1781 in art
Events from the year 1781 in art. August 27 – Danish artists Marie Jeanne Crevoisier and Johan Frederik Clemens are married. George Barret, Sr. – View of Windermere Lake, Early Morning Jacques-Louis David – Belisarius begging for alms Philip James de Loutherbourg – Eidophusikon Henry Fuseli – The Nightmare Thomas Gainsborough – Mrs Robinson as Perdita Anton Graff – Frederick the Great, King of Prussia Jean-Antoine Houdon – Portrait busts of Voltaire and Molière Sir Joshua Reynolds Emily Potts as Thaïs George, 2nd Earl Harcourt, his wife Elizabeth and his brother William George Romney – The Charteris Children Joseph Wright of Derby – Sir Brooke Boothby March – John Burnet, Scottish engraver and painter March 13 – Karl Friedrich Schinkel, Prussian architect and painter March 20 – Joseph Paelinck, Belgian painter April 7 – Francis Leggatt Chantrey, English sculptor of the Georgian era April 8 – Luke Clennell, English engraver and painter April 22 – José de Madrazo y Agudo, Spanish Neoclassic painter July 25 – Merry-Joseph Blondel, French neo-classic painter October 12 – William Westall, English landscape painter November 1 – Joseph Stieler, German painter November 11 – Caroline Bardua, German painter November 21 – Cornelius Varley, English watercolor painter date unknown Étienne-Jean Delécluze, French painter and critic Thomas Douglas Guest, British portrait painter Francis Hervé, French-born British painter Kikuchi Yōsai – Japanese painter most famous for his monochrome portraits of historical figures probable – John Wesley Jarvis, American painter January 15 – Sir Henry Cheere, 1st Baronet, English sculptor February 22 – Giovanni Maria Morlaiter, Italian Rococo sculptor March 2 – Francisco Salzillo, Spanish sculptor April 10 – Teodor Kračun, Serbian painter June 5 – Noël Hallé, French painter and printmaker September 12 – Peter Scheemakers, Flemish Roman Catholic sculptor September 30 – Jean-Baptiste Le Prince, French etcher and painter October 22 – Johann August Nahl, German sculptor and stucco artist November 3 – Jakob Emanuel Handmann, Swiss painter November 12 – Jean Grandjean, Dutch painter and watercolourist date unknown Etienne Aubry, French painter of portraits and genre subjects Jean-Bernard, abbé Le Blanc, French art critic and director of the official French policy in the arts Francesco Caccianiga, Italian painter and engraver Carlo Costanzi, Italian gem engraver of the late-Baroque period Jacques-Ignace de La Touche, French painter of miniatures and portraits Ubaldo Gandolfi, Italian painter
1780 in art
Events from the year 1780 in art. George Washington Jacques-Louis David Portrait of Count Stanislas Potocki Saint Roch Interceding with the Virgin for the Plague-Stricken Jean-Pierre Norblin de La Gourdaine – Les Marionettes polonaises Francisco Goya – Christ Crucified Francis Holman – The moonlight Battle of Cape St Vincent, 16 January 1780 Jacob More Landscape with Classical Figures, Cicero at his Villa Mount Vesuvius in Eruption: The Last Days of Pompeii Sir Joshua Reynolds – The Ladies Waldegrave Francis Wheatley – The Irish House of Commons Johann Zoffany Double Portrait of Henry and Mary Styleman Portrait of Tipu Sultan January 10 – Pieter Christoffel Wonder, Dutch painter active in England February 15 – Alfred Edward Chalon, Swiss portrait painter February 18 – Alexey Venetsianov, Russian genre painter April 14 – Edward Hicks, American folk artist June 12 – Henry Hoppner Meyer, English portrait painter August 8 – Étienne Bouhot, French painter and art teacher August 29 – Jean-Auguste-Dominique Ingres, French Neoclassical painter September – Samuel Colman, English painter September 15 – Johann Peter Krafft, German-Austrian painter October 26 – Alexandre-Évariste Fragonard, French painter and sculptor in the troubadour style date unknown Johann Adam Ackermann, German landscape painter Giovacchino Cantini, Italian engraver Jan Krzysztof Damel, Lithuanian neoclassicist painter February 14 – Gabriel de Saint-Aubin, French draftsman, printmaker and painter February 21 – Francesco Foschi, Italian landscape painter March 3 – Joseph Highmore, British portrait and historical painter May 6 – Gaspare Bazzani, Italian painter active in Reggio as a painter of vedute or landscapes July 11 – Luis Egidio Meléndez, Spanish still-life painter September 6 – Françoise Basseporte, French court painter September 7 – Pieter Barbiers, Dutch painter October 17 – Bernardo Bellotto, Italian urban landscape painter or vedutista, printmaker in etching date unknown James Giles, British porcelain decorator Dionigi Valesi, Italian printmaker active in Verona and Venice probable Robert Hunter, Irish painter Nicolas Jean Baptiste Poilly, French draftsman and engraver Rocco Pozzi, Italian painter and engraver Wenceslaus Werlin, Austrian portrait artist
1779 in art
Events from the year 1779 in art. October 8 – William Blake enrols as a student with the Royal Academy of Arts at Somerset House in London. Per Krafft the Elder – Carl Michael Bellman Charles Willson Peale – George Washington at Princeton Sir Joshua Reynolds Lady Elizabeth Delmé and Her Children Lady Jane Halliday Admiral Lord Keppel George Stubbs The Labourers A Lion and a Tiger Mambrino Dido Elizabeth Belle Lindsay and Lady Elizabeth Murray January 3 – Gustav Philipp Zwinger, German painter February 20 – Augustus Wall Callcott, English landscape painter March 21 – Vojtěch Benedikt Juhn, Czech painter and engraver April 19 - Anson Dickinson, American painter of miniature portraits May 27 – Juan Antonio Ribera, Spanish Neoclassicism painter July 8 – Giorgio Pullicino, Maltese painter and architect July 26 – Erik Gustaf Göthe, Swedish sculptor August 24 – Charles Norris, English topographical etcher and writer known for his landscape work of the Welsh countryside November 4 – Jan Willem Pieneman, Dutch historical painter November 5 – Washington Allston, American painter, the "American Titian" November 6 – Henry Pierce Bone, English enamel painter December 9 – Moritz Retzsch, German painter and etcher date unknown Paolo Caronni, Italian engraver Guillaume Descamps, French painter and engraver Vasily Demut-Malinovsky, Russian sculptor in the Empire style January 26 – Thomas Hudson, English portrait painter February 4 – John Hamilton Mortimer, English Neoclassical painter known for his romantic paintings and pieces set in Italy and its countryside March 14 – Joseph-Charles Roettiers, French engraver and medallist April – Károly Bebo, Hungarian sculptor and decorator noted for his stucco work June 29 – Anton Raphael Mengs, German painter September 14 – Anton Pichler, Austrian goldsmith and engraver December 6 – Jean-Baptiste-Siméon Chardin, French painter date unknown John Giles Eccardt, German-born English portrait painter Lorenzo Feliciati, Italian painter
1849 in art
Events from the year 1849 in art. March – The Journal of Design and Manufactures is established by Henry Cole in London. May First exhibition of paintings by the Pre-Raphaelite Brotherhood, in London: John Everett Millais' Isabella and Holman Hunt's Rienzi at the Royal Academy summer exhibition and Dante Gabriel Rossetti's The Girlhood of Mary Virgin at the Institution for the Free Exhibition of Modern Art's "St. George's Gallery" on Knightsbridge next to Hyde Park Corner. John Ruskin publishes The Seven Lamps of Architecture. Prix de Rome – Gustave Boulanger Ivan Aivazovsky – Stormy Sea at Night Rosa Bonheur – Ploughing in the Nivernais Auguste Couder – The Tennis Court Oath, 20 June 1789 Gustave Courbet – After Dinner at Ornans Asher Brown Durand – Kindred Spirits William Holman Hunt – Rienzi vowing to obtain justice for the death of his young brother, slain in a skirmish between the Colonna and the Orsini factions John Everett Millais – Isabella Andreas Müller – The Christ Child John O'Connor – Diorama of the Queen's Visit to Ireland Joseph Noel Paton – The Quarrel of Oberon and Titania Clarkson Frederick Stanfield – Tilbury Fort – Wind Against Tide January 12 – Jean Béraud, French painter April 29 – Méry Laurent, French muse and artist's model June 2 – Paul-Albert Besnard, French painter August 12 – Abbott Handerson Thayer, American painter and teacher November 25 – Mary Fraser Tytler, British craftswoman and designer December 19 – Henry Clay Frick, American art collector Christopher Whall, English stained-glass artist January 30 – Peter De Wint, English landscape painter February 11 – Luigi Ademollo, Italian painter March 5 – David Scott, Scottish historical painter March 18 – Antonin Moine, French romantic sculptor May 18 – Samuel Amsler, Swiss engraver May 10 – Hokusai, Japanese artist, ukiyo-e painter and printmaker of the Edo period June 8 – Bianca Milesi, Italian writer and patriot June 26 – Moses Haughton the younger, English engraver and painter of portrait miniatures August 21 – Moritz Michael Daffinger, Austrian miniature painter and sculptor August 23 – Edward Hicks, American folk artist August 25 – Adele Schopenhauer, German papercut artist and novelist September 7 – Richard Sass, English landscape painter and drawing master to royalty November 11 – William Barnard, English mezzotint engraver November 13 – William Etty, English painter of nudes November 21 – François Marius Granet, French painter December 4 – Jovan Pačić, Serbian painter and poet December 9 – John Glover, English-born Australian landscape painter December 27 – Jacques-Laurent Agasse, Swiss animal and landscape painter date unknown Francis Engleheart, English engraver Ellen Sharples, English painter who specialized in portraits and watercolor miniatures Abraham Wivell, British portrait painter and pioneer of fire protection
Paris is the capital and most populous city of France, with an area of 105 square kilometres and an official estimated population of 2,140,526 residents as of 1 January 2019. Since the 17th century, Paris has been one of Europe's major centres of finance, commerce, fashion and the arts; the City of Paris is the centre and seat of government of the Île-de-France, or Paris Region, which has an estimated official 2019 population of 12,213,364, or about 18 percent of the population of France. The Paris Region had a GDP of €681 billion in 2016, accounting for 31 percent of the GDP of France, was the 5th largest region by GDP in the world. According to the Economist Intelligence Unit Worldwide Cost of Living Survey in 2018, Paris was the second most expensive city in the world, after Singapore, ahead of Zurich, Hong Kong and Geneva. Another source ranked Paris as most expensive, on a par with Singapore and Hong-Kong, in 2018; the city is a major rail and air-transport hub served by two international airports: Paris-Charles de Gaulle and Paris-Orly.
Opened in 1900, the city's subway system, the Paris Métro, serves 5.23 million passengers daily, is the second busiest metro system in Europe after Moscow Metro. Gare du Nord is the 24th busiest railway station in the world, the first located outside Japan, with 262 million passengers in 2015. Paris is known for its museums and architectural landmarks: the Louvre was the most visited art museum in the world in 2018, with 10.2 million visitors. The Musée d'Orsay and Musée de l'Orangerie are noted for their collections of French Impressionist art, the Pompidou Centre Musée National d'Art Moderne has the largest collection of modern and contemporary art in Europe; the historical district along the Seine in the city centre is classified as a UNESCO Heritage Site. Popular landmarks in the centre of the city include the Cathedral of Notre Dame de Paris and the Gothic royal chapel of Sainte-Chapelle, both on the Île de la Cité. Paris received 23 million visitors in 2017, measured by hotel stays, with the largest numbers of foreign visitors coming from the United States, the UK, Germany and China.
It was ranked as the third most visited travel destination in the world in 2017, after Bangkok and London. The football club Paris Saint-Germain and the rugby union club Stade Français are based in Paris; the 80,000-seat Stade de France, built for the 1998 FIFA World Cup, is located just north of Paris in the neighbouring commune of Saint-Denis. Paris hosts the annual French Open Grand Slam tennis tournament on the red clay of Roland Garros. Paris will host the 2024 Summer Olympics; the 1938 and 1998 FIFA World Cups, the 2007 Rugby World Cup, the 1960, 1984, 2016 UEFA European Championships were held in the city and, every July, the Tour de France bicycle race finishes there. The name "Paris" is derived from the Celtic Parisii tribe; the city's name is not related to the Paris of Greek mythology. Paris is referred to as the City of Light, both because of its leading role during the Age of Enlightenment and more because Paris was one of the first large European cities to use gas street lighting on a grand scale on its boulevards and monuments.
Gas lights were installed on the Place du Carousel, Rue de Rivoli and Place Vendome in 1829. By 1857, the Grand boulevards were lit. By the 1860s, the boulevards and streets of Paris were illuminated by 56,000 gas lamps. Since the late 19th century, Paris has been known as Panam in French slang. Inhabitants are known in French as Parisiens, they are pejoratively called Parigots. The Parisii, a sub-tribe of the Celtic Senones, inhabited the Paris area from around the middle of the 3rd century BC. One of the area's major north–south trade routes crossed the Seine on the île de la Cité; the Parisii minted their own coins for that purpose. The Romans began their settlement on Paris' Left Bank; the Roman town was called Lutetia. It became a prosperous city with a forum, temples, an amphitheatre. By the end of the Western Roman Empire, the town was known as Parisius, a Latin name that would become Paris in French. Christianity was introduced in the middle of the 3rd century AD by Saint Denis, the first Bishop of Paris: according to legend, when he refused to renounce his faith before the Roman occupiers, he was beheaded on the hill which became known as Mons Martyrum "Montmartre", from where he walked headless to the north of the city.
Clovis the Frank, the first king of the Merovingian dynasty, made the city his capital from 508. As the Frankish domination of Gaul began, there was a gradual immigration by the Franks to Paris and the Parisian Francien dialects were born. Fortification of the Île-de-la-Citie failed to avert sacking by Vikings in 845, but Paris' strategic importance—with its bridges prevent
1785 in art
Events from the year 1785 in art. Joseph Wright of Derby holds a one-man exhibition in London, having severed his official connection with the Royal Academy. Nicolas Benjamin Delapierre – Portrait of a Seated Gentleman Joseph Duplessis – Portrait of Benjamin Franklin Thomas Gainsborough Mr and Mrs William Hallett Portrait of Mrs. Sarah Siddons Anton Graff – Self-portrait with his family Hugh Douglas Hamilton – Lord Edward Stuart Jean-Antoine Houdon – Portrait bust of George Washington Adélaïde Labille-Guiard – Self-portrait with two pupils Jacques-Antoine-Marie Lemoine – Portrait of Zamor Isidro Lorea – Main altarpiece of Buenos Aires Metropolitan Cathedral Sir Joshua Reynolds – approximate date Miss Theophila Gwatkin as Simplicity Emma Hart as a Bacchante George Romney – At least two portraits of Emma Hart Alexander Roslin – Self Portrait while Painting the King of Sweden George Stubbs – Haymakers and Reapers April 26 – John James Audubon and painter September 26 – Charles Bird King, American portrait artist who notably painted Native American delegates visiting Washington, D.
C. October 12 – Henry Thomas Alken, English engraver and sporting artist October 31 – Georg Friedrich Kersting, German painter of Biedermeier-style interior paintings November 18 – David Wilkie – Scottish painter and engraver December 23 – Christian Gobrecht, engraver date unknown Jean Alaux, French history painter and Director of the French Academy in Rome Pál Balkay, Hungarian painter and teacher Abraham Constantin, Swiss enamel painter Jean-Baptiste De Jonghe, Belgian landscape painter José Gil de Castro, Afro-Peruvian painter of portraits of Peru's heroes Paul Joseph Gabriël, Dutch painter and sculptor Daniel Havell, English engraver Ignatius Josephus van Regemorter, Flemish historical and genre painter and engraver probable John Edward Carew, Irish sculptor Bernardo Consorti, Italian line-engraver January 2 – Andrés de la Calleja, Spanish painter April 13 – Michel-François Dandré-Bardon, French historical painter and etcher May 8 – Pietro Longhi, Venetian painter August 20 – Jean-Baptiste Pigalle, French sculptor October 4 – Alexander Runciman, Scottish painter December 14 – Giovanni Battista Cipriani, Italian painter and engraver date unknown John Hodges Benwell, English genre painter Johannes de Bosch, Dutch painter and draughtsman William Cochran, Scottish painter Pietro Gaspari, Italian artist, known for veduta and capriccio in etchings and paintings Jacques Fabien Gautier d'Agoty, French painter and printmaker José Luzán, Spanish Baroque painter Krzysztof Perwanger, Polish sculptor and mayor Hugues Taraval, French painter
Oath of the Horatii
Oath of the Horatii, is a large painting by the French artist Jacques-Louis David painted in 1784 and now on display in the Louvre in Paris. The painting became a huge success with critics and the public, remains one of the best known paintings in the Neoclassical style, it depicts a scene from a Roman legend about a seventh-century BC dispute between two warring cities and Alba Longa, stresses the importance of patriotism and masculine self-sacrifice for one's country. Instead of the two cities sending their armies to war, they agree to choose three men from each city. From Rome, three brothers from a Roman family, the Horatii, agree to end the war by fighting three brothers from a family of Alba Longa, the Curiatii; the three brothers, all of whom appear willing to sacrifice their lives for the good of Rome, are shown saluting their father who holds their swords out for them. Of the three Horatii brothers, only one shall survive the confrontation. However, it is the surviving brother, able to kill the other three fighters from Alba Longa: he allows the three fighters to chase him, causing them to separate from each other, in turn, kills each Curiatii brother.
Aside from the three brothers depicted, David represents, in the bottom right corner, a woman crying whilst sitting down. She is Camilla, a sister of the Horatii brothers, betrothed to one of the Curiatii fighters, thus she weeps in the realisation that, in any case, she will lose someone she loves; the principal sources for the story behind David's Oath are the first book of Livy, elaborated by Dionysius in book 3 of his Roman Antiquities. However, the moment depicted in David's painting is his own invention; the painting led to the popularization of the Roman salute. It grew to be considered a paragon of neoclassical art; the painting increased David's fame. In 1774, David won the Prix de Rome with his work Érasistrate découvrant la cause de la maladie d’Antiochius; this allowed him to stay five years in Rome as a student from the French government. Upon his return to Paris he exhibited his work, which Diderot admired. There he met Pecoul, contractor for the actual buildings, Pecoul's daughter, whom he married.
The king's assistant, Charles-Claude Flahaut de la Billaderie, commissioned Oath of the Horatii with the intention that it be an allegory about loyalty to the state and therefore to the king. David departed from the agreed-upon scene, painting this scene instead; the painting was not completed in Paris, but rather in Rome, where David was visited by his pupil Jean-Germaine Drouais who had himself won the Prix de Rome. David's picture manifests a progressive outlook influenced by Enlightenment ideas, that contributed to the overthrow of the monarchy; as the French Revolution approached, paintings referred to the loyalty to the state rather than the family or the church. Painted five years before the Revolution, the Oath of the Horatii reflects the political tensions of the period. In 1789, David painted The Lictors Bring to Brutus the Bodies of His Sons, a picture, a royal commission. Shortly afterward, the king went up to the scaffold accused of treason, as the sons of Brutus, with the vote of the artist in the National Assembly, which supported the execution of Louis XVI.
The painting depicts the Roman Horatius family, according to Titus Livius' Ab Urbe Condita had been chosen for a ritual duel against three members of the Curiatii, a family from Alba Longa, in order to settle disputes between the Romans and the latter city. As revolution in France loomed, paintings urging loyalty to the state rather than to clan or clergy abounded. Although it was painted nearly four years before the revolution in France, The Oath of the Horatii became one of the defining images of the time. In the painting, the three brothers express their loyalty and solidarity with Rome before battle, wholly supported by their father; these are men willing to lay down their lives out of patriotic duty. With their resolute gaze and taut, outstretched limbs, they are citadels of patriotism, they are symbols of the highest virtues of Rome. Their clarity of purpose, mirrored by David's simple yet powerful use of tonal contrasts, lends the painting, its message about the nobility of patriotic sacrifice, an electric intensity.
This is all in contrast to the tender-hearted women who lie weeping and mourning, awaiting the results of the fighting. The mother and sisters are shown clothed in silken garments melting into tender expressions of sorrow, their despair is due to the fact that one sister was engaged to one of the Curiatii and another is a sister of the Curiatii, married to one of the Horatii. Upon defeat of the Curiatii, the remaining Horatius journeyed home to find his sister cursing Rome over the death of her fiancé, he killed her. David had intended to depict this episode, a drawing survives showing the surviving Horatius raising his sword, with his sister lying dead. David decided that this subject was too gruesome a way of sending the message of public duty overcoming private feeling, but his next major painting, The Lictors Bring to Brutus the Bodies of His Sons depicted a similar scene - Lucius Junius Brutus brooding as the bodies of his sons, whose executions for treason he had ordered, are returned home.
This was a subject the tragedy Brutus by Voltaire had made f