14th Street bridges

The 14th Street bridges refers to the three bridges near each other that cross the Potomac River, connecting Arlington and Washington, D. C.. Sometimes the two nearby rail bridges are included as part of the 14th Street bridge complex. A major gateway for automotive and rail traffic, the bridge complex is named for 14th Street, which feeds automotive traffic into it on the D. C. end. The complex contains three four-lane automobile bridges—one northbound, one southbound, one bi-directional — that carry Interstate 395 and U. S. Route 1 traffic, as well as a pedestrian lane on the southbound bridge. In addition, the complex contains two rail bridges, one of which carries the Yellow Line of the Washington Metro; the five bridges, from west to east are the George Mason Memorial Bridge, the Rochambeau Bridge, the Arland D. Williams, Jr. Memorial Bridge, the Charles R. Fenwick Bridge and the Long Bridge. At the north end of the bridges, in East Potomac Park, the three roadways connect to a pair of two-way bridges over the Washington Channel into downtown Washington, one connecting to traffic north onto 14th Street, the other connecting to I-395 traffic on the Southwest Freeway.

The Metro line connects to a tunnel in the East Potomac Park, the main line railroad from the Long Bridge passes over I-395 and runs over the Washington Channel just downstream of the 14th Street approach before turning northeast along the line of Maryland Avenue. On January 13, 1982, 78 people were killed when Air Florida Flight 90 crashed into the northbound I-395 span of the 14th Street bridge during rush hour; the repaired span was renamed in honor of Arland D. Williams Jr. a passenger on the plane who survived the initial crash, but drowned after passing a helicopter rescue line to other survivors. Each of the complex's five bridge spans has its own name. From east to west, the bridges are: The 1904 Long Bridge carries CSX, Amtrak and Virginia Railway Express rail traffic over the river; the name was "derived from its planned size and not as a memorial to any particular individual." The 1983 Charles R. Fenwick Bridge—named for the Virginia state senator who helped create the Washington Metropolitan Area Transit Authority—carries the Yellow Line of the Washington Metro across the river.

The northbound span was named the 14th Street Bridge when it opened in 1950, renamed the Rochambeau Bridge eight years and renamed the Arland D. Williams Jr. Memorial Bridge in 1983 for a passenger of Air Florida Flight 90 who died saving others from the freezing water. At that time, the Rochambeau Bridge name was moved to the unnamed center bridge, which opened in 1971 and carries traffic in both directions; the southbound span, opened in 1962, is named the George Mason Memorial Bridge. A side path is on the upstream side of the bridge for cyclists; the first bridge at the site was the Washington Bridge, a wooden toll bridge opened on May 20, 1809, by the Washington Bridge Company, authorized to build a bridge by the District Commissioners in February 1808 with the purpose of shortening the distance in the country's main mail route. Though it opened on May 20th, it wouldn't be completed for a few days, it was the second bridge to cross the Potomac in the District of Columbia, following a 1797 span at a narrower crossing near Little Falls, upstream of Georgetown, at the site of the present Chain Bridge.

At the time it opened, in official documents, it was referred to as Washington Bridge, Potomac Bridge or "the Bridge" but by the 1830s it began to be called the "long Bridge across the Potomac" to distinguish it from the bridge near Little Falls. Over time, the colloquial name was shortened to just "Long Bridge". British forces leaving the Battle of Bladensburg during the War of 1812 set fire to the north end of the bridge on August 25, 1814, American troops burned the south end; the bridge was rebuilt by 1816. Over the subsequent years, the bridge was damaged many times by floods and ice freshets, most notable on February 22, 1831 when several spans were damaged by an ice flow; the bridge closure bankrupted the company and so the next year Congress purchased the bridge and paid to repair it. It reopened on October 30, 1835 with new solid causeways that were 7 feet high and draws that were 66 feet wide. In March of 1847, the Virginia Assembly voted to formally accept the retrocession of Alexandria and Arlington, thus the south approach of the bridge became part of Virginia.

With the outbreak of the American Civil War in 1861, the bridge became militarily important. Union troops occupied the bridge on May 24, the Orange and Alexandria Railroad soon became a major center for the United States Military Railroad Construction Corps. Rails had been built to the bridge from the Washington side in 1855 and from the Virginia side in 1857, but there weren't placed on the bridge until the Civil War. At the direction of the military in early 1862, new tracks were laid for the approaches, the rail bed was repaired and tracks were laid across the bridge; the new connection opened on February 9, 1862. In 1864, a new bridge was built adjacent to the original bridge; when the U. S. Military railroad Charles Minot fell through one of the spans of the old bridge on February 18, 1865, the rails were moved to the new bridge and the old bridge became used for non-rail traffic only, as had been recommended in the prior year; the old bridge became the "turnpike bridge" and the new one the "railroad bridge."An October 1, 1870 flood damaged the bridge beyond repair, with much of the causeway, wooden superstructure and spans carried

Kawawachikamach (Naskapi village municipality)

Kawawachikamach is a Naskapi village municipality in the territory of the Kativik Regional Government in northern Quebec. There is a counterpart Naskapi reserved land of the same name: Kawawachikamach, located some distance to the south; because the village municipality is north of the 55th parallel and the reserved land is south of it, they are in different administrative regions of Quebec: Nord-du-Québec and Côte-Nord, respectively. Despite the title of "village municipality" and the formalities that go along with it, this is an uninhabited area with no resident population: the Naskapi population all live on the reserved land, the village municipality is for the exclusive use of Naskapis for hunting or other economic activities

HMS Gabriel (1915)

HMS Gabriel was a Marksman-class flotilla leader of the British Royal Navy, that took part in the First World War. The ship was built by Cammell Laird at Birkenhead, being launched on 23 December 1915 and entering service in July 1916. Gabriel served with the Grand Fleet, leading a destroyer flotilla and was used as a minelayer, she survived the war, before being sold for scrap on in May 1921. In November 1914, as part of the Emergency War Programme of shipbuilding, the British Admiralty ordered three Marksman-class flotilla leaders from the Birkenhead shipyard Cammell Laird; the first of these three ships, HMS Gabriel was laid down on 12 January 1915 and was launched on 23 December 1915. The construction of the three Marksman-class ships by Cammell Laird was problematical, with the ships suffering machinery problems and construction delays, with the Admiralty complaining to Lairds that "better workmanship and supervision" were needed for Ithurial and Gabriel, which were 8 months behind programme.

Gabriel was to continue to suffer from machinery problems throughout her career. Gabriel was considered during construction for a conversion to a minelayer, but construction delays resulted in Abdiel, expected to complete earlier, being chosen instead. Gabriel was commissioned on 1 July 1916; the Marksman-class ships were 324 feet 10 inches long overall, 324 ft at the waterline and 315 ft 0 in between perpendiculars. They had a beam of 31 ft 9 in and a draught of 12 ft 0 in; the design displacement was 1,700 long tons full load. Gabriel was propelled by three sets of Parsons steam turbines, fed by four Yarrow three-drum boilers, rated at 36,000 shaft horsepower, which gave a speed of 34 kn. Four funnels were fitted. Up to 515 tons of oil fuel could be carried; the ship's crew was 104 men. Gabriel was armed with four QF 4-inch Mk IV guns mounted on the ships centreline, with two 2-pounder "pom-pom" anti-aircraft guns and four 21 inch torpedo tubes. On commissioning, Gabriel joined the 13th Destroyer Flotilla of the Grand Fleet, serving as leader along with the cruiser Champion, duties including acting as escort to the Battle Cruiser Force.

In July 1916, intelligence reports of a German Merchant raider attempting to break out into the North Sea and Atlantic, resulted in a large scale operation being launched to intercept the ship, involving 14 cruisers, 13 armed merchant cruisers and 18 destroyers. As part of these operations and sister ship Marksman patrolled the Fair Isle channel between the Orkneys and Shetland Islands from 11 to 13 July. Nothing was found by these operations. On 18 March 1917, Gabriel attacked a German submarine with depth charges, without any apparent effect, she again depth charged a suspected German submarine on 30 April 1917. In May 1917, the 13th Flotilla, including Gabriel moved to Rosyth. In October 1917, Gabriel formed part of a large-scale operation, involving 30 cruisers and 54 destroyers deployed in eight groups across the North Sea in an attempt to stop a suspected sortie by German naval forces, with Gabriel joining up with the 1st Light Cruiser Squadron on 17 October. Despite these countermeasures, the two German light cruisers Bremse and Brummer managed to evade the patrols and attacked the regular convoy between Norway and Britain on 17 October, sinking nine merchant ships and two destroyers, Mary Rose and Strongbow before returning safely to Germany.

In mid-1918, Gabriel was converted to a minelayer, with the ability to carry 80 mines, with minesweeping paravanes fitted to provide some protection against mines when penetrating enemy minefields. Gabriel re-entered service after conversion in July 1918 with the 20th Destroyer Flotilla, a specialist destroyer minelaying flotilla based at Immingham with the role of laying mines in the Heligoland Bight, blocking German swept channels through existing minefields. Gabriel acted as leader for the "Slow Division", consisting of the older destroyers of the flotilla, while the newer faster vessels formed the "Fast Division", led by Abdiel. Gabriel took part in the ship's first offensive minelaying sortie in enemy-controlled waters on 28 September, carrying out more offensive minelaying operations on 30 September and on 2 October. In total, Gabriel had laid 850 mines by the end of the war in November 1918. Gabriel remained in the 20th Flotilla after the end of the war, deploying with the flotilla to the Baltic in July–August 1919 as part of the British intervention in the Russian Civil War, operating from Reval in Estonia and Libau in Latvia.

Duties including laying minefields to restrict the operations of the Soviet Baltic Fleet and to protect the anchorages used by the British. On 23 August 1919, Gabriel arrived at Queenstown in Ireland for laying up with defective boiler tubes, being relieved in the 20th Flotilla by Seymour. While it was planned to repair the ship's boilers, by October it had been decided to spend no more money on Gabriel, laid up at Devonport. Gabriel was sold to T. W. Ward for £2,756 on 9 May 1921 as part of a bulk sale of obsolete warships, she was handed over for scrapping at Ward's Lelant, Cornwall yard on 20 October 1922. Bennett, Geoffrey. Freeing the Baltic. Edinburgh: Birlinn. ISBN 1-84341-001-X. Dittmar, F. J.. British Warships 1914–1919. Shepperton, UK: Ian Allan. ISBN 0-7110-0380-7. English, John. Grand Fleet Destroyers: Part I: Flotilla Leaders and'V/W' Class Destroyers. Windsor, UK