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1792 United States presidential election

The 1792 United States presidential election was the second quadrennial presidential election. It was held from Friday, November 2 to Wednesday, December 5, 1792. Incumbent President George Washington was elected to a second term by a unanimous vote in the electoral college, while John Adams was re-elected as vice president. Washington was unopposed, but Adams faced a competitive re-election against Governor George Clinton of New York. Washington was popular, no one made a serious attempt to oppose his re-election. Electoral rules of the time required each presidential elector to cast two votes without distinguishing, for president and which for vice president; the recipient of the most votes would become president, the runner-up vice president. The Democratic-Republican Party, which had organized in opposition to the policies of Secretary of the Treasury Alexander Hamilton, supported Clinton for the position of vice president. Adams, was backed by the Federalist Party in his bid for another term.

Neither party had organized, partisan divisions had not yet solidified. Washington received one from each elector. Adams won 77 electoral votes. Clinton finished in third place with 50 electoral votes, taking his home state of New York as well as three Southern states. Two other candidates won the five remaining electoral votes; this election was the first in which each of the original 13 states appointed electors, as did the newly added states of Kentucky and Vermont. While it was the only presidential election, not held four years after the previous election, most of the previous election was held four years prior. In 1792, presidential elections were still conducted according to the original method established under the U. S. Constitution. Under this system, each elector cast two votes: the candidate who received the greatest number of votes became president, while the runner-up became vice president; the Twelfth Amendment would replace this system, requiring electors to cast one vote for president and one vote for vice president, but this change did not take effect until 1804.

Because of this, it is difficult to use modern-day terminology to describe the relationship among the candidates in this election. Washington is held by historians to have run unopposed. Indeed, the incumbent president received one vote from every elector; the choice for vice president was more divisive. The Federalist Party threw its support behind the incumbent vice president, John Adams of Massachusetts, while the Democratic-Republican Party backed the candidacy of New York Governor George Clinton; because few doubted that Washington would receive the greatest number of votes and Clinton were competing for the vice presidency. George Washington, President of the United States from Virginia John Adams, Vice President of the United States from Massachusetts George Washington, President of the United States from Virginia George Clinton, Governor of New YorkBorn out of the Anti-Federalist faction that had opposed the Constitution in 1788, the Democratic-Republican Party was the main opposition to the agenda of Treasury Secretary Alexander Hamilton.

They had no chance of unseating Washington, but hoped to win the vice presidency by defeating the incumbent, Adams. Many Democratic-Republicans would have preferred to nominate Thomas Jefferson, their ideological leader and Washington's Secretary of State. However, this would have cost them the state of Virginia, as electors were not permitted to vote for two candidates from their home state and Washington was a Virginian. Clinton, the Governor of New York and a former anti-Federalist leader, became the party's nominee after he won the backing of Jefferson and James Madison. Clinton was from an electorally-important swing state, he convinced party leaders that he would be a stronger candidate than another New Yorker, Senator Aaron Burr. A group of Democratic-Republican leaders met in Philadelphia in October 1792 and selected Clinton as the party's vice presidential candidate. By 1792, a party division had emerged between Federalists led by Treasury Secretary Alexander Hamilton, who desired a stronger federal government with a leading role in the economy, the Democratic-Republicans led by Secretary of State Thomas Jefferson and Representative James Madison of Virginia, who favored states' rights and opposed Hamilton's economic program.

Madison was at first a Federalist until he opposed the establishment of Hamilton's First Bank of the United States in 1791. He formed the Democratic-Republican Party along with Anti-Federalist Thomas Jefferson in 1792; the elections of 1792 were the first ones in the United States to be contested on anything resembling a partisan basis. In most states, the congressional elections were recognized in some sense as a "struggle between the Treasury department and the republican interest," to use the words of Jefferson strategist John Beckley. In New York, the race for governor was fought along these lines; the candidates were Chief Justice John Jay, a Hamiltonian, incumbent George Clinton, the party's vice presidential nominee. Although Washington had been considering retiring, both sides encouraged him to remain in office to bridge factional differences. Washington was supported by all sides throughout his presidency and gained more popularity with the passage of the Bill of Rights. However, the Democratic-Republicans and the Federalists contested the vice-presidency, with incumbent John Adams as the Federalist nominee and George Clinton as the Democratic-Republican nominee

Isho Bar Nun

Ishoʿ bar Nun was Patriarch of the Church of the East from 823 to 828. He succeeded Timothy I considered to be the most impressive of the Nestorian patriarchs. Brief accounts of Ishoʿ bar Nun's patriarchate are given in the Ecclesiastical Chronicle of the Jacobite writer Bar Hebraeus and in the ecclesiastical histories of the Nestorian writers Mari, ʿAmr and Sliba. Modern assessments of Ishoʿ bar Nun's reign can be found in Jean-Maurice Fiey's Chrétiens syriaques sous les Abbassides and David Wilmshurst's The Martyred Church; the following account of Ishoʿ bar Nun's patriarchate is given by Bar Hebraeus: Timothy was succeeded by Ishoʿ bar Nun of Beth Gabbare, a village in the region of Nineveh. He had resided for thirty-eight years in the monastery of Deir Saʿid near Mosul, was well versed in doctrine, he wrote a confutation of the writings of the catholicus Timothy and criticised everything he did, calling him Tolemathy, that is, injurious to God. After the death of Timothy, Gabriel bar Bokhtishoʿ and Mikha'il, the physicians of the caliph al-Ma'mun, supported this Ishoʿ bar Nun, the bishops followed their lead and consecrated him at Seleucia in the year 205 of the Arabs.

They say that when Timothy was dying he was asked who would be a suitable man to succeed him, he replied that Ishoʿ bar Nun would be suitable.'Although he has attacked and opposed me throughout my reign, I cannot now do other than answer your question truthfully.' Ishoʿ bar Nun was respected as a theologian and a canonist, was a prolific author in a number of genres. His Select Questions, a work of biblical exegesis, has survived, but most of his other works have been lost. List of Patriarchs of the Church of the East Abbeloos, J. B. and Lamy, T. J. Bar Hebraeus, Chronicon Ecclesiasticum Assemani, J. A. De Catholicis seu Patriarchis Chaldaeorum et Nestorianorum Brooks, E. W. Eliae Metropolitae Nisibeni Opus Chronologicum Fiey, J. M. Chrétiens syriaques sous les Abbassides, surtout à Bagdad Gismondi, H. Maris, Amri, et Salibae: De Patriarchis Nestorianorum Commentaria I: Amri et Salibae Textus Gismondi, H. Maris, Amri, et Salibae: De Patriarchis Nestorianorum Commentaria II: Maris textus arabicus et versio Latina Wilmshurst, The Martyred Church: A History of the Church of the East.

Wright, W. A Short History of Syriac Literature

African cuckoo-hawk

The African cuckoo-hawk, or African baza, is a medium-sized raptor in the family Accipitridae so named because it resembles the common cuckoo, found in sub-Saharan Africa and along the eastern parts of Southern Africa. It prefers dense forest of either indigenous or exotic trees; the male is blackish-brown above with a grey mantle and chest with a blackish crest, the underparts are white marked with broad chestnut bars. The tail is black with grey and white tip; the females are browner with paler chestnut bars on the underparts. Distinctive in flight as a small raptor with a small head with broad, narrowly rounded wings and a medium length tail. Wingspan is just over double the body length, females are larger than males; the African cuckoo-Hawk is found across much of sub-Saharan Africa, the following subspecies are recognised: A. c. subsp. Cuculoides – Senegal to southwestern Ethiopia and northern DRC A. c. subsp. Batesi – Sierra Leone to Uganda and northern Angola A. c. subsp. Verreauxii – Kenya to Namibia and eastern South Africa The African cuckoo-hawk is a shy species which occurs in the interior and edges of evergreen forest and deciduous woodlands, including suburban gardens and more open savannas, up to 3,000 m.

When migrating through east Africa it occurs in drier woodland and bush. The African cuckoo-hawk is sedentary but during April–November some migrate northwards to East Africa, in particular to coastal Kenya and outside the breeding season some migrate to southern Africa to the Transvaal Highveld; the breeding season varies by geography. The African cuckoo-hawk's general behaviour is little known, as this species occurs at low densities and has secretive habits, although they are more conspicuous during migration and so may appear more numerous; the African cuckoo-hawk eats reptiles and insects, it hunts within the canopy by flying from tree to tree, searching from a perch before flying to pluck the prey item from the canopy or ground. The following food items have been recorded in its diet: flap-necked chameleon Chamaeleo dilepsis, the southern dwarf chameleon Brachypodion ventrale, snakes, fish, fruit bats, birds and locusts, stick insects, silverfish larvae, caterpillars and freshwater crabs.

The African cuckoo-hawk is a monogamous, solitary nester, belying its secretive reputation by performing spectacular aerial displays as the breeding season approaches. The nest is constructed by both sexes in 11 days and consists of an untidy platform of twigs and leaves, lined with leaves and small sticks, it is placed in the highest branches of a tree between 10 and 30 metres above the ground. Only one or two eggs are laid three, the chicks are fed and brooded by both parents, before they leave the nest after 28 days and take their first flight a few days after that; the juveniles remain dependent on their parents for about a week after their first flight. Wahlberg's eagle Hieraaetus wahlbergi has been recorded preying on the chicks of the African cuckoo-hawk. Cuckoo-hawk Species text in The Atlas of Southern African Birds

Genie M. Smith

Genie M. Smith was an American author and publisher. Genie M. Boyce was born on a farm in Vermont, on November 17, 1852, her father was an invalid, she was left to live an out-door life in childhood. Genie M. Smith was known by her pen-names, "Maude Meredith" and "Kit Clover", she was a prolific author of serials, short stories and papers on home subjects for women. "Maude Meredith" began her literary career in the columns of the Chicago Tribune in 1880. The following year she issued a small volume of poems. In 1883 she wrote a novel of Dubuque in pioneer days. In 1884, she published the Mid-Continent, a magazine which died young. In 1886-87-88 she created for that periodical its extensive reputation. Among other periodicals to which she has contributed are the Independent, Literary' Life, Peterson's Magazine, Chicago Inter Ocean, the Current, St. Louis Magazine, Golden Days, Godey's Lady's Book, the Writer, St. Paul Pioneer Press, Northwest Magazine, Home-Maker, Ladies' World, Ladies' Home Companion.

She published two novels, Winsome but Wicked, The Parson's Sin and had other novels in press, The Columbian Cook-Book. In 1886 she published a practical poultry book. Genie M. Boyce married, at an early age, Colonel Dwight T. Smith, manager of the Consolidated Tank Line, moved to Dubuque, Iowa, they had four children. Her daughter Georgia died in an accident in 1890: she was seated in a buggy in front of her father's office when a runaway attached to a lumber wagon came down Main street extension. Georgia jumped directly between the horses and died in the impact

Eucalyptus tricarpa

Eucalyptus tricarpa known as red ironbark or mugga ironbark, is a species of tree, endemic to south-eastern Australia. It has thick, rough ironbark on the trunk and branches, lance-shaped adult leaves, flower buds in groups of three, white flowers and cylindrical or spherical fruit. Eucalyptus tricarpa is a tree that grows to a height of 35 m and forms a lignotuber, it has thick rough, reddish brown to black ironbark on branches. Young plants and coppice regrowth have green to greyish, elliptical to lance-shaped leaves that are 40–110 mm long and 13–30 mm wide and petiolate. Adult leaves are arranged alternately, the same shade of green to greyish green on both sides, lance-shaped to curved, 80–220 mm long and 10–26 mm wide, tapering to a petiole 10–30 mm long; the flower buds are arranged in leaf axils in groups of three, sometimes seven, on an unbranched peduncle 8–15 mm long, the individual buds on pedicels 5–18 mm long. Mature buds are oval, 10 -- 6 -- 9 mm wide with a conical to beaked operculum.

Flowring occurs from February to November and the flowers are white or pale pink. The fruit is a woody cylindrical to shortened spherical capsule 8–13 mm long and 8–15 mm wide with the valves enclosed below the rim; the red ironbark was first formally described in 1962 by Lawrie Johnson who gave it the name Eucalyptus sideroxylon subsp. Tricarpa and published the description in Contributions from the New South Wales National Herbarium. In 1991, Johnson and Ken Hill raised the subspecies to species level as E. tricarpa. The specific epithet is from ancient Greek words meaning "three" and "fruit". In 2004, Kevin James Rule described two subspecies and the names are accepted by the Australian Plant Census: Eucalyptus tricarpa subsp. Decora Rule has pruinose seedlings and flower buds. A. S. Johnson & K. D. Hill subsp. Tricarpa has no parts. Eucalyptus tricarpa grows in forest and woodland in coastal south from Araluen in New South Wales and is common in the goldfields near Bendigo, near Anglesea and in coastal and near-coastal areas of Gippsland.

Subspecies decora occurs in open woodland around St Arnaud in Victoria. List of Eucalyptus species

Reinmar von Hagenau

Reinmar von Hagenau was a German Minnesänger of the late twelfth century, who composed and performed love-songs in Middle High German He was regarded by his contemporaries as the greatest Minnesänger before Walther von der Vogelweide, a view shared by modern scholars.. Although there are uncertainties as to which songs can be reliably attributed to him, a substantial body of his work — over 60 songs — survives, his presentation of courtly love as the unrequited love of a knight for a lady is "the essence of classical Minesang". Nothing is known of Reinmar's life except what can be deduced from the manuscript evidence of songs recorded under his name and from remarks by contemporaries. In the Minnesang manuscripts he is referred to by his forename, Her Reinmar. In the Manesse Codex he is Her Reinmar der Alte, which serves to distinguish him from singers such as Reinmar von Brennenberg, Reinmar der Fiedler or Reinmar von Zweter; the title Her indicates a man of knightly status, but the nature and scope of the surviving œvre indicate a professional singer reliant on patronage.

Unlike Walther, who names many individuals, only one real person is mentioned in any of Reinmar songs: in the song "Si jehent der sumer der sî hie", Reinmar says "What use is a joyful time, since the lord of all joys, lies in the earth." This is taken to refer to Leopold V, Duke of Austria, who died in the winter of 1194, dating this song's composition and the presence of Reinmar at the Babenberg court in Vienna to the summer of 1195. In his literary excursus, Gottfried von Strassburg laments the death of the "nightingale of Hagenau" as the foremost Minnesanger, suggests this position now belongs to Walther. There is no Minnsänger other than Reinmar. Hagenau has been identified as the Alsatian city, modern Haguenau, the location of an imperial court of the Hohenstaufen dynasty in the twelfth century and which lies some 20 miles from Strassburg. Gottfried's proximity to this Hagenau makes it unlikely that the place referred to is one of the many places called Hagenau in Bavaria and Austria. Whether Hagenau was Reinmar's home or whether it was the court at which he first made his mark as a singer cannot be known.

Gottfried's Tristan is dated to around 1210 and Reinmar's death, therefore, to the first decade of the 13th century. Walther von der Vogelweide composed an elegy for Reinmar: "One thing is for certain, Reinmar: I mourn you much more than you would mourn me if you were alive and I had died" and this song has been dated to 1208/09, confirming the dating derived from Tristan; this elegy and the many other links between the songs of Reinmar and Walther have given rise to the notion of a literary feud between the two singers. Whether any personal animosity was involved cannot be known, but the wealth of parodistic cross-references between the two repertoires shows that audiences were familiar with the work of both singers; the point at issue in the feud was that Walther rejected Reinmar's strict adherence to the classical idea of unrequited courtly love, insisting that true love must be mutual. All the main Minnesang manuscripts have substantial collections of Reinmar's songs: MS A has 70 strophes under Reinmar's name.

MS B has 115 strophes under Reinmar's name. MS C has by far the largest collection, with 262 strophes under Reinmar's name, MS E has 164 strophes under Reinmar's name with space for 50 more strophes. In each of these manuscripts only Walther has more songs ascribed to him. Reinmar's lyrics show the romance influence, predominant since Heinrich von Veldeke and Friedrich von Hausen, they are perfect in form and "courtly" in sentiment. Passion and natural feeling are repressed, maze and propriety reign supreme. General reflections are common, concrete situations few. When, Reinmar breaks through the bounds of convention and allows his heart to speak, as in the lament for the death of the duke, put into the mouth of the duchess herself, he shows lyric gifts of a high order, but this does not happen, most of Reinmar's poems show more elegance of form than beauty of sentiment. In a society, where form was valued more than contents, such poetry was bound to meet with favour. Reinmar's paramount status, second only to Walther, in the century after his death is shown by his mention in Gottfried's literary excursus and his naming in the "Dichterkataloge" in a number of other narrative works, such as Heinrich von dem Türlin's Der Aventiure Crône and Hugo von Trimberg's Der Renner.

The meistersinger of the 15th century included Reinmar as one of the "twelve old masters" of their craft. Lachmann, Karl. "XX: Her Reinmar". Des Minnesangs Frühling. Leipzig: Hirzel. Pp. 150–204. Retrieved 19 February 2019. Moser, Hugo. "XXI: Reinmar der Alte". Des Minnesangs Frühling. I: Texts. Stuttgart: Hirzel. Pp. 285–403. ISBN 978-3777604480. Schweikle, Günther, ed.. Reinmar. Lieder. Nach der Weingartner Liederhandschrift. Mittelhochdeutsch/Neuhochdeutsch. Stuttgart: Reclam. ISBN 978-3-15-008318-5. Arthur Frank Joseph Remy. "Reinmar of Hagenau". In Herbermann, Charles. Catholic Encyc