180mm Pattern 1931-1933

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to navigation Jump to search
180mm Pattern 1931-1933
KrasnyyKavkaz-MK-1-180-1930s.jpg
MK-1-180 single turrets aboard the Soviet light cruiser Krasnyi Kavkaz
Type Naval gun
Coastal artillery
Railway gun
Place of origin Soviet Union
Service history
In service 1931 - TBD
Used by Soviet Union
Wars World War II
Production history
Designed 1929
Produced 1931-1933
Variants 180mm/60 Pattern 1931
180mm/57 Pattern 1932
180mm/56 Pattern 1933
Specifications
Weight 17–18.5 t (18.7–20.4 short tons)
Length 10.2–10.6 m (33–35 ft)
Barrel length 8–8.2 m (26–27 ft)

Shell Separate loading bagged charge and projectile
Shell weight 97.5 kg (215 lb)
Caliber 180 mm (7.1 in) 56-60 Caliber
Elevation Single naval mounts:
-5°to +60°
Triple naval mounts:
-5° to +50°
Coastal & Rail mounts:
-0° to +50°
Rate of fire 4-5 rpm
Muzzle velocity 900 m/s (3,000 ft/s)
Maximum firing range 37.1–38.5 km (23.1–23.9 mi) at +50°[1]

The 180mm Pattern 1931-1933 were a family of related naval guns of the Soviet Navy in World War II, which were later modified for coastal artillery and railway artillery roles. They were the primary armament of the Soviet Union's first cruisers built after the Russian Civil War.

History[edit]

The 180mm Pattern 1931-1933 weren't a single model of gun, but instead were a family of related guns, either built from converted 203 mm (8.0 in)/50 Pattern 1905 guns which were relined down to 180 mm (7.1 in) or they were newly built guns. The original guns were constructed of a three piece A tube, reinforced by two layers of outer tubes and a jacket.[2] The lengths of these guns varied between 56-60 calibers and their weights varied, but their performance was similar.

The main variants of gun and mount were:
  • 180mm/60 B-1-K Pattern 1931 - Naval guns converted from earlier 203mm guns in MK-1-180 single turrets.
  • 180mm/57 B-1-P Pattern 1932 - Newly built naval guns in MK-3-180 triple turrets.
  • 180mm/56 Pattern 1933 - Coastal artillery built from converted 203mm guns in open MO-8-180 or MO-1-180 single mounts and MB-2-180 twin turrets.
  • 180mm/56 Pattern 1933 - Railway artillery converted from earlier 203mm guns on TM-1-180, single gun, shielded mounts.[3]

Naval Use[edit]

180mm/60 B-1-K Pattern 1931 - In 1927 work on the former Imperial Russian Navy Admiral Nakhimov-class cruiser Krasnyi Kavkaz was restarted after being halted in 1917 following the October Revolution. It had been planned to arm the Krasnyi Kavkaz with eight 203mm guns in double turrets, but it was found impossible to mount this much armament on such a small and lightly constructed hull. Instead four smaller caliber 180mm/60 B-1-K Pattern 1931 guns were mounted in single turrets. Early testing found that the muzzle velocity for these guns was abnormally high which reduced barrel life to only 55-70 rounds, so the guns were derated and smaller propellant charges were used.[4]

180mm/57 B-1-P Pattern 1932 - Since the pattern 1931 wasn't satisfactory a new gun design with a lower muzzle velocity and shorter barrel length designated the 180 mm/57 B-1-P Pattern 1932 was produced. Early prototypes were of built-up construction, but in 1932 the technology for producing loose liners was purchased from the Italian firm of Ansaldo. Later 180 mm/57 B-1-P Pattern 1932 guns were constructed of a loose liner, A tube, jacket and breech ring.[4] The 180 mm/57 B-1-P Pattern 1932 were manufactured with two different styles of liners, one had shallow rifling and the other had deep rifling, the two liners were not interchangeable and required different ammunition. The shallow rifled liners still only had a life of 55-70 rounds, but the deeply rifled liners had a life of 320 rounds.[3]

In 1933 the Soviets purchased plans for the contemporary Raimondo Montecuccoli-class light cruisers from the Italian firm of Ansaldo. This new class of cruisers was known as the Kirov-class and were armed with nine 180mm/57 B-1-P Pattern 1932 (7.1 in) guns in three MK-3-180 triple turrets. Like their Italian contemporaries the Kirov-class cruisers suffered many of the same design flaws. These included abnormally high muzzle velocity and poor barrel life. Shot dispersion due to the guns being mounted too closely together on a common cradle and crowded turrets which hampered crew efficiency, ammunition handling and rate of fire.[4]

Coastal Artillery[edit]

180mm/56 Pattern 1933 - Coastal artillery built from converted 203mm guns. The barrels for these guns were shortened from the original 60 calibers to 56 calibers and they were mounted on open MO-8-180 or MO-1-180 single mounts and MB-2-180 twin turrets. Ballistic performance was similar to the 180mm/60 B-1-K Pattern 1931, these guns also had short barrel lives and reduced charges were used to prolong barrel life. These guns were deployed in defensive emplacements along the Pacific, Arctic, Baltic and Black Sea coasts.[3]

Railway Artillery[edit]

180mm/56 Pattern 1933 - Railway artillery built from converted 203mm guns. The barrels for these guns were shortened from the original 60 calibers to 56 calibers and they were mounted on TM-1-180, single gun, shielded mounts. Ballistic performance was similar to the 180mm/60 B-1-K Pattern 1931, these guns also had short barrel lives and reduced charges were used to prolong barrel life.[3]

Photo gallery[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ DiGiulian, Tony. "Russia / USSR 180 mm/60 (7.1") Pattern 1931 and 180 mm/57 (7.1") Pattern 1932 - NavWeaps". www.navweaps.com. Retrieved 2017-03-16. 
  2. ^ Friedman, Norman (2011-01-01). Naval weapons of World War One. Seaforth. ISBN 9781848321007. OCLC 786178793. 
  3. ^ a b c d DiGiulian, Tony. "Russia / USSR 180 mm/60 (7.1") Pattern 1931 and 180 mm/57 (7.1") Pattern 1932 - NavWeaps". www.navweaps.com. Retrieved 2017-03-16. 
  4. ^ a b c Campbell, John (2002-01-01). Naval weapons of World War Two. Naval Institute Press. ISBN 0870214594. OCLC 51995246. 

References[edit]