 October 21, 2011: United States-Panama Trade Promotion Agreement Implementation Act, Pub. L. 112–43 December 31, 2011: National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year

Victory Gardens

Victory Gardens is the debut album from John & Mary, recorded in 1990 just six months after the two met in December 1989 and following their signing with Rykodisc. John Lombardo, former member of 10,000 Maniacs and responsible for much of their early music, brought elements of the early Maniacs sound with him. Combined with the classically trained Mary Ramsey's blend of folk and classical influences, the album is considered by some to be heir to the 10,000 Maniacs album The Wishing Chair, critically acclaimed for linking traditional influences with the contemporary new-wave sound. Victory Gardens was produced by Lombardo and recorded at Mitch Easter's Chapel Hill Drive-In Studio in Winston-Salem, NC; the album features 10,000 Maniacs members Robert Buck and Jerome Augustyniak as well as special guests Ronnie Lane, Joey Molland and Augie Meyers. The song "Red Wooden Beads" was included on Steal This Disc Vol. 3, part of a series of compact discs released by Rykodisc in 1991. "Rags of Flowers" was included on Troubadours of Folk Vol. 5: Singer-Songwriters Of The'80s, part of a five volume series of compact discs released by Rhino Records in 1992.

All tracks composed by John Lombardo and Mary Ramsey except where indicated "Red Wooden Beads" – 2:53 "The Azalea Festival" – 4:28 "Piles of Dead Leaves" – 4:14 "We Have Nothing" - 3:47 "Rags of Flowers" – 3:20 "I Became Alone" – 3:33 "The Open Window" – 3:45 "July 6th" – 4:39 "Pram" – 3:21 "Un Canadien Errant" – 4:40 John & MaryJohn Lombardo – 6 and 12 string guitar, vocal, producer Mary Ramsey – vocal, violin, organAdditional musiciansRobert Buck – lead guitar, mandolin Jerome Augustyniak – drums, vocal Armand John Petripercussion, mixing Ronnie Lane – vocal Joey Molland – vocal, guitar solo Augie Meyers – accordion Technical staffStuart Sullivan – engineer Joe Barbaria – mixing Mitch Easter – engineer Toby Mountainmastering Shannon Carr – mixing Dan Griffin – production In 1991 Rykodisc released a 7-inch vinyl promotional-only single "Red Wooden Beads" – 2:53 "The Azalea Festival" – 3:10

Artemas Wyman Sawyer

Artemas Wyman Sawyer was an American Baptist minister and educator. He was the president of Acadia College in Nova Scotia, Canada from 1869 to 1896. Born in West Haven, the son of the Reverend Reuben Sawyer and Laura Wyman, Sawyer was educated at the New London Academy and received a Bachelor of Arts in 1847 from Dartmouth College. After teaching in Windsor, Vermont for three years he attended the Newton Theological Institute and graduated in 1853, he was ordained a minister of Baptist church in Lawrence, Massachusetts. From 1855 to 1860, he was a professor of classics at Acadia College. From 1860 to 1864, he was the pastor of Baptist church in New York, he served as principal of New London Academy from 1864 to 1869. In 1869, he was appointed president of Acadia College succeeding John Mockett Cramp, he served until 1896. He died in West Haven, Vermont in 1907, he married Maria E. Chase in 1858; the couple had five children. Notable is Everett Wyman Sawyer. Sawyer, A. W. Education of Women in Nova Scotia and New Brunswick: an Historical Sketch.

Windsor: J. J. Anslow, Printer. N.d. "Artemas Wyman Sawyer". Dictionary of Canadian Biography. University of Toronto Press. 1979–2016