1804 dollar

The 1804 dollar or Bowed Liberty Dollar was a dollar coin struck by the Mint of the United States, of which fifteen specimens are known to exist. Though dated 1804, none was struck in that year, they were first created for use in special proof coin sets used as diplomatic gifts during Edmund Roberts' trips to Siam and Muscat. Edmund Roberts distributed the coins in 1834 and 1835. Two additional sets were ordered for government officials in Japan and Cochinchina, but Roberts died in Macau before they could be delivered. Besides those 1804 dollars produced for inclusion in the diplomatic sets, the Mint struck some examples which were used to trade with collectors for pieces desired for the Mint's coin cabinet. Numismatists first became aware of the 1804 dollar in 1842, when an illustration of one example appeared in a publication authored by two Mint employees. A collector subsequently acquired one example from the Mint in 1843. In response to numismatic demand, several examples were surreptitiously produced by Mint officials.

Unlike the original coins, these restrikes lacked the correct edge lettering, although examples released from the Mint bore the correct lettering. The coins produced for the diplomatic mission, those struck surreptitiously without edge lettering and those with lettering are known collectively as "Class I", "Class II" and "Class III" dollars, respectively. From their discovery by numismatists, 1804 dollars have commanded high prices. Auction prices reached $1,000 by 1885, in the mid-twentieth century, the coins realized over $30,000. In 1999, a Class I example sold for $4.14 million the highest price paid for any coin. Their high value has caused 1804 dollars to be a frequent target of counterfeiting and other methods of deception; the Coinage Act of 1792, the legislation which provided for the establishment of the Mint of the United States, authorized coinage of multiple denominations of gold and copper coins. According to the act, the dollar, or "unit", was to "be of the value of a Spanish milled dollar as the same is now current, to contain three hundred and seventy-one grains and four sixteenth parts of a grain of pure, or four hundred and sixteen grains of standard silver".

The act went on to state that the coin would be struck in an alloy consisting of 89.2 percent silver and 10.8 percent copper. The purity and weight standards outlined in the Act were based on the mean of several assays conducted on Spanish milled dollars. However, the dollars were mandated by Spanish law to contain 90.2 percent silver, most of the unworn examples in circulation in the United States at the time contained 1.75 grains more than the silver dollars authorized by the Act. In 1793, President George Washington signed into law a bill which declared Spanish milled dollars legal tender, provided that they weighed no less than 415 grains, which meant that at the lowest weight allowed by law, the Spanish dollars would contain 0.5 percent less silver than the United States dollar coins. As a result, the United States silver dollars and unworn Spanish dollars were forced out of circulation in accordance with Gresham's law. At that time, silver bullion was supplied to the Mint by private depositors, according to the Coinage Act of 1792, had the right to have their bullion coined free of charge.

As large silver coins were a preferred method of commerce throughout the world China, a considerable number of the United States dollars requested by silver depositors were exported to satisfy that demand. The first dollar coins, known as Flowing Hair dollars, were issued by the Mint beginning in 1794. By 1800, a majority of depositors requested their bullion be struck as silver dollars, which were utilizing the Draped Bust design; this contributed to a shortage of small change in circulation, as a result, the public became critical of the Mint. Mint Director Elias Boudinot began encouraging depositors to accept fractional coins, the production of dollars began to decrease in relation to the smaller coins. Dollar coin production ceased in March 1804, although those pieces bore the date of 1803. In his 1805 report, Mint Director Robert Patterson stated that "he striking of small coins is a measure, adopted to accommodate the banks and other depositors, at their particular request, both with a view of furnishing a supply of small change, to prevent the exportation of the specie of the United States to foreign countries."

Though none had been struck for over two years, Secretary of State James Madison suspended silver dollar coinage on May 1, 1806, addressing a letter to Patterson: Sir: In Consequence of a representation from the director of the Bank of the United States that considerable purchases have been made of dollars coined at the mint for the purpose of exporting them, as it is probable further purchases and exportations will be made the President directs that all the silver to be coined at the mint shall be of small denominations, so that the value of the largest pieces shall not exceed half a dollar. In 1832, commercial shipper Edmund Roberts began acting as an envoy to Asia on behalf of the United States government, with the intent of negotiating trade deals in the region. During his mission, he reached deals both with Said bin Sultan, the Sultan of Muscat and Oman, the Phra Khlang of Siam, an important financial minister of that nation. Roberts was given items wh

USS Robert Brazier

USS Robert Brazier was a John C. Butler-class destroyer escort acquired by the U. S. Navy during World War II; the primary purpose of the destroyer escort was to escort and protect ships in convoy, in addition to other tasks as assigned, such as patrol or radar picket. Post-war, she returned home with one battle star to her credit. Robert Brazier was named for Robert Boyd Brazier, a gunner aboard a torpedo plane, killed during the Battle of Midway and awarded the Distinguished Flying Cross. Robert Brazier's keel was laid down 16 November 1943 by the Consolidated Steel Corp. Ltd. at their yard in Orange, Texas. The ship was launched on 22 January 1944. Donald D. Snyder, Jr. USNR, in command. Following shakedown off Bermuda, Robert Brazier arrived at New York, 19 August 1944, the next day commenced escort work with a convoy run to Norfolk, Virginia. There for a week, she served as a school ship for the Destroyer Training School, conducted tests for the Bureau of Ordnance, assumed duties as flagship, CortDiv 76 which she kept throughout World War II.

Between 27 August and 7 September, she participated in a hunt for a German submarine reported off the coast. That month, she joined task force TF 69 to escort a fast convoy of tankers and transports to Italy. Completing that run at New York 23 October, she sailed again 10 November, heading south west. Forty-one days she anchored in Seeadler Harbor, Manus. On 26 December she sailed for Hollandia, whence she escorted tankers to Leyte, arriving 6 January 1945. Continuing escort duty, she plied the sea lanes between Leyte, Kossol Roads, Hollandia until 19 February when she sailed for Mindoro and duty with the local defense force there. For the next 2 weeks she patrolled the approaches to the convoy lanes to Subic Bay. On 6 March, the destroyer resumed duties as an ocean escort. Assigned to the 7th Amphibious Force in late April, Robert Brazier departed Leyte for Panay on 29 April and remained at Iloilo until 4 May. Ordered back to Leyte, she prepared for the invasion of Mindanao. On 10 May, she screened to the seaward of the landing forces in Macajalar Bay.

From 11–13 May, the destroyer escort patrolled in the Bay. On 14 May, she departed Mindanao for Cebu, whence she escorted supply ships back to the beachhead and from with few interruptions, she remained anchored in Maeajalar Bay until 9 August. Six days at Subic Bay, she received news of the Japanese acceptance of surrender terms. For the remainder of August and into September, she escorted ships between Subic Okinawa. Toward the end of the month, the destroyer extended her escort duty to Tokyo Bay on 21 and 22 September, she returned for the next month operated in Philippine waters. On 28 November she got underway for the United States, arriving at San Pedro, California, 17 December. Shifted to San Diego, she joined the 19th Fleet and commenced inactivation. Decommissioned on 16 September 1946, she remained in the Pacific Reserve Fleet, berthed at San Diego, California at Bremerton, until struck from the Navy list, 1 January 1968, she was subsequently destroyed as a target. Robert Brazier earned one battle star during World War II.

List of United States Navy ships Destroyer This article incorporates text from the public domain Dictionary of American Naval Fighting Ships. The entry can be found here. NavSource Online: Destroyer Escort Photo Archive - USS Robert Brazier

Camperdown Football Club

The Camperdown Football Netball Club, nicknamed the Magpies, is an Australian rules football and netball club based in the town of Camperdown, Victoria. The club teams compete in the Hampden Football Netball League, which Camperdown is founding member, having joined in 1930; the first Camperdown club was formed in 1877 but it disbanded within an few years with accumulated debts. A second attempt in 1883 is the club; the late 1880's and 1890's the club participated in a four team competition that a wealthy patron would donate a shield as a prize. It was four clubs, Cobden and Terang; this arrangement continued until 1901. In August 1901, local soldier Trooper Lawrence was killed in action during the Boer War. There is a memorial to the west of the town's clocktower; the Moran trophy consisted of four teams,in order of finish, Cobden and Terang. Now because of poor receipts, the delegates wanted a grand Final to cover the outstanding costs incurred that season. Camperdown who were undefeated voted against the proposal but were overruled by the other three clubs who were all in the red.

A Grand Final was organised between Camperdown and Mortlake, because Cobden had wound up for the year. News came through that Trooper Lawrence had been killed in South Africa and the town of Camperdown wanted to have a memorial service for a favourite son on the same day as the grand final. Camperdown asked for a postponement of the match but Mortlake refused. A team from Mortlake claimed a forfeit; as Mortlake had the trophy because they won it the previous year and kept it for good. Acrimony because of Mortlake's actions, Camperdown refused to play Mortlake for five years. Camperdown decided to look east and they joined a Colac based competition. In 1909 the Corangamite Football Association was formally founded with matches between the four towns. Camperdown was the strongest team winning the pennant in 1909, 1910, 1912, 1913, 1914. After WWI success continued with flags in 1921 and 1923; when the Warrnambool DFA decided to merge with the Corangamite FA to form the Western District FL in 1924, this created an eight team competition.

South Warrnambool merged with Warrnambool City to form the Warrnambool Football Club. A dispute over finals allocation caused Camperdown to join a Colac based competition; the club lost the flag the following year. After two season Camperdown returned to the Western District FL playing in the Eastern Zone. For a while the league played zone football, a fixture for eastern clubs and one for the western clubs, with finals between the tops clubs at the end of the year; the admission of Hamilton caused additional traveling costs and problems with extra time away from home. The Hampden Football League was formed in 1930, when the three eastern clubs clubs broke away from the Western District FL. Terang and Camperdown did not want to continue to travel to Hamilton because their players were farmers who could not spend all day away from the farm to play football, as they had cows to milk. Mortlake agreed with Camperdown and Terang and resigned from the WDFL. Cobden was left with a predicament, requested admittance to the new league.

In 1933, South Warrnambool and Warrnambool joined the league, as takings at the gate had been greater when playing Camperdown or Terang that against any team in the WDFL. Camperdown won their first flag in 1938, during that season Cecil Bateman kicked a league record of 21 goals in a game against Cobden, it is a record. After WWII Camperdown was one of the stronger teams in the competition but only once, in 1951, was it successful in claiming the flag. In 1965 Camperdown managed to lure Geelong premiership player Stewart Lord as captain coach, under his leadership the team improved to win the 1968 and 1970 Grand Finals. Camperdown has the ability to make the Grand Final but have only won in 6 of 19 occasions The Magpies' most recent premierships, won back to back, in 1999 and 2000 were under the coaching of local football star, Ken Hinkley. Corangamite FA 1909, 1910, 1912, 1913, 1914, 1921, 1923 Corangamite FL 1926 Hampden FL 1938, 1951, 1968, 1970, 1999, 2000 David Lane 1968 Graeme Fitzgerald 1974 Alan Woodman 1982 & 1983 Brian Hinkley 1988 Brad Nicholls 1992 Nick Hider 1994 Mark Bourke 1999 Ben Harris 2006 Paul Broderick - Fitzroy, Richmond Ken Hinkley - Fitzroy, Geelong Scott Lucas - Essendon Bruce Murray - Geelong Norm Sharp - Geelong Garrey Wynd - Melbourne Ross Thornton - Fitzroy Wayne Linton - Fitzroy Nick Hider - Collingwood Barry Rippon - Fitzroy Easton Wood - Western Bulldogs Len White - Geelong Evergreen Hampden by Fred R. Bond, 1979, ISBN 9780868251080 History of football in the Western District by John Stoward, ISBN 9780957751590 Twitter page SportsTG site