115th United States Congress

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to navigation Jump to search

115th United States Congress
114th ←
→ 116th
U.S. Capitol - March 28, 2016 (25666928564).jpg
January 3, 2017 – January 3, 2019
Senate President Joe Biden (D)
until January 20, 2017
Mike Pence (R)
since January 20, 2017
Senate Pres. pro tem Orrin Hatch (R)
House Speaker Paul Ryan (R)
Members 100 senators
435 representatives
6 non-voting delegates
Senate Majority Republican
House Majority Republican
Sessions
1st: January 3, 2017 – January 3, 2018[1]
2nd: January 3, 2018[1] – present

The One Hundred Fifteenth United States Congress is the current meeting of the legislative branch of the United States federal government, composed of the Senate and the House of Representatives. It meets in Washington, D.C. from January 3, 2017, to January 3, 2019, during the final weeks of Barack Obama's presidency and the first two years of Donald Trump's presidency.

The November 2016 elections maintained Republican control of both the House and Senate, but

"Despite unified party control…, House and Senate GOP majorities struggled to legislate: GOP fissures and an undisciplined, unpopular president frequently undermined the Republican agenda. Most notably, clashes within and between the two parties strained old ways of doing business. In response, Republicans dodged, bent, or reinterpreted several institutional constraints in pursuit of their party’s legislative priorities."[2]

According to a 2018 study in The Journal of Politics, "the legislative record of the 115th Congress has been less impressive than that of other recent majority parties in control of unified government."[3] The study argues that this reflected a lack of internal unity in the Republican Party.[3]

Contents

Major events[edit]

President Donald Trump addressing Congress, with Vice President Mike Pence and House Speaker Paul Ryan.

Major legislation[edit]

Enacted[edit]

Proposed[edit]

Party summary[edit]

Resignations and new members are discussed in the "Changes in membership" section, below.

Senate[edit]

Senate membership (since September 4, 2018)
     47 Democrats      51 Republicans
     2 Independents, caucusing with Democrats
Affiliation Party
(shading indicates majority caucus)
Total Vacant
Democratic Independent Republican
End of previous Congress 44 2 54 100 0
Begin (January 3, 2017) 46 2 52 100 0
February 8, 2017 [note 1] 51 99 1
February 9, 2017 [note 1] 52 100 0
January 2, 2018 [note 2] 45 99 1
January 3, 2018 [note 1][note 2] 47 51 100 0
April 1, 2018 [note 3] 50 99 1
April 2, 2018 [note 3] 51 100 0
August 25, 2018 [note 4] 50 99 1
September 4, 2018 [note 4] 51 100 0
Latest voting share 49% 51%

House of Representatives[edit]

House membership (since September 10, 2018)
     193 Democrats      236 Republicans
     6 Vacant
Ideological divisions in the House (on March 27, 2017)
     69 Progressive Caucus      Freedom Caucus 33      
     113 Party Democrats      Party Republicans 156      
     11 Blue Dog Coalition      Tuesday Group 48      
     4 Vacant
Party
(shading indicates majority caucus)
Total Vacant
Democratic Independent Republican
End of previous Congress 187 0 246 433 2
Begin (January 3, 2017) 194 0 241 435 0
January 23, 2017 [note 5] 240 434 1
January 24, 2017 [note 6] 193 433 2
February 10, 2017 [note 7] 239 432 3
February 16, 2017 [note 8] 238 431 4
March 1, 2017 [note 9] 237 430 5
April 11, 2017 [note 5][note 10] 238 431 4
May 25, 2017 [note 9][note 10] 239 432 3
June 6, 2017 [note 6][note 10] 194 433 2
June 20, 2017 [note 7][note 8][note 10] 241 435 0
June 30, 2017 [note 11] 240 434 1
October 21, 2017 [note 12] 239 433 2
November 7, 2017 [note 11][note 10] 240 434 1
December 5, 2017 [note 13] 193 433 2
December 8, 2017 [note 14] 239 432 3
January 15, 2018 [note 15] 238 431 4
March 13, 2018 [note 12][note 10] 194 432 3
March 16, 2018 [note 16] 193 431 4
April 6, 2018 [note 17] 237 430 5
April 23, 2018 [note 18] 236 429 6
April 24, 2018 [note 14][note 10] 237 430 5
April 27, 2018 [note 19] 236 429 6
May 12, 2018 [note 20] 235 428 7
June 30, 2018 [note 17][note 10] 236 429 6
August 7, 2018 [note 15][note 10] 237 430 5
September 10, 2018 [note 21] 236 429 6
Latest voting share 45.0% 0.0% 54.9%  
Non-voting members 3 1 2 6 0

Leadership[edit]

Section contents: Senate: Majority (R), Minority (D)House: Majority (R), Minority (D)

Senate[edit]

Senate President
Joe Biden
Joe Biden (D),
until January 20, 2017
Mike Pence
Mike Pence (R),
from January 20, 2017

Majority (Republican) leadership[edit]

Minority (Democratic) leadership[edit]

House of Representatives[edit]

House Speaker

Majority (Republican) leadership[edit]

Minority (Democratic) leadership[edit]

Demographics[edit]

Note: demographics as of the beginning of the Congress in January 3, 2017:
Democratic women in the House of Representatives wearing white to honor women’s suffrage. (March 2017)

The 115th Congress is, in aggregate, the eldest in recent history.[citation needed] The average age of the members in the House of Representatives is 57.8 years, while the average age of the members in the Senate is 61.8 years.[28]

The most common occupation of Senators prior to election was law, followed by public service/politics, then business. In the House of Representatives, business is the dominant prior occupation, followed by public service/politics, and finally law.[28] Currently 94.1% of House members and 100% of Senators have a bachelor's degree or higher, a historically high level of education for a United States Congress. In addition, 167 members of the House and 55 members of the Senate have a law degree. Only 18 members of Congress have no college education.[28]

The extent of racial diversity in the 115th Congress is 52 African American members, 45 Hispanic or Latino members, 18 members of Asian, South Asian, or Pacific Islander ancestry, 2 members of Native American ancestry, the remaining 418 members of Congress are white.[28] Women comprise 20.1% of the membership in the 115th Congress, which has 109 women and 426 men. This represents an increase of 21 women from the 114th Congress.[28]

Currently, there are seven openly LGBT members serving in Congress. Tammy Baldwin,[29] Jared Polis,[30] Sean Patrick Maloney, Mark Takano, David Cicilline, and Mark Pocan are openly gay, while Kyrsten Sinema is openly bisexual.[31] The majority of the 115th Congress is religiously affiliated with 90.7% Christian adherence. Approximately half of the Christians are Protestant. Other religious faiths of Congress members include Jewish, Buddhist, Muslim, and Hindu.[28]

Members[edit]

Senate[edit]

The numbers refer to their Senate classes. All of the class 3 seats were contested in the November 2016 elections. Class 1 terms end with this Congress, requiring re-election in 2018; Class 2 began in the last Congress, requiring re-election in 2020; and Class 3 began in this Congress, requiring re-election in 2022.

House of Representatives[edit]

All 435 seats were filled by the regular elections on November 8, 2016, or subsequent special elections thereafter.

Changes in membership[edit]

Senate[edit]

State
(class)
Vacator Reason for change Successor Date of successor's
formal installation
Alabama
(2)
Jeff Sessions
(R)
Resigned February 8, 2017 to become U.S. Attorney General.[35]
Successor appointed February 9, 2017 to continue the term.[36]
Luther Strange
(R)
February 9, 2017
Minnesota
(2)
Al Franken
(D)
Resigned January 2, 2018 amid a sexual misconduct scandal.[37]
Successor appointed January 2, 2018 to continue the term.[32]
Tina Smith
(D)
January 3, 2018
Alabama
(2)
Luther Strange
(R)
Appointment expired January 3, 2018 following a special election.[38][39]
Successor elected December 12, 2017 to finish the term and qualified January 3, 2018.[40]
Doug Jones
(D)
January 3, 2018
Mississippi
(2)
Thad Cochran
(R)
Resigned April 1, 2018 for health reasons.[41]
Successor appointed April 2, 2018 to continue the term.[33]
Cindy Hyde-Smith
(R)
April 9, 2018
Arizona
(3)
John McCain
(R)
Died August 25, 2018.[42]
Successor appointed September 4, 2018 to continue the term.[43]
Jon Kyl
(R)
September 5, 2018

House of Representatives[edit]

District Vacator Reason for change Successor Date of successor's
formal installation
Kansas 4 Mike Pompeo
(R)
Resigned January 23, 2017 to become Director of the Central Intelligence Agency.[44]
A special election was held April 11, 2017.[45]
Ron Estes
(R)
April 25, 2017
California 34 Xavier Becerra
(D)
Resigned January 24, 2017 to become Attorney General of California.[46]
A special election was held June 6, 2017.[47]
Jimmy Gomez
(D)
July 11, 2017
Georgia 6 Tom Price
(R)
Resigned February 10, 2017 to become U.S. Secretary of Health and Human Services.[48]
A special election was held June 20, 2017.[49]
Karen Handel
(R)
June 26, 2017
South Carolina 5 Mick Mulvaney
(R)
Resigned February 16, 2017 to become Director of the Office of Management and Budget.[50]
A special election was held June 20, 2017.[51]
Ralph Norman
(R)
June 26, 2017
Montana at-large Ryan Zinke
(R)
Resigned March 1, 2017 to become U.S. Secretary of the Interior.[50]
A special election was held May 25, 2017.[52]
Greg Gianforte
(R)
June 21, 2017
Utah 3 Jason Chaffetz
(R)
Resigned June 30, 2017.[53]
A special election was held November 7, 2017.[54]
John Curtis
(R)
November 13, 2017
Pennsylvania 18 Tim Murphy
(R)
Resigned October 21, 2017.[55]
A special election was held March 13, 2018.[56]
Conor Lamb
(D)
April 12, 2018
Michigan 13 John Conyers
(D)
Resigned December 5, 2017.[57]
A special election will be held November 6, 2018.[58]
TBD TBD
Arizona 8 Trent Franks
(R)
Resigned December 8, 2017.[59]
A special election was held April 24, 2018.[60]
Debbie Lesko
(R)
May 7, 2018
Ohio 12 Pat Tiberi
(R)
Resigned January 15, 2018, to lead the Ohio Business Roundtable.[61][62]
A special election was held August 7, 2018[63]
Troy Balderson (R) September 5, 2018
New York 25 Louise Slaughter
(D)
Died March 16, 2018.[64]
A special election will be held November 6, 2018.[65]
TBD TBD
Texas 27 Blake Farenthold
(R)
Resigned April 6, 2018.[20]
A special election was held June 30, 2018.[66]
Michael Cloud
(R)
July 10, 2018
Oklahoma 1 Jim Bridenstine
(R)
Resigned April 23, 2018 to become the Administrator of National Aeronautics and Space Administration.[67]
There will not be a special election so the seat will remain vacant for the remainder of the term.[68]
Not filled this Congress.
Pennsylvania 7 Pat Meehan
(R)
Resigned April 27, 2018.[69]
A special election will be held November 6, 2018.[70]
TBD TBD
Pennsylvania 15 Charlie Dent
(R)
Resigned May 12, 2018.[71]
A special election will be held November 6, 2018.[70]
TBD TBD
Florida 6 Ron DeSantis
(R)
Resigned September 10, 2018.[72]
Seat will likely remain remain vacant for the remainder of the term.
Not filled this Congress.

Committees[edit]

Section contents: Senate, House, Joint

Listed alphabetically by chamber, including Chairman and Ranking Member.

Senate[edit]

Committee Chairman Ranking Member
Agriculture, Nutrition and Forestry Pat Roberts (R-KS) Debbie Stabenow (D-MI)
Appropriations Richard Shelby (R-AL) Patrick Leahy (D-VT)
Armed Services John McCain (R-AZ), until August 25, 2018
Jim Inhofe (R-OK), from September 6, 2018
Jack Reed (D-RI)
Banking, Housing and Urban Affairs Mike Crapo (R-ID) Sherrod Brown (D-OH)
Budget Mike Enzi (R-WY) Bernie Sanders (I-VT)
Commerce, Science and Transportation John Thune (R-SD) Bill Nelson (D-FL)
Energy and Natural Resources Lisa Murkowski (R-AK) Maria Cantwell (D-WA)
Environment and Public Works John Barrasso (R-WY) Tom Carper (D-DE)
Finance Orrin Hatch (R-UT) Ron Wyden (D-OR)
Foreign Relations Bob Corker (R-TN) Bob Menendez (D-NJ)
Health, Education, Labor and Pensions Lamar Alexander (R-TN) Patty Murray (D-WA)
Homeland Security and Governmental Affairs Ron Johnson (R-WI) Claire McCaskill (D-MO)
Indian Affairs John Hoeven (R-ND) Tom Udall (D-NM)
Judiciary Chuck Grassley (R-IA) Dianne Feinstein (D-CA)
Rules and Administration Roy Blunt (R-MO) Amy Klobuchar (D-MN)
Small Business and Entrepreneurship Jim Risch (R-ID) Jeanne Shaheen (D-NH)
Veterans' Affairs Johnny Isakson (R-GA) Jon Tester (D-MT)
Aging Susan Collins (R-ME) Bob Casey Jr. (D-PA)
Ethics Johnny Isakson (R-GA) Chris Coons (D-DE)
Intelligence Richard Burr (R-NC) Mark Warner (D-VA)
Narcotics Chuck Grassley (R-IA) Dianne Feinstein (D-CA)

House of Representatives[edit]

Committee Chairman[73] Ranking Member
Agriculture Mike Conaway (R-TX) Collin Peterson (D-MN)
Appropriations Rodney Frelinghuysen (R-NJ) Nita Lowey (D-NY)
Armed Services Mac Thornberry (R-TX) Adam Smith (D-WA)
Budget Diane Black (R-TN), until January 11, 2018
Acting until February 16, 2017
Steve Womack (R-AR), from January 11, 2018
John Yarmuth (D-KY)
Education and the Workforce Virginia Foxx (R-NC) Bobby Scott (D-VA)
Energy and Commerce Greg Walden (R-OR) Frank Pallone (D-NJ)
Ethics Susan Brooks (R-IN) Ted Deutch (D-FL)
Financial Services Jeb Hensarling (R-TX) Maxine Waters (D-CA)
Foreign Affairs Ed Royce (R-CA) Eliot Engel (D-NY)
Homeland Security Michael McCaul (R-TX) Bennie Thompson (D-MS)
House Administration Gregg Harper (R-MS) Bob Brady (D-PA)
Judiciary Bob Goodlatte (R-VA) John Conyers (D-MI), until November 26, 2017
Jerrold Nadler (D-NY), from November 26, 2017
Acting until December 20, 2017
Natural Resources Rob Bishop (R-UT) Raúl Grijalva (D-AZ)
Oversight and Government Reform Jason Chaffetz (R-UT), until June 13, 2017
Trey Gowdy (R-SC), from June 13, 2017
Elijah Cummings (D-MD)
Rules Pete Sessions (R-TX) Louise Slaughter (D-NY), until March 16, 2018
Jim McGovern (D-MA), from March 17, 2018
Acting until April 10, 2018
Science, Space & Technology Lamar S. Smith (R-TX) Eddie Bernice Johnson (D-TX)
Small Business Steve Chabot (R-OH) Nydia Velázquez (D-NY)
Transportation and Infrastructure Bill Shuster (R-PA) Peter DeFazio (D-OR)
Veterans' Affairs Phil Roe (R-TN) Tim Walz (D-MN)
Ways and Means Kevin Brady (R-TX) Richard Neal (D-MA)
Permanent Select Committee on Intelligence Devin Nunes (R-CA) Adam Schiff (D-CA)

Joint[edit]

Committee Chairman Ranking Member Vice Chairman Vice Ranking Member
Economic Rep. Pat Tiberi (R-OH), until January 11, 2018
Rep. Erik Paulsen (R-MN), from January 11, 2018
Sen. Martin Heinrich (D-NM) Sen. Mike Lee (R-UT) Rep. Carolyn Maloney (D-NY)
Inaugural Ceremonies Sen. Roy Blunt (R-MO) Rep. Nancy Pelosi (D-CA) Rep. Paul Ryan (R-WI) Sen. Chuck Schumer (D-NY)
The Library Sen. Roy Blunt (R-MO) Sen. Amy Klobuchar (D-MN) Sen. Richard Shelby (R-AL) Rep. Bob Brady (D-PA)
Printing Sen. Richard Shelby (R-AL) Rep. Bob Brady (D-PA) Sen. Roy Blunt (R-MO) Sen. Amy Klobuchar (D-MN)
Taxation Rep. Kevin Brady (R-TX) Sen. Ron Wyden (D-OR) Sen. Orrin Hatch (R-UT) Rep. Richard Neal (D-MA)
Solvency of Multiemployer Pension Plans (Select) Sen. Orrin Hatch (R-UT) (co-chair) N/A Sen. Sherrod Brown (D-OH) (co-chair) N/A
Budget and Appropriations Process Reform (Select) Rep. Steve Womack (R-AR) (co-chair) N/A Rep. Nita Lowey (D-NY) (co-chair) N/A

Employees and legislative agency directors[edit]

Senate[edit]

House of Representatives[edit]

Legislative branch agency directors[edit]

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ a b c In Alabama, Senator Jeff Sessions (R) resigned February 8, 2017. Luther Strange (R) was appointed February 9, 2017 to continue the term. Doug Jones (D) was elected to finish the term and qualified January 3, 2018.
  2. ^ a b In Minnesota, Senator Al Franken (D) resigned January 2, 2018. Tina Smith (D) was appointed January 3, 2018 to continue the term.
  3. ^ a b In Mississippi, Senator Thad Cochran (R) resigned April 1, 2018. Cindy Hyde-Smith (R) was appointed April 2, 2018 to continue the term.
  4. ^ a b In Arizona, Senator John McCain (R) died on August 25, 2018. Jon Kyl (R) was appointed September 4, 2018 to continue the term.
  5. ^ a b In Kansas's 4th district: Mike Pompeo (R) resigned January 23, 2017, and Ron Estes (R) was elected April 11, 2017.
  6. ^ a b In California's 34th district: Xavier Becerra (D) resigned January 24, 2017, and Jimmy Gomez (D) was elected June 6, 2017.
  7. ^ a b In Georgia's 6th district: Tom Price (R) resigned February 10, 2017, and Karen Handel (R) was elected June 20, 2017.
  8. ^ a b In South Carolina's 5th district: Mick Mulvaney (R) resigned February 16, 2017, and Ralph Norman (R) was elected June 20, 2017.
  9. ^ a b In Montana's at-large district: Ryan Zinke (R) resigned March 1, 2017, and Greg Gianforte (R) was elected May 25, 2017.
  10. ^ a b c d e f g h i Service begins on the day of a special election, when qualified, not necessarily upon the oath of office.
  11. ^ a b In Utah's 3rd district: Jason Chaffetz (R) resigned June 30, 2017, and John Curtis (R) was elected November 7, 2017.
  12. ^ a b In Pennsylvania's 18th district: Tim Murphy (R) resigned October 21, 2017, and Conor Lamb (D) was elected March 13, 2018.
  13. ^ In Michigan's 13th district: Rep. John Conyers (D) resigned December 5, 2017.
  14. ^ a b In Arizona's 8th district: Trent Franks (R) resigned December 8, 2017, and Debbie Lesko (R) was elected April 24, 2018.
  15. ^ a b In Ohio's 12th district: Pat Tiberi (R) resigned January 15, 2018, and Troy Balderson (R) was elected August 7, 2018, although the results weren't final until AUgust 24, 2018.
  16. ^ In New York's 25th district: Louise Slaughter (D) died March 16, 2018.
  17. ^ a b In Texas's 27th district: Blake Farenthold (R) resigned April 6, 2018, and Michael Cloud (R) was elected June 30, 2018.
  18. ^ In Oklahoma's 1st district: Jim Bridenstine (R) resigned April 23, 2018.
  19. ^ In Pennsylvania's 7th district: Pat Meehan (R) resigned April 27, 2018.
  20. ^ In Pennsylvania's 15th district: Charlie Dent (R) resigned May 12, 2018.
  21. ^ In Florida's 6th district: Ron DeSantis (R) resigned September 10, 2018
  22. ^ a b c d e f g h i The Minnesota Democratic–Farmer–Labor Party (DFL) and the North Dakota Democratic-Nonpartisan League Party (D-NPL) are the Minnesota and North Dakota affiliates of the U.S. Democratic Party and are counted as Democrats.

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b H.Res. 670, §3(b), and "House Floor Activities | Legislative Days of January 03, 2018". Office of the Clerk of the United States House of Representatives. Retrieved January 4, 2018. 
  2. ^ Binder, Sarah (July 31, 2018). "Dodging the Rules in Trump's Republican Congress". The Journal of Politics. doi:10.1086/699334. ISSN 0022-3816. Retrieved August 1, 2018. 
  3. ^ a b Lee, Frances E. (2018-07-31). "The 115th Congress and Questions of Party Unity in a Polarized Era". The Journal of Politics: 000–000. doi:10.1086/699335. ISSN 0022-3816. 
  4. ^ "House Overwhelmingly Votes to Condemn UN Resolution on Israel Settlements". Fox News. January 5, 2017. Retrieved January 7, 2017. 
  5. ^ Cortellessa, Eric (January 6, 2017). "US House Passes Motion Repudiating UN Resolution on Israel". The Times of Israel. Retrieved January 17, 2017. 
  6. ^ Caldwell, Leigh Ann (January 12, 2017). "Senate Approves First Step Toward Repealing Obamacare in Late-Night Session". NBC News. Retrieved January 12, 2017. 
  7. ^ Kurtzleben, Danielle (January 12, 2017). "Senate Takes First Step To Repeal Obamacare — So What's Next?". NPR. Retrieved January 12, 2017. 
  8. ^ "DeVos Confirmed as Education Secretary, Pence Casts Historic Tie-Breaking Vote". Fox News. February 7, 2017. Retrieved February 8, 2017. 
  9. ^ Strafford, Michael; Emma, Caitlin; Heffling, Kimberly (February 7, 2017). "Senate confirms DeVos as secretary of education". Politico. Retrieved February 8, 2017. 
  10. ^ Caygle, Heather (December 7, 2017). "Democrat Kihuen hanging on despite harassment claim". Politico. Retrieved December 8, 2017. 
  11. ^ Watson, Kathryn (December 16, 2017). "Facing ethics probe, Rep. Ruben Kihuen won't run for re-election". CBS News. Retrieved December 17, 2017. 
  12. ^ Gay Stolberg, Sheryl; Alcindor, Yamiche; Fandos, Nicholas (December 7, 2017). "Al Franken to Resign From Senate Amid Harassment Allegations". New York Times. Retrieved December 8, 2017. 
  13. ^ Viebeck, Elise; Weigel, David (December 5, 2017). "Rep. John Conyers Jr. resigns over sexual harassment allegations after a half-century in Congress". Washington Post. Retrieved December 8, 2017. 
  14. ^ Bade, Rachel (December 8, 2017). "Franks to resign Friday after harassment allegations". Politico. Retrieved December 8, 2017. 
  15. ^ CNN, Mick Krever and Sophie Tatum, (December 11, 2017). "Exclusive: Gillibrand calls on Trump to resign". CNN.com. Retrieved January 16, 2018. 
  16. ^ Chandler, Kim; Peoples, Steve (December 12, 2017). "Jones wins in stunning Alabama upset". Associated Press. Retrieved December 12, 2017. 
  17. ^ Sullivan, Sean; Weigel, David; Fahrenthold, David A. (December 12, 2017). "Doug Jones declared victor in Alabama race for Senate; Roy Moore may seek recount". The Washington Post. ISSN 0190-8286. Retrieved December 13, 2017. 
  18. ^ Edelman, Adam; Caldwell, Leigh Ann (December 8, 2017). "Ethics probe into Farenthold picks up steam after accuser agrees to cooperate". NBC News. Retrieved December 8, 2017. 
  19. ^ Schneider, Elena (December 14, 2017). "Farenthold won't seek reelection". Politico. Washington, DC. Retrieved December 14, 2017. 
  20. ^ a b Brufke, Juliegrace (April 6, 2018). "GOP Rep. Farenthold resigns amid sexual harassment scandal". The Hill. Retrieved April 6, 2018. 
  21. ^ Kaplan, Thomas. "House Passes Measure to Repeal and Replace the Affordable Care Act". NY Times. Retrieved May 4, 2017. 
  22. ^ Roll call vote 256, via Clerk.House.gov
  23. ^ "Office of the Clerk of the U.S. House of Representatives". June 8, 2017. Retrieved June 10, 2017. 
  24. ^ Roll call vote 299, via Clerk.House.gov
  25. ^ a b c "Senate Democrats elect Chuck Schumer as their new leader". Retrieved March 19, 2017. 
  26. ^ a b c Everett, Burgess; Schor, Elana (November 16, 2016). "Senate Democrats settle on leadership team, Sanders elevated". Politico. Retrieved January 3, 2017. 
  27. ^ Robillard, Kevin; Schor, Elana (November 18, 2016). "Van Hollen to serve as DSCC chair". politico.com. Retrieved March 12, 2017. 
  28. ^ a b c d e f "Membership of the 115th Congress: A Profile" (PDF). Congressional Research Service. November 13, 2017. Retrieved November 22, 2017. 
  29. ^ "Wisconsin's Tammy Baldwin is the first openly gay person elected to Senate". CNN. November 7, 2012. Retrieved October 5, 2017. 
  30. ^ Parkinson, John (September 30, 2011). "House Democrat Jared Polis Becomes First Openly Gay Parent in Congress". ABC News. Retrieved September 30, 2011. 
  31. ^ Candido, Sergio N. (October 29, 2012). "Top 5 Gay National Races". South Florida Gay News. Retrieved October 5, 2017. 
  32. ^ a b "Certificate of Appointment of United States Senator from Minnesota" (PDF). Minnesota.gov. January 2, 2018. Retrieved January 3, 2018. 
  33. ^ a b Cindy Hyde-Smith's service began when appointed & qualified, not at oath of office.
  34. ^ In Ohio's 12th congressional district, the August 7, 2018 special election was so close that it wasn't settled until August 24, 2018.
  35. ^ United States Congress. "Jefferson Beauregard Sessions III (id: S001141)". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. Retrieved February 14, 2017. 
  36. ^ https://abcnews.go.com/Politics/alabama-attorney-general-luther-strange-appointed-replace-jeff/story?id=45370967
  37. ^ "Franken to resign Jan. 2 over sexual misconduct allegations". The Washington Post. December 20, 2017. Retrieved December 20, 2017. 
  38. ^ "Governor Moves Special Election for Alabama Senate Seat". Roll Call. Retrieved April 18, 2017. 
  39. ^ Koplowitz, Howard (December 31, 2017). "Doug Jones to be sworn into Senate seat Wednesday on family Bible". The Birmingham News. Retrieved January 1, 2018. 
  40. ^ https://www.washingtonpost.com/powerpost/doug-jones-expected-to-take-senate-oath-on-wednesday-shrinking-gop-majority/2018/01/03/b77c1d40-f094-11e7-b3bf-ab90a706e175_story.html?utm_term=.9f5d77a45c30
  41. ^ https://www.politico.com/story/2018/03/05/cochran-to-resign-april-1-437126
  42. ^ https://www.cnn.com/2018/08/25/politics/john-mccain-obituary/index.html
  43. ^ https://www.azcentral.com/story/news/politics/arizona/2018/09/04/jon-kyl-named-john-mccain-replacement-senate-appointment-ducey/1148030002/
  44. ^ "Rep. Mike Pompeo (R-KS04) resignation letter read in House after Senate CIA Director confirmation". Retrieved March 19, 2017. 
  45. ^ "Sam Brownback on Twitter". Retrieved March 19, 2017. 
  46. ^ McDonnell, Patrick J. (January 24, 2017). "Xavier Becerra takes oath of office, is first Latino to become California attorney general". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved January 24, 2017. 
  47. ^ "Assemblyman Jimmy Gomez Wins Special Election To Represent California's 34th District In Congress". Archived from the original on November 23, 2017. Retrieved December 8, 2017. 
  48. ^ "Farewell by Rep. Tom Price". 
  49. ^ "Karen Handel Wins Georgia Special Election, Fending Off Upstart Democrat". 
  50. ^ a b "Current Vacanies, 115th Congress". 
  51. ^ "Mulvaney's confirmation makes replacement election official". February 16, 2017. Archived from the original on February 17, 2017. 
  52. ^ Lutey, Tom. "Zinke sworn in as Interior secretary; Montana prepares for special election". Retrieved March 19, 2017. 
  53. ^ Chaffetz, Jason (May 18, 2017). "Chaffetz Letter to Utah's 3rd Congressional District". U.S. Congressman Jason Chaffetz. Archived from the original on May 18, 2017. Retrieved May 18, 2017. 
  54. ^ Bloch, Matthew; Lee, Jasmine (November 8, 2017). "Election Results: Curtis Wins U.S. House Seat in Utah". The New York Times. 
  55. ^ Bade, Rachael. "Tim Murphy resigns from Congress". Retrieved October 5, 2017. 
  56. ^ "Special election date set for Tim Murphy's congressional seat". 
  57. ^ "John Conyers resigns from Congress after sexual harassment allegations". 
  58. ^ "Conyers' Seat Will Remain Vacant for 11 Months". 
  59. ^ Rousselle, Christine (December 8, 2017). "BREAKING: Trent Franks Resigns, Effective Immediately". TownHall.com. Retrieved January 16, 2018. 
  60. ^ Hansen, Ronald J. (December 11, 2017). "Dates set for special election to replace Rep. Trent Franks". AzCentral.com. Retrieved January 16, 2018. 
  61. ^ Tiberi, Pat (October 19, 2017). "Statement by Congressman Pat Tiberi". U.S. Congressman Pat Tiberi. Retrieved October 22, 2017. 
  62. ^ Wehrman, Jessica (January 3, 2018). "Tiberi's last day in Congress will be Jan. 15". The Columbus Dispatch. Retrieved January 4, 2018. 
  63. ^ Ludlow, Randy (January 5, 2018). "Kasich sets primary for Tiberi seat for May 8; special election on Aug. 7". The Columbus Dispatch. Retrieved January 11, 2018. 
  64. ^ "Louise Slaughter, longtime progressive New York congresswoman, dies at 88". 
  65. ^ "Cuomo sets date for special election to fill 25th Congressional seat". 
  66. ^ Svitek, Patrick. "Texas Gov. Greg Abbott schedules June 30 special election to fill U.S. Rep. Blake Farenthold's seat". Texas Tribute. Retrieved April 24, 2018. 
  67. ^ "Vice president swears in NASA's new administrator". clickorlando.com. Retrieved April 23, 2018. 
  68. ^ https://www.rollcall.com/news/politics/tammy-duckworth-baby-cast-theior-first-senate-vote-together-opposing-nasa-nominee
  69. ^ Tamari, Jonathan. "Rep. Pat Meehan resigns; will pay back $39,000 used for harassment settlement". Philadelphia Inquirer. Retrieved April 27, 2018. 
  70. ^ a b "Wolf Sets Special Election for Meehan's Seat on General Election Day". NBC Philadelphia. Retrieved 2 May 2018. 
  71. ^ "Charlie Dent: 'It has truly been an honor and privilege to serve the people'". The Morning Call. Retrieved May 14, 2018. 
  72. ^ Dixon, Matt. "DeSantis steps down from Congress to focus on governor's race". Politico. Retrieved 10 September 2018. 
  73. ^ "Committee Chair Recommendations for the 115th Congress". Speaker.gov. December 1, 2016. Retrieved December 5, 2016. 
  74. ^ a b c d e f "Senate Organization Chart for the 114th Congress". Senate.gov. United States Senate. Retrieved January 4, 2018. 
  75. ^ "The Office of the Chaplain, United States House of Representatives". Chaplain.House.gov. Retrieved January 16, 2018. 
  76. ^ "CAO Senior Management". Retrieved January 4, 2018. 
  77. ^ "About The Clerk's Office". Retrieved January 4, 2018. 
  78. ^ "Parliamentarian of the House". United States House of Representatives. Retrieved January 4, 2018. 
  79. ^ "Sergeant at Arms". United States House of Representatives. Retrieved January 4, 2018. 

External links[edit]