125 mm smoothbore ammunition

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The following is a list of ammunition fired by the 125 mm smoothbore gun series used in the T-64, T-72, T-80, M-84, T-90, PT-91, T-14 Armata, and other tanks derived from those designs, as well as the 2A45 Sprut Anti-Tank gun.

APFSDS-T[edit]

Armour-piercing fin-stabilized discarding sabot tracer or APFSDS-T rounds. Typically used against other modern tanks.

There are different ways to measure penetration value. NATO uses the 50% (This means that 50% of the shell had to go through the plate), while the Soviet/Russia standard is higher (80% had to go through). According to authorities like Paul Lakowski, the difference in performance can reach as much as 8%[1]

3VBM3/3BM9/10[edit]

Entered service in 1962. The projectile is Maraging steel.

  • Country of origin: Soviet Union
  • Projectile dimension: 410 mm 10: 1 L/d
  • Projectile weight (including sabot): 5.67 kg
  • Projectile weight: 3.6 kg
  • Muzzle velocity: 1800 m/s
  • Muzzle energy: 5.8 MJ
  • Penetration: 245 mm at 0° at 2000 m, 70 mm - 150 mm at 60° at 2000 m, (energy at 2000 m is 4.2 MJ)

3VBM6/3BM12/13[edit]

Entered service (estimated) in 1968. Essentially the same as the 3BM9 projectile with a tungsten carbide plug.

  • Country of origin: Soviet Union
  • Projectile dimension: 410 mm 10: 1 L/d
  • Projectile weight (including sabot): 5.67 kg
  • Projectile weight: 3.6 kg
  • Muzzle velocity: 1800 m/s
  • Muzzle energy: 5.8 MJ
  • Penetration: 280 mm at 0° at 2000 m, 110 mm at 60° at 2000 m, (energy at 2000 m is 4.2 MJ)[2]

3VBM7/3BM15/16[edit]

BM15 APFSDS projectile

Entered service (estimated 1972). A slightly longer 3BM12 projectile.

  • Country of origin: Soviet Union
  • Projectile dimension: 435 mm 12: 1 L/d
  • Projectile weight (including sabot): 5.9 kg
  • Projectile weight: 3.9 kg including 2.9 kg and 0.27 kg tungsten carbide plug
  • Muzzle velocity: 1785 m/s
  • Muzzle energy: 6.2 MJ
  • Certified penetration: 310 mm at 0° at 2000 m, 120 mm - 150 mm at 60° at 2000 m

3VBM8/3BM17/18[edit]

Entered service (estimated 1972). An export version of the 3BM-15 without the tungsten carbide plug. Hence, it is an all-steel penetrator with inferior performance.

  • Country of origin: Soviet Union
  • Projectile dimension: 450 mm 12: 1 L/d
  • Projectile weight (including sabot): 5.9 kg
  • Projectile weight: 3.9 kg
  • Muzzle velocity: 1780 m/s
  • Muzzle energy: 6.2 MJ
  • Certified penetration: 310 mm at 0° at 2000 m

3VBM9/3BM22/23[edit]

Entered service 1976. Tungsten carbide penetrator core sheathed in steel.

  • Country of origin: Soviet Union
  • Projectile dimension: 400 mm 11: 1 L/d
  • Projectile weight (including sabot): 6.55 kg
  • Projectile weight: 4.485 kg
  • Muzzle velocity: 1785 m/s
  • Muzzle energy: 7.0 MJ
  • Penetration: 380 mm at 0° at 2000 m, 170 mm - 200 mm at 60° at 2000 m

3VBM10/3BM29/30[edit]

Entered service 1982. Depleted uranium-nickel-iron alloy sheathed in steel.

  • Country of origin: Soviet Union
  • Projectile dimension: 450 mm 12: 1 L/d - including 250 mm core
  • Projectile weight (including sabot): 6.55 kg
  • Projectile weight: 4.85 kg
  • Muzzle velocity: 1700 m/s
  • Muzzle energy: 7.0 MJ
  • Penetration: 430 mm at 0° at 2000 m, 210 mm at 60° at 2000 m

3VBM11/3BM26/27[edit]

Entered service 1983. Tungsten-nickel-iron alloy core sheathed in steel.

  • Country of origin: Soviet Union
  • Projectile dimension: 395 mm 11: 1 L/d
  • Projectile weight (including sabot): 7.05 kg
  • Projectile weight: 4.8 kg
  • Muzzle velocity: 1720 m/s
  • Muzzle energy: 7.5 MJ
  • Penetration: 410 mm at 0° at 2000 m, 200 mm at 60° at 2000 m

3VBM13/3BM32/33[edit]

Entered service in 1985. The projectile is a integrated depleted uranium-nickel-zinc alloy penetrator.

  • Country of origin: Soviet Union
  • Projectile dimension: 380 mm 13: 1 L/d
  • Projectile weight (including sabot): 7.05 kg
  • Projectile weight: 4.85 kg
  • Muzzle velocity: 1700 m/s
  • Muzzle energy: 7.0 MJ
  • Penetration 500 mm at 0° at 2000 m, 250 mm at 60° at 2000 m

3VBM17/3BM42 (3BM44 "Mango")[edit]

A BM-42 APFSDS projectile

Entered service in 1986. The projectile is double tungsten alloy rod sheathed in low melting point alloy covered with steel,intended to increase penetration against Non-Explosive Reactive Armor (NERA) such as Chobham armour.

  • Country of origin: Soviet Union
  • Projectile dimension: 452 mm 15: 1 L/d
  • Round weight: 20.4 kg
  • Projectile weight: 4.85 kg [3]
  • Projectile weight (including sabot): 7.05 kg
  • Muzzle velocity: 1715 m/s
  • Muzzle energy: 7.0 MJ
  • Penetration: 450 mm at 0° at 2000 m, 230 mm at 60° at 2000 m

3VBM19/3BM42M (3BM44M "Lekalo")[edit]

Entered service in 1994 Utilising an improved penetrator and a new sabot. Reported to be tungsten alloy.

  • Country of origin: Russia
  • Projectile dimension: 570 mm 25: 1 L/d
  • Round weight: 4.6 kg
  • Projectile weight (including sabot): 6.95 kg
  • Muzzle velocity: 1750 m/s
  • Muzzle energy: 7.04 MJ
  • Penetration: 650 mm at 0° at 2000 m

3VBM20/3BM46 (3BM48 "Svinets")[edit]

Entered service in 1991 Utilising a new Sabot. Reported to be uranium alloy.

  • Country of origin: Soviet Union
  • Projectile dimension: 546 mm 21.84: 1 L/d
  • Round weight: 4.85 kg
  • Projectile weight (including sabot): ?
  • Muzzle velocity: 1700 m/s
  • Muzzle energy: 7.4 MJ
  • Penetration: 650 mm at 0° at 2000 m, 300 mm at 60° at 2000 m

3VBM?/3BM59 (3BM59 "Svinets-1")[edit]

Entered service : 2002. Utilising a new Sabot. Reported to be Uranium alloy. Used on 2A46M-5 with new autoloader.

  • Country of origin: Russia
  • Projectile dimension: estimated 740 mm 30:1 L/d
  • Round weight: 8.8 kg
  • Projectile weight (including sabot): ?
  • Muzzle velocity: 1650 m/s?
  • Muzzle energy: 12 MJ?
  • Penetration: 830 mm at 0° at 2000 m,410 mm at 60°

3VBM?/3BM60 (3BM60 "Svinets-2")[edit]

Entered service : 2002. Utilising a new Sabot. Reported to be tungsten alloy.Used on 2A46M-5 with new autoloader.

  • Country of origin: Russia
  • Projectile dimension: estimated 740 mm 30:1 L/d
  • Round weight: 8.1 kg
  • Projectile weight (including sabot): ?
  • Muzzle velocity: 1650 m/s?
  • Muzzle energy: 11 MJ?
  • Penetration: 740 mm at 0° at 2000 m or 350 mm at 60° at 2000m

3VBM?/3BM69 "Vacuum-1"[edit]

Entered service in 2005[4] Utilising a new Sabot. Reported to be uranium alloy. For 2A82/2A82-1M cannon on T-80UM-2/T-14s.

  • Country of origin: Russia
  • Projectile dimension: estimated 900 mm
  • Round weight: 9.52 kg (estimated)
  • Projectile weight (including sabot): ?
  • Muzzle velocity: 2050 m/s[5]
  • Muzzle energy: 20 MJ
  • Penetration: 1000 mm at 0° at 2000 m

3VBM?/3BM70 "Vacuum-2"[edit]

Entered service in 2005 Utilising a new Sabot. Reported to be tungsten alloy.

  • Country of origin: Russia
  • Projectile dimension: ?
  • Round weight: ?
  • Projectile weight (including sabot): ?
  • Muzzle velocity: ?
  • Muzzle energy: ?
  • Penetration: 900 mm?? at 0° at 2000 m

HEAT-FS[edit]

High-explosive anti-tank fin stabilised or HEAT-FS rounds. Typically used against lighter or older tanks and Armoured personnel carriers.

3VBK7/3BK12[edit]

Entered service 1962.

  • Country of origin: Soviet Union
  • Projectile dimension: 680 mm
  • Projectile weight: 19 kg
  • Max dispersion: 0.21 mil (0.21 mrad)
  • Muzzle velocity: 905 m/s
  • Charge: shaped charge, steel liner, A-IX-1 (RDX phlegmatized with 5% wax), I-238 detonator
  • Penetration: 420 mm RHA at 0 degrees

3BK12M[edit]

Entered service 1968. Uses improved 3V-15 detonator.

3VBK10/3BK14[edit]

Entered service 1968.

  • Country of origin: Soviet Union
  • Projectile dimension: 680 mm
  • Projectile weight: 19 kg
  • Max dispersion: 0.21 mil (0.21 mrad)
  • Muzzle velocity: 905 m/s
  • Charge: shaped charge, steel liner, phlegmatized 75% HMX, 25% TNT; 3V-15 detonator
  • Charge weight: 1.62 kg
  • Penetration: 450 mm RHA at 0 degrees

3BK14M[edit]

3BK14M round

Improved version, replacing steel liner with a copper liner.[3]

3VBK16/3BK18[edit]

Entered service estimated 1975.

  • Country of origin: Soviet Union
  • Round weight: 29.0 kg
  • Projectile dimension: 680 mm
  • Projectile weight: 19 kg
  • Max dispersion: 0.21 mil (0.21 mrad)
  • Muzzle velocity: 905 m/s
  • Charge: shaped charge, copper liner, phlegmatized 75% HMX, 25% TNT; 3V-15 detonator
  • Penetration: 500 mm RHA at 0 degrees

3BK18M[edit]

Improved warhead. Entered service estimated 1978. Introduced wave-shaping booster.

  • Country of origin: Soviet Union
  • Projectile weight: 19.02 kg
  • Muzzle velocity: 905 m/s
  • Penetration: 550 mm RHA at 0 degrees

3VBK17/3BK21[edit]

Entered service estimated 1980. Enhancements to improve reliability of the copper jet formation.

  • Country of origin: Soviet Union
  • Projectile dimension: 680 mm
  • Projectile weight: 19 kg
  • Max dispersion: 0.21 mil (0.21 mrad)
  • Muzzle velocity: 905 m/s
  • Charge: shaped charge, copper liner, phlegmatized 75% HMX, 25% TNT; 3V-15 detonator
  • Penetration: 550 mm RHA at 0 degrees

3BK21B[edit]

Entered service estimated 1982. Depleted uranium Liner to enhance penetration of advanced composite armours like Chobham.

  • Country of origin: Soviet Union
  • Projectile dimension: 680 mm
  • Projectile weight: 19 kg
  • Muzzle velocity: 905 m/s
  • Penetration: 750 mm RHA at 0 degrees[6]

3VBK21/3BK25[edit]

Entered service estimated 1985.

3VBK25/3BK29[edit]

A 3BK29 HEAT round

Entered service estimated 1988.

  • Country of origin: Soviet Union
  • Round weight: 28.4 kg
  • Projectile dimension: 680 mm
  • Projectile weight: 18.4 kg
  • Muzzle velocity: 915 m/s
  • Penetration: 350mm to 400mm RHA at 60 degree tandem charge

3VBK27?/3BK29M[edit]

First seen publicly in 1998. Reportedly a triple charge warhead.[6]

  • Country of origin: Russia
  • Projectile weight: 18.4 kg
  • Charge weight: 1.62 kg
  • Muzzle velocity: 915 m/s
  • Penetration: Estimated at 800 mm triple charge HEAT[7]

HE-FRAG-FS[edit]

High Explosive Fragmentation Fin Stabilised. General purpose rounds, for use against infantry, bunkers and light vehicles and other 'soft' targets.

3VOF22/3OF19[edit]

A OF-19 HE-FRAG projectile.

Entered service in 1962. Uses the 3V-21 detonator (mass = 0.431 kg, reliability = 0.98). The 90% lethal zone for infantry is reported to be 40 m wide and 20 m deep.[3]

  • Country of origin: Soviet Union
  • Round weight: 33.0 kg
  • Projectile weight: 23.0 kg
  • Muzzle velocity: 850 m/s
  • Max dispersion: 0.23 mil (0.23 mrad)
  • Charge weight: 3.148 kg
  • Charge: TNT

3VOF36/3OF26[edit]

A 3OF26 HE-FRAG round.

Entered service in 1970. Uses the 3V-21 detonator (mass = 0.431 kg, reliability = 0.98). The projectile creates between 600 and 2,000 fragments.

  • Country of origin: Soviet Union
  • Round weight: 33.0 kg
  • Projectile weight: 23.0 kg
  • Muzzle velocity: 850 m/s
  • Max dispersion: 0.23 mil (0.23 mrad)
  • Charge weight: 3.4  kg [1]
  • Charge: A-IX-2 (73% RDX, 23% aluminium powder, phlegmatized with 4% wax) 3.4 kg

3VOF128/3OF82[edit]

Entered service in 2014. Uses the 3VM-18 programmable detonator. The projectile contained 450 tungsten rod every weight 3 gram and creates 2,500 fragments when air burst mode set.Air burst mode for use against infantry,light vehicles and helicopters, delayed mode use against bunkers and other constructions.

  • Country of origin: Russia
  • Round weight: 33.0 kg
  • Projectile weight: 23.0 kg
  • Muzzle velocity: 850 m/s
  • Max dispersion: 0.23 mil (0.23 mrad)
  • Charge weight: 3.0 kg
  • Charge: A-IX-2 (73% RDX, 23% aluminium powder, phlegmatized with 4% wax) 3.0 kg

Shrapnel-FS[edit]

3VSh7/3Sh7 "Voron"[edit]

Entered service in 1975. Uses the 3VM-17 time detonator for use against wide area infantry and light vehicle.

  • Country of origin: Soviet Union
  • Round weight: 31.3 kg
  • Projectile weight: 21.3 kg
  • Muzzle velocity: 900 m/s
  • Projectiles contain:4700 flechette every weight 1.26 g
  • Charge weight: 0.08 kg

3VSh8/3Sh8"Ainet"[edit]

Entered service in 1988.Uses the 3VM-12 programmable detonator.A part of Remote detonation system "Ainet" on T-80UK commander tank.

  • Country of origin: Soviet Union
  • Round weight: 31.3 kg
  • Projectile weight: 21.3 kg
  • Muzzle velocity: 900 m/s
  • Projectiles contain:4700 flechette every weight 1.26 g
  • Charge weight: 0.08 kg


ATGW/ATGM[edit]

9M112 Kobra[edit]

The 9K112 Kobra round in flight configuration

The 9K112 Kobra (NATO reporting name is AT-8 Songster) is also fired from the 125 mm main guns of the T-64 and T-80 series of tanks[8]

  • Country of origin: Soviet Union
  • Projectile weight: 23.2 kg
  • Warhead weight: 4.5 kg
  • Guidance system: Radio-command guided
  • Range: 100 – 4000 m
  • Penetration: Estimated at 600 millimetres (24 in) tandem charge HEAT

9M119 Refleks[edit]

9M119M guided anti-tank guided missile

The 9M119 Svir and 9M119M Refleks (NATO reporting name: AT-11 Sniper) anti-tank guided missile has semi-automatic laser beam-riding guidance and a tandem hollow-charge HEAT warhead. It has an effective range of 75 m to 5000 m, and takes 17.6 seconds to reach maximum range. Refleks can penetrate about 900 millimetres (35 in) of steel armour and can also engage low-flying air targets such as helicopters.[8]

  • Country of origin: Soviet Union
  • Projectile weight: 16.5 kg
  • Warhead weight: 4.5 kg
  • Guidance system: Laser-beam riding
  • Range: 75 – 5000 m
  • Penetration: Estimated at 900 millimetres (35 in) after ERA tandem charge HEAT

3UBK21 Sprinter[edit]

Designed for the 2A82-1M gun on T-14 Armata tanks, the 3UBK21 Sprinter has Millimeter wave SACLOS guidance and a tandem shaped-charge HEAT warhead. It has an effective range of 50 m to 12000 m. and can penetrate 950 millimetres (37 in) of steel armour after Explosive Reactive Armor. It can also engage low-flying air targets such as helicopters.[9]

  • Country of origin: Russia
  • Projectile weight: ?
  • Warhead weight: ?
  • Guidance system: millimeter wave
  • Range: 50 – 12000 m
  • Penetration: Estimated at 950 millimetres (37 in) after ERA tandem charge HEAT

Guided Shell[edit]

Sokol-1[edit]

The Sokol-1 guided shell is fired from the 125 mm main gun, it borrowed design from the 152mm artillery shell 3OF75 Santimetr-M and both have very similar appearance, but with an added shaped charge cap into its design similar to the M712 Copperhead, intended to defeat heavily armoured targets. It uses the technique that referred to as the Russian Concept of Impulse Corrections (RCIC), an impulse steering flight control system to correct the projectile's trajectory.

  • Country of origin: Russia
  • Projectile weight: 23.0 kg
  • Muzzle velocity: 850 m/s
  • Guidance system: Semi-Active Laser/Passive target contour-based
  • Range: 0.1 – 5.0 km(direct fire)
    12 km(indirect fire
  • Warhead: High-Explosive/700 millimetres (28 in) penetration shaped charge

3UBK14F1/9M119F1[edit]

The 3UBK14F1 guided shell is fired from the 125 mm main gun, its design was modified from 9M119 missile, removing the rocket motor and replacing it with an extra Thermobaric warhead, turning it into a guided shell. Its range was decreased to 3.5 km, and it is claimed[according to whom?] to be 3 times explosive power than regular Thermobaric variant 125 mm guided missiles.

  • Country of origin: Russia
  • Projectile weight: 16.5 kg
  • Muzzle velocity: 284 m/s
  • Guidance system: Laser-beam riding
  • Range: 0.1 – 3.5 km
  • Warhead: Thermobaric estimated 15 kg TNT equivalent

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ http://dziennikzbrojny.pl/artykuly/art,5,19,9828,wojska-ladowe,czolgi,pokonac-pancerz-czesc-iii-dane-amunicji-apfsds-t
  2. ^ http://www.kotsch88.de/tafeln/st_125_mm-ke.htm
  3. ^ a b c Stefan Kotsch. "Das Panzerdetail - Munition der 125 mm Kanone D-81" (in German). Kotsch88.de. Retrieved 2010-06-26.
  4. ^ http://dziennikzbrojny.pl/artykuly/art,5,19,9828,wojska-ladowe,czolgi,pokonac-pancerz-czesc-iii-dane-amunicji-apfsds-t
  5. ^ http://dfnc.ru/orugie/152-mm-pushka-dlya-t-14-aktualnost-i-perspektivy/
  6. ^ a b https://web.archive.org/web/20050407021009/http://www.knoe.odgw.net/Military/125.htm
  7. ^ "Vasiliy Fofanov's Modern Russian Armour Page". Armor.kiev.ua. Retrieved 2010-06-26.
  8. ^ a b http://fofanov.armor.kiev.ua/Tanks/ARM/atgm/ammo.html

External links[edit]