Yukon is the smallest and westernmost of Canadas three federal territories. The territory has the smallest population of any province or territory in Canada, Whitehorse is the territorial capital and Yukons only city. The territory was split from the Northwest Territories in 1898 and was named the Yukon Territory, though officially bilingual, the Yukon Government recognizes First Nations languages. At 5,959 m, Yukons Mount Logan, in Kluane National Park and Reserve, is the highest mountain in Canada, most of Yukon has a subarctic climate, characterized by long cold winters and brief warm summers. The Arctic Ocean coast has a tundra climate, notable rivers include the Yukon River, after which the territory was named, as well as the Pelly, Peel and Tatshenshini rivers. Long before the arrival of Europeans and southern Yukon was populated by First Nations people, sites of archeological significance in Yukon hold some of the earliest evidence of the presence of human occupation in North America.
The sites safeguard the history of the first people and the earliest First Nations of the Yukon, the volcanic eruption of Mount Churchill in approximately 800 AD in what is now the U. S. Coastal and inland First Nations had extensive trading networks, European incursions into the area only began early in the 19th century with the fur trade, followed by missionaries. By the 1870s and 1880s gold miners began to arrive and this drove a population increase that justified the establishment of a police force, just in time for the start of the Klondike Gold Rush in 1897. The increased population coming with the gold led to the separation of the Yukon district from the Northwest Territories. Its northern coast is on the Beaufort Sea and its ragged eastern boundary mostly follows the divide between the Yukon Basin and the Mackenzie River drainage basin to the east in the Mackenzie mountains. Most of the territory is in the watershed of its namesake, the southern Yukon is dotted with a large number of large and narrow glacier-fed alpine lakes, most of which flow into the Yukon River system.
The larger lakes include Teslin Lake, Atlin Lake, Tagish Lake, Marsh Lake, Lake Laberge, Kusawa Lake, bennett Lake on the Klondike Gold Rush trail is a lake flowing into Nares Lake, with the greater part of its area within Yukon. Canadas highest point, Mount Logan, is in the territorys southwest, Mount Logan and a large part of the Yukons southwest are in Kluane National Park and Reserve, a UNESCO World Heritage Site. Other national parks include Ivvavik National Park and Vuntut National Park in the north, other watersheds include the Mackenzie River, the Peel Watershed and the Alsek–Tatshenshini, and a number of rivers flowing directly into the Beaufort Sea. The two main Yukon rivers flowing into the Mackenzie in the Northwest Territories are the Liard River in the southeast, notable widespread tree species within Yukon are the black spruce and white spruce. Many trees are stunted because of the growing season and severe climate. The capital, Whitehorse, is the largest city, with about three-quarters of the population, the second largest is Dawson City, which was the capital until 1952
The Iraq War was a protracted armed conflict that began in 2003 with the invasion of Iraq by a United States-led coalition that toppled the government of Saddam Hussein. The conflict continued for much of the decade as an insurgency emerged to oppose the occupying forces. An estimated 151,000 to 600,000 or more Iraqis were killed in the first 3–4 years of conflict and it became re-involved in 2014 at the head of a new coalition, the insurgency and many dimensions of the civil armed conflict continue. The invasion began on 20 March 2003, with the U. S. joined by the United Kingdom and several allies, launching a shock. Iraqi forces were overwhelmed as U. S. forces swept through the country. The invasion led to the collapse of the Baathist government, President Hussein was captured during Operation Red Dawn in December of that same year, the United States responded with a troop surge in 2007. The winding down of U. S. involvement in Iraq accelerated under President Barack Obama, the U. S. formally withdrew all combat troops from Iraq by December 2011.
Select U. S. officials accused Saddam of harboring and supporting al-Qaeda, while others cited the desire to end a repressive dictatorship, after the invasion, no substantial evidence was found to verify the initial claims about WMDs. The rationale and misrepresentation of pre-war intelligence faced heavy criticism within the U. S. in the aftermath of the invasion, Iraq held multi-party elections in 2005. Nouri al-Maliki became Prime Minister in 2006 and remained in office until 2014, the al-Maliki government enacted policies that were widely seen as having the effect of alienating the countrys Sunni minority and worsening sectarian tensions. The Iraq War caused hundreds of thousands of civilian, and thousands of military casualties, the majority of casualties occurred as a result of the insurgency and civil conflicts between 2004 and 2007. A1990 Frontline report on The arming of Iraq said, most Western nations participated in an arms embargo against Iraq during the 1980s. Western companies, primarily in Germany and Great Britain, but in the United States, sold Iraq the key technology for its chemical, any Western governments seemed remarkably indifferent, if not enthusiastic, about those deals.
N Washington, the government consistently followed a policy which allowed and perhaps encouraged the growth of Saddam Husseins arsenal. The Western arming of Iraq took place in the context of the Iran-Iraq War, prior to September 2002, the CIA was the George W. Bush administrations main provider of intelligence on Iraq. The agency was out to disprove linkage between Iraq and terrorism the Pentagon adviser told me, the U. N. had prohibited Iraq from developing or possessing such weapons after the Gulf War and required Iraq to permit inspections confirming compliance. This was confirmed by The New York Times and The Wall Street Journal, during 2002, Bush repeatedly warned of military action against Iraq unless inspections were allowed to progress unfettered. In accordance with U. N. Security Council Resolution 1441, Iraq agreed to new inspections under United Nations Monitoring, as part of its weapons inspection obligations, Iraq was required to supply a full declaration of its current weapons capabilities and manufacturing
The Lockheed T-33 Shooting Star is an American jet trainer aircraft. It was produced by Lockheed and made its first flight in 1948 piloted by Tony LeVier, the T-33 was developed from the Lockheed P-80/F-80 starting as TP-80C/TF-80C in development, designated T-33A. It was used by the U. S. Navy initially as TO-2 TV-2, as of 2015, Canadian-built examples remain in service with the Bolivian Air Force. The T-33 was developed from the Lockheed P-80/F-80 by lengthening the fuselage by slightly over three feet and adding a seat and flight controls. It was initially designated as a variant of the P-80/F-80, the TP-80C/TF-80C, design work for the Lockheed P-80 began in 1943 with the first flight on 8 January 1944. Following on the Bell P-59, the P-80 became the first jet fighter to enter squadron service in the United States Army Air Forces. As more advanced jets entered service, the F-80 took on another role—training jet pilots, the two-place T-33 jet was designed for training pilots already qualified to fly propeller-driven aircraft.
Originally designated the TF-80C, the T-33 made its first flight on 22 March 1948 with U. S. production taking place from 1948 to 1959, the US Navy used the T-33 as a land-based trainer starting in 1949. It was designated the TV-2, but was redesignated the T-33B in 1962, the Navy operated some ex-USAF P-80Cs as the TO-1, changed to the TV-1 about a year later. A carrier-capable version of the P-80/T-33 family was developed by Lockheed. The two TF-80C prototypes were modified as prototypes for an all-weather two-seater fighter variant which became the F-94 Starfire, a total of 6,557 Shooting Stars were produced,5,691 by Lockheed,210 by Kawasaki and 656 by Canadair. The two-place T-33 proved suitable as a trainer, and it has been used for such tasks as drone director. The T-33 was used to train cadets from the Air Force Academy at Peterson Field, the T-37 replaced the T-33 for Academy training in 1975. The final T-33 used in advanced training was replaced 8 February 1967 at Craig AFB, similar replacement occurred in the U. S.
Navy with the TV-1 as more advanced aircraft such as the North American T-2 Buckeye and Douglas TA-4 Skyhawk II came on line. The RT-33A version, reconnaissance aircraft produced primarily for use by countries, had a camera installed in the nose. The T-33 has served with over 30 nations, and continues to operate as a trainer in smaller air forces, Canadair built 656 T-33s on licence for service in the RCAF—Canadian Forces as the CT-133 Silver Star while Kawasaki manufactured 210 in Japan. Other operators included Brazil and Thailand which used the T-33 extensively, in the 1980s, an attempt was made to modify and modernize the T-33 as the Boeing Skyfox, but a lack of orders led to the projects cancellation. About 70% of the T-33s airframe was retained in the Skyfox, in the late 1990s,18 T-33 Mk-III and T-33 SF-SC from the Bolivian Air Force went to Canada to be modernized at Kelowna Flightcraft
North American F-86 Sabre
The North American F-86 Sabre, sometimes called the Sabrejet, is a transonic jet fighter aircraft. Considered one of the best and most important fighter aircraft in that war and its success led to an extended production run of more than 7,800 aircraft between 1949 and 1956, in the United States and Italy. Variants were built in Canada and Australia, the Canadair Sabre added another 1,815 airframes, and the significantly redesigned CAC Sabre, had a production run of 112. The Sabre was by far the most-produced Western jet fighter, with production of all variants at 9,860 units. North American Aviation had produced the propeller-powered P-51 Mustang in World War II, by late 1944, North American proposed its first jet fighter to the U. S. Navy, which became the FJ-1 Fury. It was an unexceptional transitional jet fighter that had a wing derived from the P-51. Initial proposals to meet a United States Army Air Forces requirement for a medium-range, single-seat, in early 1945, North American Aviation submitted four designs.
The USAAF selected one design over the others, and granted North American a contract to build three examples of the XP-86, despite the gain in speed, early studies revealed the XP-86 would have the same performance as its rivals, the XP-80 and XP-84. It was feared that, because these designs were advanced in their development stages. Crucially, the XP-86 would not be able to meet the top speed of 600 mph. The North American F-86 Sabre was the first American aircraft to take advantage of research data seized from the German aerodynamicists at the end of World War II. By 1944, German engineers and designers had established the benefits of swept wings based on designs dating back to 1940. Study of the data showed that a wing would solve their speed problem. Because development of the XP-86 had reached a stage, the idea of changing the sweep of the wing was met with resistance from some senior North American staff. Despite stiff opposition, after results were obtained in wind tunnel tests. Many Sabres had the 6–3 wing retrofitted after combat experience was gained in Korea and this modification changed the wing airfoils to the NACA 0009-64 mod at the root and the NACA0008. 1–64 mod at the tip.
Delays caused by the major redesign meant that manufacturing did not begin until after World War II, the XP-86 prototype, which would lead to the F-86 Sabre, was rolled out on 8 August 1947. The maiden flight occurred on 1 October 1947 with George Welch at the controls, flying from Muroc Dry Lake, the United States Air Forces Strategic Air Command had F-86 Sabres in service from 1949 through 1950
Pacific Air Forces
Pacific Air Forces is a Major Command of the United States Air Force and is the air component command of the United States Pacific Command. The mission of Pacific Air Forces is to provide air and space power to promote U. S. interests in the Asia-Pacific region during peacetime, through crisis. PACAF comprises three numbered Air Forces, nine main bases and nearly 375 aircraft. The commands area of responsibility extends from the west coast of the United States to the east coast of Asia and from the Arctic to the Antarctic, the area is home to nearly two billion people who live in 44 countries. Not to be confused with Far East Air Force, the military organization of the United States Army in the Philippine Islands from 1941 to 1942. The beginnings of PACAF can be traced back to June 1944, Far East Air Forces was activated on 3 August 1944, at Brisbane, Australia. FEAF had actually created on 15 June 1944, and Fifth Air Force assigned to it. FEAF was subordinate to the U. S. Army Forces Far East, the creation of FEAF consolidated the command and control authority over United States Army Air Forces units widely deployed throughout the southwest Pacific in World War II.
A realignment of forces was needed by the USAAF to better organize its forces in the Pacific for peacetime. Shortly afterwards, Eighth Air Force was reassigned to the newly established Strategic Air Command on 7 June 1946, the major mission of PACUSA in the postwar years was occupation duty in Japan and the demilitarization of the Japanese society in conjunction with the United States Army. In addition, PACUSA helped to support atomic bomb testing in the Pacific Proving Grounds beginning with the Operation Crossroads test on Bikini Atoll in the Marshall Islands in 1946. With the impending establishment of the United States Air Force as an independent service that year, on that same date, Seventh Air Force in Hawaii was inactivated with its organization absorbed by HQ, FEAF. On 25 June 1950, the forces of the Democratic Peoples Republic of Korea invaded South Korea. On 27 June, the United Nations Security Council voted to assist the South Koreans in resisting the invasion, president Harry Truman authorized General of the Army Douglas MacArthur to commit units to the battle.
MacArthur ordered General George E. Stratemeyer, CIC of FEAF, despite the post-World War II demobilization of United States armed forces, the U. S. Air Force still had substantial forces in the Pacific to oppose the North Korean military. Support units were equipped with the Douglas C-54 Skymaster cargo aircraft and the Boeing RB-17 Flying Fortress, the 512th and 514th Weather Reconnaissance Squadrons of the 2143d Air Weather Wing were located at Yokota Air Base and Andersen Air Force Base, Guam. On 29 June 1950, the unit began flying missions over the Korean Peninsula in their RB-29 Superfortresses to provide FEAF Bomber Command with target. Eventually, these USAF F-86 units would establish a kill ratio of 10,1 versus their KPAF adversaries, during the Korean War FEAFs Fifth Air Force was the main United Nations combat air command until the Korean Armistice Agreement ended the combat 1953
Taku Glacier is a tidewater glacier located in Taku Inlet in the U. S. state of Alaska, just southeast of the city of Juneau. Recognized as the deepest and thickest alpine temperate glacier known in the world and it is about 58 kilometres long, and is largely within the Tongass National Forest. The glacier was originally named Schultze Glacier in 1883 and the Foster Glacier in 1890, but Taku and it is nestled in the Coast Mountains and originates in the Juneau Icefield. It is the largest glacier in the icefield and one of the southernmost tidewater glaciers of the northern hemisphere. The glacier, which converges with the Taku River at Taku Inlet, has a history of advancing until it blocks the river, creating a lake, the most recent of these advances occurred in 1750. The glacier has advanced 7.75 kilometres since 1890, and it is the only advancing glacier of the 20 major glaciers of the Juneau Icefield. If the advance continues it will block the river. Since 1946, the glacier has been monitored by the Juneau Icefield Research Program, the advance is due to a positive mass balance, that is, more snow accumulates than snow and ice melt.
Until 1948 the glacier had a front, since the terminus has been grounded. Due to the mass balance and the fact that it was no longer losing mass to icebergs. The recent negative mass balance 1989-2005 is not large enough yet to stop the advance, Taku Glacier is the namesake of the Alaska Marine Highway System ferry M/V Taku
Curtiss C-46 Commando
The Curtiss C-46 Commando is a transport aircraft derived from the Curtiss CW-20 pressurised high-altitude airliner design. Early press reports used the name Condor III but the Commando name was in use by early 1942 in company publicity. It was used as a transport during World War II by the United States Army Air Forces and the U. S. Navy/Marine Corps. The C-46 served in a role to its Douglas-built counterpart, the C-47 Skytrain. At the time of its mass-production, the C-46 was the second-largest, the type continued in U. S. Air Force service in a secondary role until 1968. The C-46 continues in operation as a cargo transport for Arctic. The prototype for what would become the C-46, the Curtiss CW-20, was designed in 1937 by George A, page Jr. the chief aircraft designer at Curtiss-Wright. The CW-20 was a private venture intended to compete with the four-engined Douglas DC-4, the CW-20 had a patented fuselage conventionally referred to as a figure-eight which enabled it to better withstand the pressure differential at high altitudes.
This was done by having the sides of the fuselage creased at the level of the floor that not only separated the two portions but shared in the stress of each, rather than just supporting itself. The main spar of the wing could pass through the section which was mainly intended for cargo without intruding on the passenger upper compartment. Engineering work involved a commitment from the company and incorporated an extensive amount of wind tunnel testing at the California Institute of Technology. The resultant design was a large but aerodynamically sleek airliner, incorporating the cockpit in a glazed dome. The engines featured a unique nacelle tunnel cowl where air was ducted in and expelled through the bottom of the cowl, reducing turbulent airflow, after a mockup was constructed in 1938, Curtiss-Wright exhibited the innovative project as a display in the 1939 New York Worlds Fair. The company approached many airlines in order to obtain their requirements for an advanced airliner, no firm orders resulted, although 25 letters of intent were received, sufficient to begin production.
The design of a 24–34 passenger airliner proceeded to stage as the CW-20 at the St. Louis. Powered by two 1,700 hp R-2600-C14-BA2 Wright Twin Cyclones, the prototype, registered NX-19436 flew for the first time on 26 March 1940 with test pilot Edmund T. After testing, modifications were instituted, including the fitting of a single tail to improve stability at low speeds. The first prototype was purchased by the United States Army Air Forces to serve as a master for the series and was designated C-55, after military evaluation, the sole example was returned to Curtiss-Wright and subsequently re-sold to the British Overseas Airways Corporation
1964 Alaska earthquake
The 1964 Alaskan earthquake, known as the Great Alaskan earthquake and Good Friday earthquake, occurred at 5,36 P. M. AST on Good Friday, March 27, across south-central Alaska, ground fissures, collapsing structures, and tsunamis resulting from the earthquake caused about 139 deaths. Lasting four minutes and thirty-eight seconds, the magnitude 9.2 megathrust earthquake was the most powerful recorded in North American history, soil liquefaction, fissures and other ground failures caused major structural damage in several communities and much damage to property. Anchorage sustained great destruction or damage to many inadequately earthquake engineered houses, two hundred miles southwest, some areas near Kodiak were permanently raised by 30 feet. Nearby, a 27-foot tsunami destroyed the village of Chenega, killing 23 of the 68 people who lived there, survivors out-ran the wave, climbing to high ground. Post-quake tsunamis severely affected Whittier, Seward and other Alaskan communities, as well as people and property in British Columbia, Oregon, tsunamis caused damage in Hawaii and Japan.
Evidence of motion directly related to the earthquake was reported from Florida. Alaska Standard Time, a fault between the Pacific and North American plates ruptured near College Fjord in Prince William Sound, the epicenter of the earthquake was 12.4 mi north of Prince William Sound,78 miles east of Anchorage and 40 miles west of Valdez. The focus occurred at a depth of approximately 15.5 mi, ocean floor shifts created large tsunamis, which resulted in many of the deaths and much of the property damage. Large rockslides were caused, resulting in property damage. Vertical displacement of up to 38 feet occurred, affecting an area of 100,000 miles² within Alaska, studies of ground motion have led to a peak ground acceleration estimate of 0. 14–0.18 g. The Alaska earthquake was a subduction zone earthquake, caused by an oceanic plate sinking under a continental plate, the fault responsible was the Aleutian Megathrust, a reverse fault caused by a compressional force. This caused much of the ground which is the result of ground shifted to the opposite elevation.
Two types of tsunamis were produced by subduction zone earthquake. There was a tectonic tsunami produced in addition to about 20 smaller and these smaller tsunami were produced by submarine and subaerial landslides and were responsible for the majority of the tsunami damage. Tsunami waves were noted in over 20 countries, Peru, New Zealand, Papua New Guinea, the largest tsunami wave was recorded in Shoup Bay, with a height of about 220 ft. The quake was a reported XI on the modified Mercalli Intensity scale indicating major structural damage, property damage was estimated at about $311 million. Most damage occurred in Anchorage,75 mi northwest of the epicenter, the neighborhood lost 75 houses in the landslide, and the destroyed area has since been turned into Earthquake Park
The Tanana River /ˈtænənɑː/ is a 584-mile tributary of the Yukon River in the U. S. state of Alaska. According to linguist and anthropologist William Bright, the name is from the Koyukon tene no, the rivers headwaters are located at the confluence of the Chisana and Nabesna rivers just north of Northway in eastern Alaska. The Tanana flows in a northwest direction from near the border with the Yukon Territory, in central Alaska, it emerges into a lowland marsh region known as the Tanana Valley and passes south of the city of Fairbanks. In the marsh regions it is joined by several tributaries, including the Nenana. It passes the village of Manley Hot Springs and empties into the Yukon near the town of Tanana, Ice on the river accumulates each winter to an average maximum thickness of 43 inches at Nenana. The Nenana Ice Classic, begun in 1917, is a guessing game about the date of the ice break-up. In October or November, after the freeze has begun, a tripod is planted in ice in the middle of the river, the tripod is connected to an on-shore clock that stops when the tripod begins to move during the spring thaw.
Over the years, the date has varied from April 20 to May 20. Betting on the time of the break-up takes the form of a lottery. Human habitation of the Yukon basin, including the Tanana watershed, several sites in the watershed have produced evidence of occupation by Paleo-Arctic people. Later residents include people of the Tanana tribe, which has had a presence in the region for 1,200 years, in the summer of 1885, Lieutenant Henry Tureman Allen of the U. S. Army undertook the first recorded exploration of the Tanana River. In 1883, Lieutenant Frederick Schwatka and his party had entered the Yukon watershed by way of Canada, allens goal was to find an all-Alaska route to the Yukon River. He and his men ascended the Copper River, crossed into Tanana River drainage, during the five-month trip, the Allen party mapped the courses of the Copper and Koyukuk rivers. In the early 21st century, the basin is largely unchanged by human activity. Fairbanks, an area with about 80,000 residents in 2005, is a center of placer gold mining.
Limited farming occurs in the valley near Fairbanks, since the early 1900s, Alaskans have been gambling on when the river would melt. Each year, thousands pay $2.50 to guess the date and minute the Tanana River ice will go out in Nenana. The Nenana Ice Classic is a fundraiser for charities and has awarded some large prizes
Kodiak is one of seven communities and the main city on Kodiak Island, Kodiak Island Borough, in the U. S. state of Alaska. All commercial transportation between the island and the outside world goes through this city either via ferryboat or airline. The population was 6,130 as of the 2010 census,2014 estimates put the population at 6,304. Originally inhabited by Alutiiq natives for over 7,000 years, harvesting of the areas sea otter pelts led to the near extinction of the animal in the following century and led to wars with and enslavement of the natives for over 150 years. After the Alaska Purchase by the United States in 1867, Kodiak became a fishing center which continues to be the mainstay of its economy. A lesser economic influence includes tourism, mainly by those seeking outdoor adventure trips, halibut, the unique Kodiak bear, Sitka deer, and mountain goats attract hunting tourists as well as fishermen to the Kodiak Archipelago. The Alaska Department of Fish and Game maintains an office in the city, the city has four public elementary schools, a middle and high school, as well as a branch of the University of Alaska.
An antenna farm at the summit of Pillar Mountain above the city historically provided communication with the world before fiber optic cable was run. Transportation to and from the island is provided by service on the Alaska Marine Highway as well as local commercial airlines. The Kodiak Archipelago has been home to the Alutiiq for over 7,000 years, in their language, kadiak means island. In 1763, the Russian explorer Stephan Glotov discovered the island and he was followed by the British captain James Cook fifteen years later, who first recorded Kodiak in his journals in 1778. In 1792, the Russian Shelikhov-Golikov Company chief manager Alexander Baranov moved the post at Three Saints Bay to a new site in Pauls Harbor and this developed as the nucleus of modern Kodiak. Baranov considered Three Saints Bay a poor location because it was too indefensible, the relocated settlement was first named Pavlovskaya Gavan. The warehouse still stands as the Baranov Museum, because the First Native cultures revered this animal and would never harm it, the Russians had wars with and enslaved the Aleuts occurred during this era.
Eastern Orthodox missionaries settled on the island by the end of the 18th century and they held the liturgy in native Tlingit from 1800. The capital of Russian America was moved to Novoarkhangelsk in 1804, by the mid-19th century, the sea otter was almost extinct and 85% of the First Native population had disappeared from exposure to European diseases and violence. New processing centers emerged and the continues to evolve. As Kodiak was incorporated in 1941, the U. S. feared attack from Japanese during World War II, the airport, Fort Abercrombie, and gun fortifications improved the islands infrastructure
The Yukon River is a major watercourse of northwestern North America. The source of the river is located in British Columbia, the lower half of the river lies in the U. S. state of Alaska. The river is 3,190 kilometres long and empties into the Bering Sea at the Yukon-Kuskokwim Delta, the average flow is 6,430 m³/s. The total drainage area is 832,700 km², of which 323,800 km² is in Canada, the total area is more than 25% larger than Texas or Alberta. The longest river in Alaska and Yukon, it was one of the means of transportation during the 1896–1903 Klondike Gold Rush. A portion of the river in Yukon—The Thirty Mile section, from Lake Laberge to the Teslin River—is a national heritage river, paddle-wheel riverboats continued to ply the river until the 1950s, when the Klondike Highway was completed. The name Yukon, or ųųg han, is a contraction of the words in the Gwichin phrase chųų gąįį han, which means white water river and refers to the visual effect of glacial silt in the Yukon River. The contraction omits the consonant “ch” and the vowels “ąįį.
”In 1843, the Holikachuks had told the Russians that their name for the river was Yukkhana and that this name meant big river. Although it served as the name of a big river, Yukkhana does not literally correspond to a Holikachuk phrase that means big river. The Holikachuks had borrowed the upriver language name and conflated its meaning with the meaning of Kuigpak, two years later, the Gwich’ins told the Hudson’s Bay Company that their name for the river was Yukon and that the name meant white water river. White water river in fact corresponds to Gwich’in words that can be shortened to form Yukon, the Lewes River is the former name of the upper course of the Yukon, from Marsh Lake to the confluence of the Pelly River at Fort Selkirk. The Yukon River has had a history of pollution from mining, military installations, wastewater. The generally accepted source of the Yukon River is the Llewellyn Glacier at the end of Atlin Lake in British Columbia. Others suggest that the source is Lake Lindeman at the end of the Chilkoot Trail.
Either way, Atlin Lake flows into Tagish Lake, as eventually does Lake Lindeman after flowing into Bennett Lake, Tagish Lake flows into Marsh Lake. The Yukon River proper starts at the end of Marsh Lake. Some argue that the source of the Yukon River should really be Teslin Lake and the Teslin River, the upper end of the Yukon River was originally known as the Lewes River until it was established that it actually was the Yukon. North of Whitehorse, the Yukon River widens into Lake Laberge, other large lakes that are part of the Yukon River system include Kusawa Lake and Kluane Lake
Fairbanks /ˈfɛrbæŋks/ is a home rule city and the borough seat of the Fairbanks North Star Borough in the U. S. state of Alaska. Fairbanks is the largest city in the Interior region of Alaska,2014 estimates put the population of the city proper at 32,469, and the population of the Fairbanks North Star Borough at 99,357, making it the second most populous metropolitan area in Alaska. Fairbanks is home to the University of Alaska Fairbanks, the campus of the University of Alaska system. Captain E. T. Barnette founded Fairbanks in August 1901 while headed to Tanacross, the steamboat on which Barnette was a passenger, the Lavelle Young, ran aground while attempting to negotiate shallow water. Barnette, along with his party and supplies, were deposited along the banks of the Chena River 7 miles upstream from its confluence with the Tanana River, the two met Barnette where he disembarked and convinced him of the potential of the area. Barnette set up his trading post at the site, still intending to make it to Tanacross.
Teams of gold prospectors soon congregated in and around the newly founded Fairbanks, they built drift mines, agricultural activity still occurs today in the Tanana Valley, but mostly to the southeast of Fairbanks in the communities of Salcha and Delta Junction. During the early days of Fairbanks, its vicinity was a producer of agricultural goods. What is now the northern reaches of South Fairbanks was originally the farm of Paul J. Rickert, Farmers Loop Road and Badger Road, loop roads north and east of Fairbanks, were home to major farming activity. Badger Road is named for Harry Markley Badger, a resident of Fairbanks who established a farm along the road. Ballaine and McGrath Roads, side roads of Farmers Loop Road, were named for prominent local farmers. The Haines - Fairbanks 626 mile long 8 petroleum products pipeline was constructed during the period 1953-55, the presence of the U. S. military has remained strong in Fairbanks. Ladd became Fort Wainwright in 1960, the post was annexed into Fairbanks city limits during the 1980s, Fairbanks suffered from numerous floods in its first six decades, whether from ice jams during spring breakup or due to heavy rainfall.
On August 14,1967, after record rainfall upstream, the Chena began to surge over its banks, flooding almost the entire town of Fairbanks overnight. The project was designed to prevent a repetition of the 1967 flood by being able to water in the Chena upstream from Fairbanks into the Tanana River. Fairbanks is located in the central Tanana Valley, straddling the Chena River near its confluence with the Tanana River, immediately north of the city is a chain of hills that rises gradually until it reaches the White Mountains and the Yukon River. The southern border of the city is the Tanana River, South of the river is the Tanana Flats, an area of marsh and bog that stretches for more than 100 miles until it rises into the Alaska Range, which is visible from Fairbanks on clear days. To the east and west are low valleys separated by ridges of hills up to 3,000 feet above sea level, the Tanana Valley is crossed by many low streams and rivers that flow into the Tanana River