1118 papal election
The Papal election of 1118 saw the election of Pope Gelasius II as the successor of Pope Paschal II, who died January 21, 1118 in Rome after an over 18-year pontificate. The Papal bull In nomine Domini issued by Pope Nicholas II in 1059, stated that on the death of the incumbent pope, the cardinal-bishops should confer among themselves as to a candidate. Data on the number and composition of the College of Cardinals in January 1118, are uncertain; the primary source was written over a dozen years by Pandulf of Pisa, cardinal-priest of Santi Cosma e Damiano. It claimed that the election was attended by 49 cardinals, mentions the names of only 35 of them. According to Pandulf, one cardinal-priest, Hugh of Santi Apostoli, was absent, to which must be added two other cardinals bishops, which Pandulf in the context of the election, although does not mention, but whose existence and dignity are documented in no uncertain terms; the credibility of the relationship Pandulf, including a list of electors, is challenged by modern historians.
S. B. Abbot of Saint Lawrence outside the Walls It is presumed that two cardinal-priests, two cardinal-bishops and a cardinal-deacon were absent: Giovanni Marsicano, O. S. B. - Cardinal-bishop of Tusculum Kuno von Urach - Cardinal-bishop of Palestrina. S. B. - Cardinal-deacon of Santa Maria in Domnica. Paschal II throughout his papacy fought the investiture controversy of Emperor Henry V who supported the Roman aristocracy. After his death, the Cardinals took refuge in a Benedictine monastery on the Palatine Hill fearing supporters of the emperor. On January 24, three days after the customary prayers and devotions, the electors unanimously chose Giovanni Cardinal Coniulo from Gaeta, cardinal-deacon of Santa Maria in Cosmedin and Chancellor of the Holy See, on election he adopted the papal name Gelasius II. Shortly after his election the pope was arrested by the Roman baron Cenzio II Frangipani, a supporter of the emperor. Despite being freed by a popular uprising in March, the pope fled from Rome to France, where he remained until his death at the beginning of the following year.
During this time, the emperor appointed Archbishop Maurice Burdinusa Braga, who took the name Gregory VIII, as antipope. H. W. Klewitz, Reformpapsttum und Kardinalkolleg, Darmstadt 1957 CG Furst, Kennen Wir die Wahlern Gelsius' II?, In: Festschrift Karl Pivec. Zum 60 Geburtstag von gewidmet Kollegen, edited by Anton Haidacher, Hans Eberhard Mayer, ed. Sprachwissenschaftliches Institut der Leopold-Franzens-Universität, 1966, pp. 69–80 I. S. Robinson, The Papacy 1073–1198. Continuity and Innovations, Cambridge University Press 1990 R. Huls, Klerus und Kirchen Roms: 1049–1130, Tübingen 1977 ~ Mirandas / conclave-xii.htm # 1118 List of Participants election in 1118 by Alfonso Chacón, Vitae et res gestae Pontificum Romanorum et SRE Cardinalium from 1677 Gelasius II - Vita Operaque Catholic Encyclopedia
Francesco Barberini (1597–1679)
Francesco Barberini was an Italian Catholic Cardinal. The nephew of Pope Urban VIII, he benefited immensely from the nepotism practiced by his uncle, he was given various roles within the Vatican administration but his personal cultural interests in literature and the arts, meant that he became a significant patron. His secretary was the antiquarian Cassiano dal Pozzo, a discerning patron of the arts. Francesco was the elder brother of Cardinal Antonio Barberini and Taddeo Barberini who became Prince of Palestrina, he was born in Florence to Carlo Barberini and Costanza Magalotti, studied at the University of Pisa where he was assisted by family friend Galileo Galilei, graduating in canon and civil law in 1623. On 2 October the same year, his uncle, Maffeo Barberini, newly elected as Pope Urban VIII, made him a cardinal, state secretary and papal legate to Avignon when he was twenty six years old, he held the latter position until 1633. According to contemporary, John Bargrave, the Pope referred to his nephew as cardinal padrone, much to the displeasure of visiting Catholic diplomats who argued that they had only one padrone.
In 1625, he went to Paris as special legate and from March to September, undertook various negotiations with Cardinal Richelieu including discussions in advance of the Treaty of Monçon. Overall, the negotiations were not a political success for the papacy but as a ‘sweetener’ he received a gift of six tapestries from King Louis XIII, designed by Peter Paul Rubens. In 1625 he travelled to Spain as papal legate and this mission was unsuccessful, he returned to Rome the following year. From 1628 he led the foreign diplomacy of the Papal States, showing a clear stance favoring France in the war of succession for the Marquisate of Montferrat and during the Thirty Years' War. In 1632 he was appointed papal Vice-Chancellor; as the Grand Inquisitor of the Roman Inquisition, a post he held from 1633 until his death, he was part of the Inquisition tribunal investigating Galileo. Hostilities between the papacy and the Farnese Duchy of Parma and Piacenza resulted in the War of Castro in 1641, from which the papacy did not emerge well, peace was only concluded months before the death of Urban in 1644.
Once it had become clear that the Barberini candidate for his successor, Cardinal Giulio Sacchetti, was not going to be elected by the papal conclave of 1644, Francesco and Antonio Barberini switched their vote to support Giovanni Battista Pamphili in the hope that he might look more favorably upon them. They were wrong. Pamphili, who took the name of Innocent X instigated investigation into their handling of the finances in the War of Castro forcing first Antonio to flee to Paris in 1645, to be followed by Francesco and his brother Taddeo Barberini in 1646. Here they remained under the protection of Cardinal Mazarin. Two years Francesco was pardoned by the pope who restored confiscated properties to him. On his return to Rome, Francesco resumed his role as a patron of arts although on a reduced scale. Again from Bargrave comes an interesting insight into Barberini's character - the cardinal refused to meet with Bargrave on the basis that he held letters of introduction addressed to cardinals Capponi and Panciroli but not to him, suggesting Bargrave had met with others first.
In 1666 he became Dean of the College of Cardinals, taking part in the conclaves of 1667, 1669-1670 and 1676. He died in Rome in 1679 at the age of eighty two. Francesco Barberini was active as a patron of the arts both as a private patron and within broader spheres, he was a member including the Accademia dei Lincei. In 1623 he became a member of the Conregazione della Reverenda Fabbrica di San Pietro and was able to secure altarpiece commissions for St Peter’s by artists such as Giovanni Lanfranco, Andrea Sacchi, Pietro da Cortona, Nicolas Poussin, Simon Vouet and Valentin, he bought several paintings by Poussin during the artist's early years in Rome. In 1625, he acquired the Sforza palace on the Quirinal Hill in Rome and a year gave it to his brother Taddeo. After buying further land around the palace, the architect Carlo Maderno was engaged to transform the site into a much larger and grander palace which became the Palazzo Barberini and the family palace with Taddeo and his family living in one wing and Francesco in the other.
Francesco and Urban were on hand to advise on its decoration. An iconographic programme celebrating the Barberini family, devised by the Tuscan poet Francesco Bracciolini for the vast coved vault of the main salone, was carried out by Pietro da Cortona in an exuberant display of illusionism, colour and ornamentation that marked a new departure for secular Baroque interior decoration. At the Palazzo Barberini, Francesco established the Arazzia Barberini or Barberini Tapestry works in 1627 which remained open until 1679, Its production included six tapestries designed by Cortona on the theme of the ‘Story of Constantine’ to complement those the Cardinal had received from the French king in 1625, designed by Rubens. With Cortona busy with the Barberini vault, Francesco began to engage Cortona’s pupil Giovan Francesco Romanelli to carry out other paintings and altarpieces, made him Supervisor of the Tapestry works He founded a rich library at the Palazzo Barberini which included ancient Greek and Roman manuscripts, he supported numerous European intellectuals, scholars and artists, including Athanasius Kircher, Jean Morin, Gabriel Naudé, Gerhard Johann Vossius
1099 papal election
The papal election of 1099 took place upon the death of Pope Urban II, the cardinal-electors with the consent of the lower Roman clergy chose Pope Paschal II as his successor. Urban II died in Rome on 29 July 1099 - two weeks before the soldiers of the First Crusade won Jerusalem, news of which arrived in Rome after his death. During this time, the schism initiated by Antipope Clement III, with the support of the Empire and much of the Roman clergy, was ongoing; the election in 1099 was the last, compliant with preference of cardinal-bishops as contained in the papal bull, In nomine Domini of 1059. It is known, that the cardinal-priests and cardinal-deacons participated; the election was attended by five of the six cardinal bishops and one bishop, who acted as a substitute for the Cardinal Bishop of Sabina. This office was vacant from 1094 years, the territory of the Diocese of Sabina supporters controlled the antipope Clement III. Walter of Albano - Cardinal-bishop of Albano Odon de Chatillon - Cardinal-bishop of Ostia Milo from Angers - Cardinal-bishop of Palestrina Maurice - Cardinal-bishop of Porto Bovo - Cardinal-bishop of Tusculum Offo - Cardinal-bishop of Nepi In August 1099, in obedience Urban II was only ten cardinal-priests and three cardinal-deacons, but no more than seven cardinal-priests and three cardinal-deacons participated in the election: Ranierius - Cardinal-priest of basilica of San Clemente, abbot of the basilica of Saint Lawrence outside the Walls Benedict - Cardinal-priest of Santa Pudenziana Alberto.
Archbishop of Siponto - Cardinal-priest of Santa Sabina Teuzo - Cardinal-priest of Santi Giovanni e Paolo Giovanni da Piacenza - Cardinal-priest Benedict - Cardinal-priest of Santi Silvestro e Martino ai Monti Peter - Cardinal-priest of Santa Sisto Jean de Bourgogne - Cardinal-priest of Basilica di Sant'Anastasia al Palatino Giovanni Coniulo - Cardinal-deacon of Santa Maria in Cosmedin, Chancellor of the Holy Roman Church Docibilis - Cardinal-deacon Pagano - Cardinal-deacon of Santa Maria NuovaThe cardinal-deacons present were the Palatine deacons, assistants to the Pope whose Cathedra is located in the Archbasilica of St John Lateran, which numbered up to six deacons. The twelve regional deacons joined the rank of cardinals only under Paschal II. One cardinal-bishop and at least three cardinal-priests were absent during the election. Bruno - Cardinal-bishop of Segni Richard de Saint-Victor - Cardinal-priest and Abbot of Saint-Victor and Basilica of Saint Paul Outside the Walls and papal legate in southern France and Spain Oderisio de Marsi - Cardinal-priest and abbot of Monte Cassino Bernard degli Uberti, - Cardinal-Priest of San Crisogono, abbot of Vallombrosa Abbey, Superior General of the Vallumbrosan Order On 13 August 1099 the cardinals in the presence of the lower clergy and representatives of the city authorities unanimously elected Ranieirus, the cardinal-priest of San Clemente and abbot of the Basilica of Saint Lawrence outside the Walls as successor to Urban II.
The new pope protested against this decision, stating that he was only a humble monk unfamiliar with the political problems attached to the office of Pope, but relented and accepted their decision. He took the Papal name Paschal II. On the next day he was consecrated Bishop of Rome by Cardinal-bishop of Ostia Eudes of Chatillon, assisted by other Cardinal-bishops and Offo, Cardinal-bishop of Nepi. Klewitz, Hans Walter, Reformpapsttum und Kardinalkolleg, Darmstadt 1957 Huls, Kardinal, Klerus und Kirchen Roms: 1049-1130, Tübingen 1977 Loughlin, James F. Pope Paschal II, Catholic Encyclopedia, Dopierała, Kazimierz The Book of the Popes, Ed. Pallotinum, Poznan 1996, pp. 160 Miranda S. Election of August 10 to 14, 1099, Florida International University Miami's Public Research University, ~ Mirandas / conclave-xi.htm # 1099 Robinson, I. S; the Papacy 1073-1198. Continuity and Innovations, Cambridge University Press 1990
Flavio Chigi (1631–1693)
Flavio Chigi was an Italian Catholic Cardinal and Duke of Ariccia. He was Cardinal-Nephew to Pope Alexander VII and became a powerful political force inside the Roman Catholic Church during the latter half of the 17th century. Flavio Chigi was born 10 May 1631 in the son of Mario Chigi and Berenice della Ciaia, he obtained a doctorate in utroque iuris. When his uncle Fabio Chigi was made Legate to Germany, Chigi followed him there but was soon sent back to Italy to complete his studies. In 1656, he was made Governor of Fermo and in 1658 he was made Governor of Tivoli. In the meantime, his uncle had been elected Pope in 1655 and had taken the papal throne as Pope Alexander VII. In 1657, Chigi was appointed as his Cardinal-Nephew. Upon his elevation to Cardinal, Chigi was appointed Cardinal-Priest of Santa Maria del Popolo. In 1659, at the death of Cardinal Luigi Capponi, Chigi was appointed Librarian of the Holy Roman Church and held the role for several years. In 1664, Chigi was received by King Louis XIV of France Following the death of his uncle, he oversaw the creation of the tomb for Alexander VII, designed by Gianlorenzo Bernini Pope Alexander VII died on 22 May 1667, 64 cardinals came together for the papal conclave of 1667.
The College of Cardinals was divided into several factions. The strongest of them was the party loyal to Chigi, which grouped twenty-four of the Cardinals his uncle had created. Another influential person was Dean of the College, Francesco Barberini, leader of the group of old cardinals created by his uncle Pope Urban VIII. Small but important because of the possibility of using the right of exclusion were the factions of the so-called "Crown-Cardinals", of Spain and France, they represented the respective interests of Louis XIV of France. The French party was instructed to work for the election of cardinal Secretary of State Giulio Rospigliosi. Unlike France, Spain placed its interests in the hand of the incompetent ambassador Marquis Astorga, he allied himself with Chigi, although Barberini tried to obtain Spanish support for his own candidature. Chigi, supported by the Spanish party, proposed to elect cardinal Scipione d'Elci, but was not able to secure for him the required majority of two thirds.
The alliance between the representatives of two major Catholic powers proved decisive and on 20 June 1667, Cardinal Giulio Rospigliosi was elected to the papacy, receiving all votes except those of his own and of Neri Corsini, who voted for Chigi. Villa Cetinale Lelio Colista
The Apostolic Palace is the official residence of the pope, the head of the Catholic Church, located in Vatican City. It is known as the Papal Palace, the Palace of the Vatican and the Vatican Palace; the Vatican itself refers to the building as the Palace of Sixtus V, in honor of Pope Sixtus V, who built most of the present form of the palace. The building contains the Papal Apartments, various offices of the Catholic Church and the Holy See and public chapels, Vatican Museums, the Vatican Library, including the Sistine Chapel, Raphael Rooms, Borgia Apartment; the modern tourist can see these last and other parts of the palace, but other parts, such as the Sala Regia and Cappella Paolina, are closed to tourists. The Scala Regia can be not entered. In the fifth century, Pope Symmachus built a papal palace close to the Old St. Peter's Basilica which served an alternative residence to the Lateran Palace; the construction of a second fortified palace was sponsored by Pope Eugene III and extensively modified under Pope Innocent III in the twelfth century.
Upon returning to Rome in 1377 after the interlude of the Avignon Papacy, which saw Rome subject to civil unrest and the abandonment of several Christian monuments, the popes chose to reside first at Basilica di Santa Maria in Trastevere and at Basilica di Santa Maria Maggiore. The Vatican Palace had fallen into disrepair from lack of upkeep and the Lateran Palace underwent two destructive fires, in 1307 and 1361, which did irreparable harm. In 1447, Pope Nicholas V razed the ancient fortified palace of Eugene III to erect a new building, the current Apostolic Palace. In the 15th century, the Palace was placed under the authority of a prefect; this position of Apostolic Prefect lasted from the 15th century till the 1800s, when the Papal States fell into economic difficulties. In 1884, when this post was reviewed in light of saving money, Pope Leo XIII created a committee to administer the palace; the major additions and decorations of the palace are the work of the following popes for 150 years.
Construction of the current version of the palace began on 30 April 1589 under Pope Sixtus V and its various intrinsic parts were completed by successors, Pope Urban VII, Pope Innocent XI and Pope Clement VIII. In the 20th century, Pope Pius XI built a monumental art museum entrance. Construction of the Papal Palace at the Vatican in Vatican City, took place between 1471 and 1605. Covering 162,000m squared, it contains the Papal Apartments, offices of the Roman Catholic Church and Holy See, Vatican Library and art galleries; the Apostolic Palace is run by the Prefecture of the Pontifical Household. The palace is more a series of self-contained buildings within the well-recognized outer structure, arranged around the Courtyard of Sixtus V, it is located northeast of St Peter's Basilica and adjacent to the Bastion of Nicholas V and Palace of Gregory XIII. The Apostolic Palace houses both residential and support offices of various functions as well as administrative offices not focused on the life and functions of the Pope himself.
The best known of the Palace chapels is the Sistine Chapel named in honor of Sixtus IV. It is famous for its decoration, frescoed throughout by Renaissance artists including Michelangelo, Sandro Botticelli, Pietro Perugino, Domenico Ghirlandaio, others. One of the primary functions of the chapel is as a venue for the election of each successive Pope in a conclave of the College of Cardinals. In this closed-door election, the cardinals choose a successor to the traditionally first pope, St. Peter, traditionally buried in the crypts of nearby St. Peter's Church; this suite of rooms is famous for its frescos by a large team of artists working under Raphael. They were intended as a suite of apartments for Pope Julius II, he commissioned Raphael a young artist from Urbino, his studio in 1508 or 1509 to redecorate the existing interiors of the rooms entirely. It was Julius' intent to outshine the apartments of his predecessor Pope Alexander VI, as the Stanze are directly above Alexander's Borgia Apartments.
They are on the third floor. Running from east to west, as a visitor would have entered the apartment, but reversing the sequence in which the Stanze were frescoed, the route of the modern visitor, the rooms are the Sala di Constantino, the Stanza di Eliodoro, the Stanza della Segnatura and the Stanza dell'Incendio del Borgo. After the death of Julius in 1513, with two rooms frescoed, Pope Leo X continued the program. Following Raphael's death in 1520, his assistants Gianfrancesco Penni, Giulio Romano and Raffaellino del Colle finished the project with the frescoes in the Sala di Costantino; the Borgia Apartments is a suite of rooms in the Palace adapted for personal use by Pope Alexander VI. He commissioned the Italian painter Pinturicchio to lavishly decorate the apartments with frescoes; the paintings and frescoes, which were executed between 1492 and 1494, drew on a complex iconographic program that used themes from medieval encyclopedias, adding an eschatological layer of meaning and celebrating the divine origins of the Borgias.
The rooms are variously considered a part of the Vatican Vatican Museums. Some of the rooms are now used for the Vatican Collection of Modern Religious Art, inaugur
1130 papal election
The papal election of 1130 was convoked after the death of Pope Honorius II and resulted in a double election. Part of the cardinals, led by Cardinal-Chancellor Aymeric de la Chatre, elected Gregorio Papareschi as Pope Innocent II, but the rest of them refused to recognize him and elected Cardinal Pietro Pierleoni, who took the name of Anacletus II. Although Anacletus had the support of the majority of the cardinals, the Catholic Church considers Innocent II as the legitimate Pope, Anacletus II as Antipope; the double election was a result of the growing tensions inside the College of Cardinals concerning the policy of the Holy See towards the Holy Roman Empire, initiated by the Concordat of Worms, which ended the investiture controversy. Several older, cardinals considered the compromise achieved in Worms as desertion of the principles of the Gregorian Reform, inclined to accept it only as a tactical move, they supported the traditional alliance of the Papacy with the Normans in southern Italy.
Some of them were connected to old monastic centers in Southern Italy such as Montecassino. One of their leaders was Cardinal Pierleoni, representative of one of the most powerful families of Rome; the opposite faction was headed by Aymeric de la Chatre, named cardinal and chancellor of the Holy See shortly after signing the Concordat of Worms and was one of the main architects of the new policy. He and his adherents looked at the compromise as a good solution both for the Church and the Emperor, did not trust the Norman vassals of the Holy See, who expressed some expansionist tendencies, it seems that at least some major representatives of this faction had strong connections to the "new spirituality", meaning the new religious orders such as regular canons. Besides, they were allied with the Roman family of opponents of the Pierleoni family. In the last weeks of the lifetime of Pope Honorius II the cardinals, fearing the possible schism, made an agreement that the new pope would be elected by the commission of eight of them, including two cardinal-bishops, three cardinal-priests and three cardinal-deacons.
The College of Cardinals had 43 members in February 1130. It seems that no more than 37 were present at Rome on the death of Honorius II: Probably six cardinals were absent from Rome: Both parties of the College of Cardinals were of an equal size; the party of Aymeric had 19 members, while that of his opponents 24, but the party of the Chancellor was better organized. One of the undeniable aspects of that division is that the Anacletans were older cardinals, veterans of the investiture controversy, created either by Paschalis II or early in the pontificate of Callixtus II, while Innocentine cardinals with few exceptions were created after Concordat of Worms, which established peace with the Emperor. Out of nineteen cardinals created before 1122, only five supported the Chancellor, while out of twenty four appointed from that time onwards as many as fourteen; the other possible reasons for such radical tensions in the College are discussed by historians without final conclusion. In the elected committee the party of Aymeric had 5 members out 8.
This was due to the way of their election – each of the three cardinalatial orders had to elect their own representatives. Although adherents of Aymeric were in the minority in the whole College, they had a majority among cardinal-bishops and cardinal-deacons, while their opponents were cardinal-priests. Therefore, the faction of the Chancellor acquired a majority in the electoral body The following cardinals were elected to the committee: Cardinal-Bishops Guillaume, Bishop of Palestrina Corrado della Suburra, Bishop of Sabina Cardinal-Priests Pietro Pierleoni, O. S. B. Cluny, Priest of S. Maria in Trastevere † Pietro Pisano, Priest of S. Susanna † Pietro Ruffino, Priest of SS. Silvestro e Martino Cardinal-Deacons Gregorio Papareschi, C. R. L. Deacon of S. Angelo in Pescheria Aymeric de la Chatre, C. R. S. M. R. Deacon of S. Maria Nuova and Chancellor of the Holy See Gionata, Deacon of SS. Cosma e Damiano † Honorius II died in the night 13/14 February 1130 in the Roman monastery of S. Gregorio, after a long illness.
Cardinal Aymeric arranged a hasty burial there and called the members of the committee to the monastery to proceed for the election of a new pope. But Cardinals Pierleoni and Gionata, realising that the commission would elect a supporter of the Chancellor, withdrew from it hoping that a lack of quorum would prevent it from functioning, but Aymeric ignored the commission assembled with six members only. Despite the protests of Cardinal Pietro Pisano, a distinguished canonist, the committee elected one of its members, Cardinal Gregorio Papareschi of S. Angelo, who accepted the election and took the name Innocent II, he was enthroned in the Lateran Basilica early in the morning on February 14. His election was immediately recognized by six other cardinals: two bishops and four priests. In a short time they were joined by the next eight cardinals; the majority of the cardinals, did not recognize Innocent II under the influence of Pietro Pisano, who, as a distinguished canonist, declared that his election was invalid.
On February 14 in the morning the opponents of Aymeric and his candidate assembled under the leadership of Pi
Pope Urban VIII
Pope Urban VIII reigned as Pope from 6 August 1623 to his death in 1644. He expanded the papal territory by force of arms and advantageous politicking, was a prominent patron of the arts and a reformer of Church missions. However, the massive debts incurred during his pontificate weakened his successors, who were unable to maintain the papacy's longstanding political and military influence in Europe, he was involved in a controversy with Galileo and his theory on heliocentrism. He was born Maffeo Barberini in April 1568 to Antonio Barberini, a Florentine nobleman, Camilla Barbadoro, his father died when he was only three years old and his mother took him to Rome, where he was put in the charge of his uncle, Francesco Barberini, an apostolic protonotary. At the age of 16 he became his uncle's heir, he was educated by the Society of Jesus, received a doctorate of law from the University of Pisa in 1589. In 1601, through the influence of his uncle, was able to secure from Pope Clement VIII appointment as a papal legate to the court of King Henry IV of France.
In 1604, the same pope appointed him as the Archbishop of Nazareth, an office joined with that of Bishop of the suppressed Dioceses of Canne and Monteverde, with his residence at Barletta. At the death of his uncle, he inherited his riches, with which he bought a palace in Rome which he made into a luxurious Renaissance residence. Pope Paul V later employed Barberini in a similar capacity, afterwards raising him, in 1606, to the order of the Cardinal-Priest, with the titular church of San Pietro in Montorio and appointing him as a papal legate of Bologna. Barberini was considered someone who could be elected as pope, though there were those such as Cardinal Ottavio Bandini who worked to prevent Barberini from being elected as pope. Despite this, throughout 29-30 July, the cardinals began an intense series of negotiations to test the numbers as to who could emerge from the conclave as pope, with Cardinal Ludovico Ludovisi dismissing Barberini's chances as long as Barberini remained a close ally of Cardinal Scipione Borghese, whose faction Barberini supported.
Ludovisi had discussions with Cardinals Farnese and Aldobrandini on 30 July about seeing to Barberini's election. The three supported his candidature and went about securing the support of others, which lead to Barberini's election just over a week later. On 6 August 1623, at the papal conclave following the death of Pope Gregory XV, Barberini was chosen as Gregory XV's successor and took the name Urban VIII. Upon Pope Urban VIII's election, the Venetian envoy, wrote the following description of him: The new Pontiff is 56 years old, his Holiness is tall, with regular features and black hair turning grey. He is exceptionally elegant and refined in all details of his dress, he is an excellent speaker and debater, writes verses and patronises poets and men of letters. Urban VIII's papacy covered 21 years of the Thirty Years' War, was an eventful one by the standards of the day, he canonized Elizabeth of Portugal, Andrew Corsini and Conrad of Piacenza, issued the papal bulls of canonization for Ignatius of Loyola and Francis Xavier, canonized by his predecessor, Pope Gregory XV.
Despite an early friendship and encouragement for his teachings, Urban VIII was responsible for summoning the scientist and astronomer Galileo to Rome in 1633 to recant his work. Urban VIII practiced nepotism on a grand scale, he elevated his brother Antonio Marcello Barberini and his nephews Francesco Barberini and Antonio Barberini to Cardinal. He bestowed upon their brother, Taddeo Barberini, the titles Prince of Palestrina, Gonfalonier of the Church, Prefect of Rome and Commander of Sant'Angelo. Historian Leopold von Ranke estimated that during his reign, Urban VIII's immediate family amassed 105 million scudi in personal wealth. Urban VIII was a skilled writer of Latin verse, a collection of Scriptural paraphrases as well as original hymns of his composition have been reprinted; the 1638 papal bull Commissum Nobis protected the existence of Jesuit missions in South America by forbidding the enslavement of natives who were at the Jesuit Reductions. At the same time, Urban VIII repealed the Jesuit monopoly on missionary work in China and Japan, opening these countries to missionaries of other orders and missionary societies.
Urban VIII issued a 1624 papal bull that made the use of tobacco in holy places punishable by excommunication. Urban VIII canonized five saints during his pontificate: Stephen Harding, Elizabeth of Portugal and Conrad of Piacenza, Peter Nolasco, Andrea Corsini; the pope beatified 68 individuals including the Martyrs of Nagasaki. The pope created 74 cardinals in eight consistories throughout his pontificate, this included his nephews Francesco and Antonio, cousin Lorenzo Magalotti, the pope's own brother Antonio Marcello, he created Giovanni Battista Pamphili as a cardinal, with Pamphili becoming his immediate successor Pope Innocent X. The pope created eight of those cardinals whom he had reserved in pectore. Urban VIII's military involvement was aimed less at the restoration of Catholicism in Europe than at adjusting the balance of power to favour his own independence in Italy. In 1626, the duchy of Urbino was incorporated into the papal dominions, and, in 1627