120 mm 50 caliber Pattern 1905

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120 mm 50 caliber Pattern 1905
Tykki 120 50.JPG
An open twin-mount Pattern 1905 in Finnish service.
Type Naval gun
Coastal artillery
Railway artillery
Place of origin Great Britain
Service history
In service 1905-1950's
Used by Russian Empire
Soviet Union
Finland
Wars World War I
Russian Civil War
Winter War
World War II
Production history
Designer Vickers
Designed 1905
Manufacturer Vickers
Obukhov State Plant
Produced 1905
No. built 210
Specifications
Weight 3.1 t (3.4 short tons)
Length 6 m (19 ft 8 in) 50 caliber
Barrel length 5.8 m (19 ft 0 in)

Shell Fixed QF ammunition
Shell weight 20.4–29 kg (45–64 lb)
Calibre 120 mm (4.7 in)
Elevation Single mount: -10° to +20°
Twin mount: -3° to +27°[1]
Traverse 360°
Rate of fire 6-7 rpm
Muzzle velocity 792 m/s (2,600 ft/s)
Maximum firing range 13.7 km (8.5 mi) at +20°[2]

The 120 mm 50 caliber Pattern 1905 was a Russian naval gun developed by Vickers for export in the years before World War I that armed a variety of warships of the Imperial Russian Navy. Guns salvaged from scrapped ships found a second life as coastal artillery, railway artillery and aboard river monitors during the Russian Civil War.[2] It was estimated that there were 110 guns in the Soviet Navy's inventory in 1941. Of these, 39 were in the Baltic Fleet, 20 in the Black sea Fleet, 24 in the Amur Flotilla, 11 in the Pacific Fleet and 6 in the Pinsk flotilla in World War II.[1]

History[edit]

The Pattern 1905 began life as a Vickers design produced in Great Britain for export customers. The Pattern 1905 was also produced under license at the Obukhov State Plant in St. Petersburg, Russia.

Construction[edit]

The Pattern 1905 was a built-up gun which consisted of an A tube, three layers of reinforcing tubes, a jacket and a breech piece which screwed onto the jacket.[2] Once Obhukov started production the Vickers guns were referred to as model 1 guns, while those manufactured by Obukhov were referred to as model 2 guns.[3] By 1918 it was estimated that 180 guns had been completed with another 20 partially complete. A few more were finished between 1921-24 from existing stocks.[1]

Naval Use[edit]

The Pattern 1905 guns armed armored cruisers, dreadnought battleships, gunboats, icebreakers and river monitors of the Imperial Russian Navy and Soviet Navy built or refit between 1905-1924.

Armored cruisers:

Dreadnought battleships:

  • Gangut-class battleships - The four ships of this class had an anti-torpedo boat armament of sixteen Pattern 1905 guns in casemates amidships.[4]

Gunboats:

  • Kars-class gunboats - The two ships of this class were built with a primary armament of two Pattern 1905 guns on open mounts.[5]
  • Gilyak-class gunboats - The four ships of this class were built with a primary armament of two Pattern 1905 guns on open mounts.[6]

Icebreakers:

  • Three Finnish Icebreakers the Sampo, Tarmo and Voima were briefly armed with Pattern 1905 guns in open twin-mounts. The guns were found to be too heavy and their recoil forces were too strong for the ships and were removed.[3]

River monitors:

  • Tayfun-class river monitors - The eight ships of this class were built with a secondary armament of four Pattern 1905 guns in two twin-turrets amidships.[7]

Ammunition[edit]

Ammunition was of Fixed QF type and weighed between 20.4–29 kg (45–64 lb).

The gun was able to fire:

Photo Gallery[edit]

References[edit]

  • Friedman, Norman (2011). Naval Weapons of World War One. Barnsley, South Yorkshire, UK: Seaforth. ISBN 978-1-84832-100-7. 

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ a b c DiGiulian, Tony. "Russia / USSR 120 mm/50 (4.7") Pattern 1905 - NavWeaps". www.navweaps.com. Retrieved 2017-07-29. 
  2. ^ a b c d Friedman, Norman (2011). Naval weapons of World War One. S. Yorkshire: Seaforth Pub. ISBN 9781848321007. OCLC 751804655. 
  3. ^ a b "FINNISH ARMY 1918 - 1945: HEAVY COASTAL GUNS". www.jaegerplatoon.net. Retrieved 2017-07-29. 
  4. ^ a b "Севастополь <Sevastopol> battleships (1914 - 1915) - Imperial Russian Navy / Soviet Navy (Russia / USSR)". www.navypedia.org. Retrieved 2017-07-30. 
  5. ^ "Карс <Kars> gunboats (1910) - Imperial Russian Navy / Soviet Navy (Russia / USSR)". www.navypedia.org. Retrieved 2017-07-30. 
  6. ^ "120/50-мм пушка Виккерса". wunderwafe.ru. Retrieved 2017-07-30. 
  7. ^ "Тайфун <Tayfun> river gunboats (monitors) (1910) - Imperial Russian Navy / Soviet Navy (Russia / USSR)". www.navypedia.org. Retrieved 2017-07-30. 

External links[edit]