Thomas Campbell (poet)
Thomas Campbell was a Scottish poet chiefly remembered for his sentimental poetry dealing especially with human affairs. A co-founder of the Literary Association of the Friends of Poland, in 1799, he wrote The Pleasures of Hope, a traditional 18th century didactic poem in heroic couplets. He produced several stirring patriotic war songs—Ye Mariners of England, The Soldiers Dream, Hohenlinden and in 1801, The Battle of Mad and Strange Turkish Princes. Born on High Street, Glasgow in 1777, he was the youngest of the children of Alexander Campbell, son of the 6th and last Laird of Kirnan, Argyll. His mother, was the daughter of Robert Campbell of Craignish and Mary, daughter of Robert Simpson, a celebrated Royal Armourer. In about 1737, his father went to Falmouth, Virginia as a merchant in business with his wifes brother Daniel Campbell and they enjoyed a long period of prosperity until he lost his property and their old and respectable firm collapsed in consequence of the American Revolutionary War.
Having personally lost nearly £20,000, Campbells father was nearly ruined, several of Thomas brothers remained in Virginia, one of whom married a daughter of Patrick Henry. Both his parents were inclined, his father being a close friend of Thomas Reid while his mother was known for her refined taste and love of literature. Thomas Campbell was educated at the High School of Glasgow and the University of Glasgow and he spent the holidays as a tutor in the western Highlands and his poems Glenara and the Ballad of Lord Ullins Daughter were written during this time while visiting the Isle of Mull. In 1797, Campbell travelled to Edinburgh to attend lectures on law and he continued to support himself as a tutor and through his writing, aided by Robert Anderson, the editor of the British Poets. Among his contemporaries in Edinburgh were Sir Walter Scott, Lord Henry Brougham, Lord Francis Jeffrey, Thomas Brown, John Leyden and these early days in Edinburgh influenced such works as The Wounded Hussar, The Dirge of Wallace and the Epistle to Three Ladies.
In 1799, six months after the publication of the Lyrical Ballads of Wordsworth and Coleridge and its success was instantaneous, but Campbell was deficient in energy and perseverance and did not follow it up. He went abroad in June 1800 without any very definite aim, visited Gottlieb Friedrich Klopstock at Hamburg, and made his way to Regensburg and he found refuge in a Scottish monastery. Some of his best lyrics, Hohenlinden, Ye Mariners of England and The Soldiers Dream and he spent the winter in Altona, where he met an Irish exile, Anthony McCann, whose history suggested The Exile of Erin. He had at time the intention of writing an epic on Edinburgh to be entitled The Queen of the North. On the outbreak of war between Denmark and England he hurried home, the Battle of the Baltic being drafted soon after, at Edinburgh he was introduced to the first Lord Minto, who took him in the next year to London as occasional secretary. In June 1803 appeared a new edition of the Pleasures of Hope, in 1803 Campbell married his second cousin, Matilda Sinclair, and settled in London.
He was well received in Whig society, especially at Holland House and his prospects, were slight when in 1805 he received a government pension of £200
Dorothy Kilner, who used the pseudonyms M. P. and Mary Pelham, was a prolific English writer of childrens books, who combined didacticism with a strong knowledge of childrens character. Dorothy was born on 17 February 1755, probably at Woodford and she was the youngest of five children of Thomas Kilner, public servant and landowner, and his wife, Frances, née Ayscough. The family moved to Maryland Point, in Essex, in 1759 and she was greatly inspired by a friendship that began in childhood with Mary Ann Maze. This involved exchanging copious verse letters on religious and personal matters, when Maze married Dorothys brother Thomas Kilner in 1774, Dorothy moved into their house in Spitalfields and helped to bring up their five children. Both Dorothy and Mary Ann became prolific writers of books for children, the family moved to Margate in 1787 and to Dorothys fathers house at Maryland Point in 1789. She died on 5 February 1836 and was buried in West Ham, Dorothy Kilner published anonymously at first and under the successive pseudonyms of M. P.
and Mary Pelham, in line with general practice for female authors in that period. M. P. may have referred to her town of Maryland Point. Both she and her sister-in-law were published by the London firm of John Marshall, Dorothys most famous book was The Life and Perambulation of a Mouse. This has been praised by a critic as a book that draws least attention to gaps. The story is episodic, as we follow the mouse Nimble through various households and this episodic, even picaresque, form effectively naturalizes—defuses—potential inconsistency. Other titles included Anecdotes of a Boarding School, or an antidote to the vices of those Establishments, Kilner wrote clearly and well, but in an age when the moral element in childrens literature was still dominant. So her book The Village School is subtitled A Collection of Entertaining Histories for the Instruction and Amusement of All Good Children, and the feature a Mrs. Bell. Nonetheless, her discernment of character and amusements shines through. Copies of the books of Dorothy and Mary Ann were found long after their deaths in a trunk in their Maryland Point home, several titles continued to be reprinted for many years.
The Life and Perambulation of a Mouse, for instance, reappeared in 1870 in a collection edited by Charlotte M. Yonge, entitled A Storehouse of Stories. Works by Dorothy Kilner at Project Gutenberg Works by or about Dorothy Kilner at Internet Archive Entry on Dorothy Kilner in Cambridge History of English and American Literature
1799 in architecture
The year 1799 in architecture involved some significant events. Marks Church in-the-Bowery in New York City, built by John McComb, gracie Mansion in New York City, designed by John McComb, Jr. is built. The Chester Shot Tower, a shot tower, is built in the Boughton district of Chester. In New Orleans, The Cabildo is completed, reconstruction of Town Hall, Vilnius, by Laurynas Gucevičius is completed. Broadway Tower, England, designed by James Wyatt, is completed, grand Pump Room, England, designed by Thomas Baldwin and John Palmer, is completed Hjo Church in Sweden is completed
William Wordsworth was a major English Romantic poet who, with Samuel Taylor Coleridge, helped to launch the Romantic Age in English literature with their joint publication Lyrical Ballads. Wordsworths magnum opus is generally considered to be The Prelude, a poem of his early years that he revised and expanded a number of times. It was posthumously titled and published, before which it was known as the poem to Coleridge. Wordsworth was Britains Poet Laureate from 1843 until his death from pleurisy on 23 April 1850 and his sister, the poet and diarist Dorothy Wordsworth, to whom he was close all his life, was born the following year, and the two were baptised together. Wordsworths father was a representative of James Lowther, 1st Earl of Lonsdale and, through his connections. He was frequently away from home on business, so the young William and his siblings had little involvement with him and remained distant from him until his death in 1783. However, he did encourage William in his reading, and in particular set him to commit to memory large portions of verse, including works by Milton, William was allowed to use his fathers library.
William spent time at his mothers house in Penrith, where he was exposed to the moors, but did not get along with his grandparents or his uncle. His hostile interactions with them distressed him to the point of contemplating suicide, Wordsworth was taught both the Bible and the Spectator, but little else. It was at the school in Penrith that he met the Hutchinsons, including Mary, after the death of his mother, in 1778, Wordsworths father sent him to Hawkshead Grammar School in Lancashire and sent Dorothy to live with relatives in Yorkshire. She and William did not meet again for nine years. Wordsworth made his debut as a writer in 1787 when he published a sonnet in The European Magazine and that same year he began attending St Johns College, Cambridge. He received his BA degree in 1791 and he returned to Hawkshead for the first two summers of his time at Cambridge, and often spent holidays on walking tours, visiting places famous for the beauty of their landscape. In 1790 he went on a tour of Europe, during which he toured the Alps extensively, and visited nearby areas of France, Switzerland.
In November 1791, Wordsworth visited Revolutionary France and became enchanted with the Republican movement and he fell in love with a French woman, Annette Vallon, who in 1792 gave birth to their daughter Caroline. Financial problems and Britains tense relations with France forced him to return to England alone the following year. The circumstances of his return and his subsequent behaviour raised doubts as to his wish to marry Annette. With the Peace of Amiens again allowing travel to France, in 1802 Wordsworth and his sister Dorothy visited Annette, the purpose of the visit was to prepare Annette for the fact of his forthcoming marriage to Mary Hutchinson
The Abbess, A Romance is a gothic novel by William Henry Ireland first published in 1799. The text was modelled upon Matthew Lewiss The Monk, the eponymous central character, Mother Vittoria Bracciano, is a similar to that of Monk Lewiss Ambrosio as she is similarly motivated by dark and powerful forces. The novel is one of the most voluptuous and salacious gothic novels in terms of its scenes of sex, Roman Catholic religious fervour. According to Benjamin F. Fisher, Edgar Allan Poe was familiar with Irelands work, initially published in 1796 Republished in England 1799, printed for Earle and Hemet. The epigraph states that it is lifted from Shakespeare, however is taken from John Drydens 1679 rewrite of Trolius. A full edition of the text can be read online here, with a further British edition published in 1834. In 1822 and 1836 there were two Spanish, in 1824, there was a German edition. Donna Laura is one of the previous love interests of Marcello but is pursued by Vivani. Duca Bertocci is Maddalena’s Father and head of an illustrious family, after his wife died, he became quite reclusive and rarely sees his daughter.
His son died of a fever at a young age, gerardo & Tomaso are two of the known servants of Marcello. Both are seen as very devoted, Giacinta joined the sisterhood in the middle of the night and is a very beautiful young woman. She quickly befriends Maddalena, giving her a manuscript describing her past, Maddalena Rosa is the daughter of Duca di Bertocci. Her mother died during child birth with her brother died of a fever when he was young, Maddalena is a nun at Sisterhood of Santa Maria and is close friends with Marietta. She is known to be beautiful and from the first time he saw her, was the love interest of Marcello. After Marietta’s death, Maddalena begins to walk and eventually meets Marcello. This meeting angers the Abbess and leads to Maddalena being sent away, Marcello is the novel’s main protagonist and the romantic hero. He is best friends with Vivani and it is suggested that he has had previous love interests before, including Donna Laura. Although in love with Maddalena, Marcello accidentally confesses his love to the wrong woman and this results in the Abbess taking her revenge on the lovers
Mary Ann Lamb, was an English writer. She is best known for the collaboration with her brother Charles on the collection Tales from Shakespeare, Lamb suffered from mental illness, and in 1796 she stabbed her mother to death during a mental breakdown. She was confined to mental facilities off and on for most of her life and she and Charles presided over a literary circle in London that included the poets William Wordsworth and Samuel Taylor Coleridge, among others. Mary Lamb was born on 3 December 1764, the third of seven children of John and her parents worked for Samuel Salt, a barrister in London, and the family lived above Salt in his home at 2 Crown Office Row in the Inner Temple. Only two of Marys siblings survived, her older brother John Jr. and her younger brother Charles, Mary learned about literature and writers from her fathers stories of the times he had seen Samuel Johnson, who lived nearby, and his visitors. Mary remembered seeing, at the age of five, the writer Oliver Goldsmith in the street and her father may have taken her with him on his trips to the Popes Head bookstore nearby.
Samuel Salt died in 1792, and the Lambs had to move out of their lodgings soon after, Samuel Salt left £600 to the Lambs, along with small annuities. They moved to a home in Little Queen Street, near High Holborn, around this time, John Lamb had a stroke, losing most of the use of his left hand. John was allowed to continue receiving his salary while another man stood in for him in the Inner Temple and this arrangement lasted until Johns death in 1799. In the early 1790s, Elizabeth Lamb began to experience debilitating pain, possibly from arthritis, the only other person at home during the day, took responsibility for her mothers care. By 1796, Elizabeth was completely helpless and dependent on Mary, Johns sister Sarah Lamb lived with the family, and her care was spread between Charles and Mary. In 1795 Charles had a breakdown, and spent the end of 1795 to the beginning of 1796 in a private mental facility. During this time, Mary worked as a seamstress, along with a girl who served as her apprentice.
The responsibilities and expectations placed on Mary began to be a burden for her toward the end of 1796. Her father had become senile, her mother required constant care, and her brother John had had an accident, Mary may have had difficulties in training her young apprentice. The situation began to affect her mental stability, on 22 September 1796, while preparing dinner, Mary became angry with her apprentice, roughly shoving the little girl out of her way and pushing her into another room. Elizabeth began yelling at her for this, Mary suffered a mental break-down as her mother continued yelling at her. She took the knife she had been holding, unsheathed it, and approached her mother
Charles Lamb was an English essayist and antiquarian, best known for his Essays of Elia and for the childrens book Tales from Shakespeare, co-authored with his sister, Mary Lamb. Friends with such luminaries as Samuel Taylor Coleridge, William Wordsworth. He has been referred to by E. V. Lucas, his principal biographer, Lamb was born in London, the son of Elizabeth Field and John Lamb. Lamb was the youngest child, with a sister 11 years older named Mary and an even older brother named John, there were four others who did not survive infancy. His father John Lamb was a clerk and spent most of his professional life as the assistant to a barrister named Samuel Salt. It was there in Crown Office Row that Charles Lamb was born, Lamb created a portrait of his father in his Elia on the Old Benchers under the name Lovel. Lambs older brother was too much his senior to be a companion to the boy but his sister Mary. Lamb was cared for by his paternal aunt Hetty, who seems to have had a fondness for him. A number of writings by both Charles and Mary suggest that the conflict between Aunt Hetty and her sister-in-law created a degree of tension in the Lamb household.
However, Charles speaks fondly of her and her presence in the house seems to have brought a great deal of comfort to him. After the death of Mrs. Plummer, Lambs grandmother was in charge of the large home and, as Mr. Plummer was often absent. A picture of these visits can be glimpsed in the Elia essay Blakesmoor in H—shire, every plank and panel of that house for me had magic in it. Little is known about Charless life before he was seven other than that Mary taught him to read at an early age. It is believed that he suffered from smallpox during his early years, after this period of recovery Lamb began to take lessons from Mrs. Reynolds, a woman who lived in the Temple and is believed to have been the former wife of a lawyer. Mrs. E. V. Lucas suggests that sometime in 1781 Charles left Mrs. Reynolds and began to study at the Academy of William Bird. His time with William Bird did not last long, because by October 1782 Lamb was enrolled in Christs Hospital, Years later, in his essay Christ’s Hospital Five and Thirty Years Ago, Lamb described these events, speaking of himself in the third person as L. I remember L. at school, and can well recollect that he had some peculiar advantages, which I and other of his schoolfellows had not.
His friends lived in town, and were near at hand, and he had the privilege of going to see them, almost as often as he wished, through some invidious distinction, which was denied to us
Charles Brockden Brown
Charles Brockden Brown was an American novelist and editor of the Early National period. He is generally regarded by scholars as the most important American novelist before James Fenimore Cooper and he is the most frequently studied and republished practitioner of the early American novel, or the US novel between 1789 and roughly 1820. Brown was born on January 17,1771, the fourth of five brothers and his father Elijah Brown, originally from Chester County, just southwest of Philadelphia, had a variable career primarily as a land-conveyancer or agent in real estate transactions. The two oldest brothers and James, and youngest brother Elijah, Jr. were import-export merchants, Brown became a reluctant partner of their short-lived family re-export firm, James Brown & Co. from late 1800 to the firms dissolution during 1806. The third brother, was a clerk in the early 1790s for the Treasury department and at the Bank of Pennsylvania, Browns family intended for him to become a lawyer. After six years in Philadelphia at the law office of Alexander Wilcocks and he became part of a group of young, New York-based intellectuals who helped begin his literary career.
His first publications appeared during the late 1780s, but generally he published little during this period, by 1798, these formative years gave way to a period of novel-writing during which Brown published the titles for which he is best known. During a novelistic phase that lasted from 1798 until late 1801, Brown published the Wollstonecraftian-feminist dialog Alcuin, an additional novel was written, but was lost by a series of mishaps and consequently never saw publication. Browns novels are often characterized simply as gothic fiction, although the model he develops is far from the Gothic romance mode of writers such as Ann Radcliffe, Browns novels combine several revolutionary-era fiction subgenres with other types of late-Enlightenment scientific and medical knowledge. Brown builds plots around particular motifs such as sleepwalking and religious mania, of the seven novels extant, the first four to be published in book form have received the lions share of commentary and attention. Because of their violence, dramatic intensity, and intellectual complexity.
Recent scholarship, has revised this view and emphasizes the continuities. Brown articulates a well-defined technique and plan for his novel-writing in essays such as Walsteins School of History and The Difference Between History and Romance. Browns lifelong support for feminism, for example, originates both from his Quaker background, and from his commitment to the late-Enlightenment ideals of the revolutionary era. Brown shares with the British radical-democrats an emphasis on sociocultural determinism, as Brown indicates in the Walsteins School of History essay, two primary topics of drama of his novelistic plots are sex and property. After 1801 Brown continued to publish prolifically and he authored several important political pamphlets arguing for the acquisition of the Louisiana Territory and against the Embargo Act of 1807. The latter is notable for the book-length Annals of Europe and America and he published miscellaneous pieces in other Philadelphia newspapers and magazines of the 19th century including the Aurora and, in 1809, the Port-Folio.
Although it was never completed, Brown planned from 1803 to 1806, with close friend Thomas Pym Cope, benjamin Rush recommended Brown in 1803 as an ideal author for a history of penal reform in Philadelphia
Edward Young was an English poet, best remembered for Night-Thoughts. He was the son of Edward Young, Dean of Salisbury, and was born at his fathers rectory at Upham, near Winchester and he was educated at Winchester College, and matriculated in 1702 at New College, Oxford. He moved to Corpus Christi, and in 1708 was nominated by Archbishop Tenison to a law fellowship at All Souls and he took his degree of D. C. L. in 1719. His first publication was an Epistle to, the fulsome style of the dedications jars with the pious tone of the poems, and they are omitted from his own edition of his works. About this time he came into contact with Philip, Duke of Wharton, in 1719 his play, Busiris was produced at Drury Lane, and in 1721 his Revenge. The latter play was dedicated to Wharton, to whom it owed, said Young, Wharton promised him two annuities of £100 each and a sum of £600 in consideration of his expenses as a candidate for parliamentary election at Cirencester. In view of these promises Young refused two livings in the gift of All Souls College and sacrificed a life annuity offered by the Marquess of Exeter if he would act as tutor to his son.
Wharton failed to discharge his obligations, and Young, who pleaded his case before Lord Chancellor Hardwicke in 1740, gained the annuity, between 1725 and 1728 Young published a series of seven satires on The Universal Passion. This is qualified by Samuel Johnson as a great performance. Herbert Croft asserted that Young made £3000 by his satires, which compensated losses he had suffered in the South Sea Bubble, in 1726 he received, through Walpole, a pension of £200 a year. To the end of his life he continued to seek preferment, living in a time when patronage was slowly fading out, was notable for urgently seeking patronage for his poetry, his theatrical works, and his career in the church, he failed in each area. He never received the degree of patronage that he felt his work had earned, though his praise was often unearned, often fulsome, he could write, False praises are the whoredoms of the pen / And prostitute fair fame to worthless men. In 1728 Young became a chaplain, and in 1730 he obtained the college living of Welwyn.
In 1731 he married Lady Elizabeth Lee, daughter of the 1st Earl of Lichfield and her daughter, by a former marriage with her cousin Francis Lee, married Henry Temple, son of the 1st Viscount Palmerston. Mrs Temple died at Lyons in 1736 on her way to Nice and her husband and Lady Elizabeth Young died in 1740. These successive deaths are supposed to be the events referred to in the Night Thoughts as taking place ere thrice yon moon had filled her horn. In the preface to the poem Young states that the occasion of the poem was real and it has been suggested that Philander represents Thomas Tickell, an old friend of Youngs, who died three months after Lady Elizabeth Young. The infidel Lorenzo was thought by some to be a sketch of Youngs own son, the Complaint, or Night Thoughts on Life and Immortality, was published in 1742, and was followed by other Nights, the eighth and ninth appearing in 1745
Deutsches Nationaltheater and Staatskapelle Weimar
The Deutsche Nationaltheater and Staatskapelle Weimar is the most important musical and theatrical venue in Weimar in Germany. It is an institution, consisting of the theatrical Deutsches Nationaltheater. It has a total of six stages across the city and hosts touring orchestras and theatre companies, in 1602, the ensemble attained resident status at the Weimar court, as the Herzoglichen Hofkapelle. Notable musicians in the history of the Staatskapelle Weimar included Johann Schein and Johann Sebastian Bach. Bach particularly worked as resident organist and Kapellmeister, Johann Nepomuk Hummel served as the ensembles Kapellmeister from 1819 to 1837, on the appointment by the Grand Duchess Maria Pavlovna. Franz Liszt began his tenure as Kapellmeister in 1842, and championed the music of Richard Wagner, Hector Berlioz, after Liszt left in 1858, he was succeeded by Eduard Lassen who remained as director until his retirement in 1895. Lassen conducted several world premieres during his tenure, including the first performance of Camille Saint-Saënss Samson et Dalila in 1877, Richard Strauss served as second Kapellmeister under Lassen from 1889 to 1894 and led the premieres of his own Guntram and Engelbert Humperdincks Hänsel und Gretel.
Peter Raabe became Kapellmeister in 1907, with the end of World War I and the dismantling of the German Empire, the ensemble was renamed the Weimar Staatskapelle. Ernst Praetorius directed concert and opera programming from 1924 to 1933, because his wife was Jewish, Praetorius left the post after the National Socialists ascended to power in Germany in 1933. Paul Sixt directed activities there during the Nazi regime, after World War II and the end of the Nazi regime, Hermann Abendroth became Generalmusikdirektor and chief conductor of the ensemble, serving from 1945 to 1956. Successive GMDs of the ensemble have included Gerhard Pflüger, Lothar Seyfarth, Rolf Reuter, Peter Gülke, Hans-Peter Frank, George Alexander Albrecht, Jac van Steen, oleg Caetani was principal guest conductor of the ensemble from 1984 to 1987. The ensemble was renamed the Staatskapelle Weimar in 1988. In September 2009, the Swedish conductor Stefan Solyom became GMD of the ensemble and he concluded his Weimar tenure in July 2016.
In July 2015, the announced the appointment of Kirill Karabits as its next GMD and chief conductor, effective with the 2016-2017 season. Karabitss debut concert, in September 2016, was Richard Strausss Alpine Symphony
Thomas Stothard RA was an English painter and engraver. Showing talent for drawing, he was apprenticed to a draughtsman of patterns for brocaded silks in Spitalfields, in his spare time, he attempted illustrations for the works of his favourite poets. Some of these drawings were praised by James Harrison, the editor of the Novelists Magazine, Stothards master having died, he resolved to devote himself to art. In 1778 Stothard became a student of the Royal Academy, of which he was elected associate in 1792, in 1812 he was appointed librarian to the Academy after serving as assistant for two years. Among his earliest book illustrations are plates engraved for Ossian and for Bells Poets, from 1786, Thomas Fielding, a friend of Stothards and engraver, produced engravings using designs by Stothard, Angelika Kauffmann, and of his own. Fielding realised these in colour, using copper engraving, and achieved excellent quality, Stothards designs had an exceptional aesthetic appeal. He designed plates for pocket-books, tickets for concerts, illustrations to almanacs and these are popular with collectors for their grace and distinction.
Art historian Ralph Nicholson Wornum estimated that Stothards designs number five thousand and, of these and his oil pictures are usually small. His colouring is rich and glowing in the style of Rubens. The Vintage, perhaps his most important oil painting, is in the National Gallery, the commission for this picture was given to Stothard by Robert Hartley Cromek, and was the cause of a quarrel with his friend William Blake. It was followed by a work, the Flitch of Bacon. He prepared designs for a frieze and other decorations for Buckingham Palace. He designed a shield presented to the Duke of Wellington by the merchants of London, Stothard married Rebecca Watkins in 1783. They had eleven children, of whom six – five sons and they lived in Henrietta Street, Covent Garden, until 1794, when they moved to a house at 28 Newman Street, of which Stothard had bought the freehold. Stothard died on 27 April 1834, and was buried in Bunhill Fields burial ground, attribution This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain, Hugh, ed.
Stothard, Thomas. Life of Thomas Stothard, R. A. with personal reminiscences, Volume 1, Thomas Stothard online Works by Stothard Paintings by Thomas Stothard
Dove Cottage is a house on the edge of Grasmere in the Lake District of England. It is best known as the home of the poet William Wordsworth and his sister Dorothy Wordsworth from December 1799 to May 1808, where they spent over eight years of plain living, but high thinking. William Wordsworth married his wife Mary in 1802, and she, the family quickly expanded, with the arrival of three children in four years, and the Wordsworths left Dove Cottage in 1808 to seek larger lodgings. The cottage was occupied by Thomas de Quincey for a number of years. The cottage was acquired by the Wordsworth Trust in 1890 and opened to the public as a home museum in 1891. The house is a Grade 1 listed building, and remains unchanged from Wordsworths day. It receives approximately 70,000 visitors a year, Dove Cottage was built in the early 17th century, beside the main road from Ambleside to the south to Keswick to the north. It was probably purpose-built as a house, and it is first recorded as the Dove and Olive.
It remained a house, sometimes called the Dove and Olive Branch. The building is constructed from stone, with limewashed walls. There are four rooms downstairs, and another four upstairs, the ground floor rooms retain the oak panels and slate floors often found in well-built Lakeland houses of the period, and appropriate to their original function as drinking rooms in a public house. The fireplaces were altered in the 1790s to burn rather than the traditional Lakeland peat. William Wordsworth had been born in Cockermouth in Cumberland in 1770 and he moved away to study at the University of Cambridge in 1787, and travelled in Britain and Europe for 12 years. William first encountered Dove Cottage when on a tour of the Lake District with Samuel Taylor Coleridge in 1799. William had been close to his sister Dorothy in their childhood, although they had lived together in Somerset in 1797 and in Germany in 1798, William wanted to find a permanent home for them together. Dove Cottage was empty and available for rent, and they took up residence on 20 December that year, paying £5 a year to John Benson of Grasmere.
On the ground floor, the reception room was the houseplace or kitchen-parlour, by the main door. A smaller room next to the houseplace was used by the Wordsworths as Dorothys bedroom, a separate kitchen was used for the more arduous task of the domestic routine, with the fourth room being a small buttery, used as a larder