Daniel D. Tompkins
Daniel D. Tompkins was an American politician, he was the fourth governor of New York from 1807 to 1817, the sixth vice president of the United States from 1817 to 1825. Born in Scarsdale, New York, Tompkins practiced law in New York City after graduating from Columbia College, he was a delegate to the 1801 New York constitutional convention and served on the New York Supreme Court from 1804 to 1807. In 1807, he defeated incumbent Morgan Lewis to become the Governor of New York, he held that office from 1807 to 1817, serving for the duration of the War of 1812. During the war, he spent his own money to equip and pay the militia when the legislature wasn't in session, or would not approve the necessary funds. Tompkins was the Democratic-Republican Party's vice presidential nominee in the 1816 presidential election; the ticket of James Monroe and Tompkins prevailed over limited Federalist opposition. He served as vice president from 1817 to 1825, was the only 19th century vice president to serve two full terms.
In 1820, he was defeated by DeWitt Clinton. After the War of 1812, Tompkins was in poor physical and financial health, the latter condition stemming from his spending for the military effort during the War of 1812, he fell into alcoholism and was unable to re-establish fiscal solvency despite winning partial reimbursement from the federal government in 1823. He died in June 1825, soon after leaving office. Tompkins was baptized Daniel Tompkins, but added the middle initial "D." while a student at Columbia College to distinguish himself from another Daniel Tompkins, a student there. There is controversy as to; the accepted conclusion is that it did not stand for anything, served only to distinguish him from the other Daniel Tompkins. Daniel D. Tompkins was born in Scarsdale, Westchester County, New York, at his home, the estate of Fox Meadow, he was the son of Jonathan Griffin Tompkins. His older brother, Caleb Tompkins was a United States Representative from 1817 to 1821. Daniel Tompkins graduated from Columbia College in New York City in 1795, studied law with James Kent and Peter Jay Munro.
He was admitted to the bar in 1797, practiced in New York City. Despite the Federalist leanings of Kent and Munro, Tomkins entered politics as a Democratic-Republican, he was a delegate to the New York State Constitutional Convention in 1801, a member of the New York State Assembly in 1804. He was elected to the 9th United States Congress, but resigned before the beginning of the term to accept, at age 30, an appointment as associate justice of the New York Supreme Court, in which capacity he served from 1804 to 1807. On February 20, 1798, Daniel Tompkins, 23, married 16-year-old Hannah Minthorne, the daughter of Mangle Minthorne, an Assistant Alderman of New York City; the couple had eight children, including Arietta Minthorn Tompkins, who married a son of Smith Thompson in 1818, Minthorne Tompkins, the Free Soil Party candidate for Governor of New York in 1852. The Tompkinsville section of Staten Island was named after him, his main residence was located on Fort Hill, near Fort Place which burned down in 1874.
Their children Hannah and Minthorne were named after their mother, Hannah and Minthorne streets in Staten Island are named for them. Hannah was ill in the year before her husband became vice president, did not attend his inauguration, she survived him by nearly four years in Staten Island. On April 30, 1807, he defeated the incumbent Governor Morgan Lewis – Tompkins received 35,074 votes, Lewis 30,989 – and remained in office as Governor of New York until 1817, he was reelected in 1810, defeating Jonas Platt – Tompkins 43,094 votes, Jonas Platt 36,484. In 1813 he defeated Stephen Van Rensselaer – Tompkins 43,324 votes, Van Rensselaer 39,718 – and in 1816, he beat Rufus King – Tompkins 45,412 votes, King 38,647. Tompkins was supported by DeWitt Clinton in his first run for office, but Tompkins broke with Clinton by supporting James Madison over Clinton in the 1808 presidential election. During the War of 1812, Tompkins proved to be one of the most effective war governors, he played an important role in reorganizing the state militia and promoted the formation of a standing state military force based on select conscription.
He declined an appointment as United States Secretary of State by President James Madison in 1814, instead accepting appointment as commander of the federal military district that included New York City. Tompkins was elected a member of the American Antiquarian Society in 1814. In 1815 Tompkins established a settlement along the eastern shore of Staten Island that came to be called Tompkinsville, he built a dock along the waterfront in the neighborhood in 1817 and began offering daily steam ferry service between Staten Island and Manhattan. In 1816 he purchased much of the land known as Tompkinsville from the Church of St. Andrew, but his financial troubles led the church to foreclose, his son-in-law and daughter, Dr. John S. and Hannah Westervelt bought the property, which they divided into many lots to sell off. In 1817, Governor Tompkins suggested that July 4, 1827, be set as the date on which all slaves in New York state—including those who were born before the Gradual Manumission Act of July 4, 1799, —should be freed.
Many New York Democratic-Republicans supported Tompkins for president in the
United States Secretary of War
The Secretary of War was a member of the United States President's Cabinet, beginning with George Washington's administration. A similar position, called either "Secretary at War" or "Secretary of War", had been appointed to serve the Congress of the Confederation under the Articles of Confederation between 1781 and 1789. Benjamin Lincoln and Henry Knox held the position; when Washington was inaugurated as the first president under the Constitution, he appointed Knox to continue serving as Secretary of War. The Secretary of War was the head of the War Department. At first, he was responsible including naval affairs. In 1798, the Secretary of the Navy was created by statute, the scope of responsibility for this office was reduced to the affairs of the United States Army. From 1886 onward, the Secretary of War was in the line of succession to the presidency, after the Vice President of the United States, the Speaker of the House of Representatives, the President pro tem of the Senate and the Secretary of State.
In 1947, with the passing of the National Security Act of 1947, the Secretary of War was replaced by the Secretary of the Army and the Secretary of the Air Force, along with the Secretary of the Navy, have since 1949 been non-Cabinet subordinates under the Secretary of Defense. The Secretary of the Army's office is considered the direct successor to the Secretary of War's office although the Secretary of Defense took the Secretary of War's position in the Cabinet, the line of succession to the presidency; the office of Secretary at War was modelled upon Great Britain's Secretary at War, William Barrington, 2nd Viscount Barrington, at the time of the American Revolution. The office of Secretary at War was meant to replace both the Commander-in-Chief and the Board of War, like the President of the Board, the Secretary wore no special insignia; the Inspector General, Quartermaster General, Commissary General, Adjutant General served on the Secretary's staff. However, the Army itself under Secretary Henry Knox only consisted of 700 men.
Parties No party Federalist Democratic-Republican Democratic Whig Republican Confederate States Secretary of War Bell, William Gardner. Commanding Generals and Chiefs of Staff 1775-2005: Portraits and Biographical Sketches. Washington, D. C.: United States Army Center of Military History. Grossman, Mark. Encyclopedia of the United States Cabinet 1789-2010. Armenia, New York: Greyhouse Publishing. King, Archibald. Command of the Army. Military Affairs. Charlottesville, Virginia: The Judge Advocate General's School, U. S. Army
War of 1812
The War of 1812 was a conflict fought between the United States, the United Kingdom, their respective allies from June 1812 to February 1815. Historians in Britain see it as a minor theater of the Napoleonic Wars. From the outbreak of war with Napoleonic France, Britain had enforced a naval blockade to choke off neutral trade to France, which the US contested as illegal under international law. To man the blockade, Britain impressed American merchant sailors into the Royal Navy. Incidents such as the Chesapeake–Leopard affair, which happened five years before the war, inflamed anti-British sentiment in the US. In 1811, the British were in turn outraged by the Little Belt affair, in which 11 British sailors died. Britain supplied Native Americans who raided American settlers on the frontier, hindering American expansion and provoking resentment. Historians debate whether the desire to annex some or all of British North America contributed to the American decision to go to war. On June 18, 1812, US President James Madison, after heavy pressure from the War Hawks in Congress, signed the American declaration of war into law.
With most of its army in Europe fighting Napoleon, Britain adopted a defensive strategy, with offensive operations limited to the border, the western frontier. American prosecution of the war effort suffered from its unpopularity in New England, where it was derogatorily referred to as "Mr. Madison's War". American defeats at the Siege of Detroit and the Battle of Queenston Heights thwarted attempts to seize Upper Canada, improving British morale. American attempts to invade Lower Canada and capture Montreal failed. In 1813, the Americans won the Battle of Lake Erie, gaining control of the lake, at the Battle of the Thames defeated Tecumseh's Confederacy, securing a primary war goal. A final American attempt to invade Canada was fought to a draw at the Battle of Lundy's Lane during the summer of 1814. At sea, the powerful Royal Navy blockaded American ports, cutting off trade and allowing the British to raid the coast at will. In 1814, one of these raids burned the capital, but the Americans repulsed British attempts to invade New York and Maryland, ending invasions of the northern and mid-Atlantic United States from Canada.
Fighting took place overseas in the Atlantic and Pacific oceans. In neighbouring Spanish Florida, a two-day battle for the city of Pensacola ended in Spanish surrender. In Britain, there was mounting opposition to wartime taxation. With the abdication of Napoleon, the war with France ended and Britain ceased impressment, rendering the issue of the impressment of American sailors moot; the British were able to increase the strength of the blockade on the United States coast, annihilating American maritime trade, but attempts to invade the U. S. ended unsuccessfully. Peace negotiations began in August 1814, the Treaty of Ghent was signed on December 24. News of the peace did not reach America for some time. Unaware of the treaty, British forces invaded Louisiana and were defeated at the Battle of New Orleans in January 1815; these late victories were viewed by Americans as having restored national honour, leading to the collapse of anti-war sentiment and the beginning of the Era of Good Feelings, a period of national unity.
News of the treaty arrived shortly thereafter. The treaty was unanimously ratified by the US Senate on February 17, 1815, ending the war with no boundary changes. Historians have long debated the relative weight of the multiple reasons underlying the origins of the War of 1812; this section summarizes several contributing factors which resulted in the declaration of war by the United States. As Risjord notes, a powerful motivation for the Americans was the desire to uphold national honour in the face of what they considered to be British insults such as the Chesapeake–Leopard affair. H. W. Brands says, "The other war hawks spoke of the struggle with Britain as a second war of independence; the approaching conflict was about violations of American rights, but it was about vindication of American identity." Americans at the time and historians since have called it the United States' "Second War of Independence". The British were offended by what they considered insults such as the Little Belt affair.
This gave the British a particular interest in capturing the United States flagship President, which they succeeded in doing in 1815. In 1807, Britain introduced a series of trade restrictions via the Orders in Council to impede neutral trade with France, which Britain was fighting in the Napoleonic Wars; the United States contested these restrictions as illegal under international law. Historian Reginald Horsman states, "a large section of influential British opinion, both in the government and in the country, thought that America presented a threat to British maritime supremacy."The American merchant marine had nearly doubled between 1802 and 1810, making it by far the largest neutral fleet. Britain was the largest trading partner, receiving 80% of U. S. cotton and 50% of other U. S. exports. The British public and press were resentful of commercial competition; the United States' view was. During the Napoleonic Wars, the Royal Navy expanded to 176 ships of the line and 600 ships overall, requiring 140,000 sailors to man.
While the Royal Navy could man its ships with volunteers in peacetime, it competed in wartime with merchant shi
Virginia the Commonwealth of Virginia, is a state in the Southeastern and Mid-Atlantic regions of the United States located between the Atlantic Coast and the Appalachian Mountains. Virginia is nicknamed the "Old Dominion" due to its status as the first English colonial possession established in mainland North America and "Mother of Presidents" because eight U. S. presidents were born there, more than any other state. The geography and climate of the Commonwealth are shaped by the Blue Ridge Mountains and the Chesapeake Bay, which provide habitat for much of its flora and fauna; the capital of the Commonwealth is Richmond. The Commonwealth's estimated population as of 2018 is over 8.5 million. The area's history begins with several indigenous groups, including the Powhatan. In 1607 the London Company established the Colony of Virginia as the first permanent New World English colony. Slave labor and the land acquired from displaced Native American tribes each played a significant role in the colony's early politics and plantation economy.
Virginia was one of the 13 Colonies in the American Revolution. In the American Civil War, Virginia's Secession Convention resolved to join the Confederacy, Virginia's First Wheeling Convention resolved to remain in the Union. Although the Commonwealth was under one-party rule for nearly a century following Reconstruction, both major national parties are competitive in modern Virginia; the Virginia General Assembly is the oldest continuous law-making body in the New World. The state government was ranked most effective by the Pew Center on the States in both 2005 and 2008, it is unique in how it treats cities and counties manages local roads, prohibits its governors from serving consecutive terms. Virginia's economy has many sectors: agriculture in the Shenandoah Valley. S. Department of Defense and Central Intelligence Agency. Virginia has a total area of 42,774.2 square miles, including 3,180.13 square miles of water, making it the 35th-largest state by area. Virginia is bordered by Maryland and Washington, D.
C. to the north and east. Virginia's boundary with Maryland and Washington, D. C. extends to the low-water mark of the south shore of the Potomac River. The southern border is defined as the 36° 30′ parallel north, though surveyor error led to deviations of as much as three arcminutes; the border with Tennessee was not settled until 1893, when their dispute was brought to the U. S. Supreme Court; the Chesapeake Bay separates the contiguous portion of the Commonwealth from the two-county peninsula of Virginia's Eastern Shore. The bay was formed from the drowned river valleys of the James River. Many of Virginia's rivers flow into the Chesapeake Bay, including the Potomac, Rappahannock and James, which create three peninsulas in the bay; the Tidewater is a coastal plain between the fall line. It includes major estuaries of Chesapeake Bay; the Piedmont is a series of sedimentary and igneous rock-based foothills east of the mountains which were formed in the Mesozoic era. The region, known for its heavy clay soil, includes the Southwest Mountains around Charlottesville.
The Blue Ridge Mountains are a physiographic province of the Appalachian Mountains with the highest points in the state, the tallest being Mount Rogers at 5,729 feet. The Ridge and Valley region includes the Great Appalachian Valley; the region includes Massanutten Mountain. The Cumberland Plateau and the Cumberland Mountains are in the southwest corner of Virginia, south of the Allegheny Plateau. In this region, rivers flow northwest, into the Ohio River basin; the Virginia Seismic Zone has not had a history of regular earthquake activity. Earthquakes are above 4.5 in magnitude, because Virginia is located away from the edges of the North American Plate. The largest earthquake, at an estimated 5.9 magnitude, was in 1897 near Blacksburg. A 5.8 magnitude earthquake struck central Virginia on August 2011, near Mineral. The earthquake was felt as far away as Toronto and Florida. 35 million years ago, a bolide impacted. The resulting Chesapeake Bay impact crater may explain what earthquakes and subsidence the region does experience.
Coal mining takes place in the three mountainous regions at 45 distinct coal beds near Mesozoic basins. Over 64 million tons of other non-fuel resources, such as slate, sand, or gravel, were mined in Virginia in 2018; the state's carbonate rock is filled with more than 4,000 caves, ten of which are open for tourism, including the popular Luray Caverns and Skyline Caverns. The climate of Virginia is humid subtropical and becomes warmer and more humid farther south and east. Seasonal extremes vary from average lows of 26 °F in January to average highs of 86 °F in July; the Atlantic Ocean has a strong effect on southeastern coastal areas of the state. Influenced by the Gulf Stream, coastal weather is subject to hurricanes, most pronouncedly near the mouth of Chesapeake Bay. In spite of its position adjacent to the Atlantic Ocean the coastal areas have a significant continental influence with quite large temperature differences between summ
Governor of New York
The Governor of New York is the chief executive of the U. S. state of New York. The governor is the head of the executive branch of New York's state government and the commander-in-chief of the state's military and naval forces; the current governor is Andrew Cuomo, a Democrat, who took office on January 1, 2011. The governor has a duty to enforce state laws, the power to either approve or veto bills passed by the New York State Legislature, to convene the legislature, to grant pardons, except in cases of treason and impeachment. Unlike the other government departments that compose the executive branch of government, the governor is the head of the state Executive Department; the officeholder is afforded the courtesy style of His/Her Excellency while in office. The governor of New York is considered a potential candidate for President. Ten governors have been major-party candidates for president, four, Martin Van Buren, Grover Cleveland, Theodore Roosevelt, Franklin D. Roosevelt have won. Six New York governors have gone on to serve as vice president.
Additionally two Governors of New York, John Jay and Charles Evans Hughes, have served as Chief Justice of the United States. Under the New York State Constitution, a person must be at least 30 years of age, a United States citizen, a resident of the state of New York for at least five years prior to being elected to serve as governor; the office of Governor was established by the first New York State Constitution in 1777 to coincide with the calendar year. An 1874 amendment extended the term of office to three years, but the 1894 constitution reduced it to two years; the most recent constitution of 1938 extended the term to the current four years. The Constitution of New York has provided since 1777 for the election of a Lieutenant Governor of New York, who acts as President of the State Senate, to the same term. In the event of the death, resignation or impeachment of the governor, or absence from the state, the lieutenant governor would take on the governor's duties and powers. Since the 1938 constitution, the lieutenant governor explicitly becomes governor upon such vacancy in the office.
Should the office of lieutenant governor become vacant, the president pro tempore of the state senate performs the duties of a lieutenant governor until the governor can take back the duties of the office, or the next election. Although no provision exists in the constitution for it, precedent set in 2009 allows the governor to appoint a lieutenant governor should a vacancy occur. Should the president pro tempore be unable to fulfill the duties, the speaker of the assembly is next in the line of succession; the lieutenant governor nominated separately. Line of succession in full Lieutenant Governor Temporary President of the Senate Speaker of the Assembly Attorney General Comptroller Commissioner of Transportation Commissioner of Health Commissioner of Commerce Industrial Commissioner Chairman of the Public Service Commission Secretary of State Politics of New York Official website Governor's Office in the New York Codes and Regulations
James Monroe was an American statesman, lawyer and Founding Father who served as the fifth president of the United States from 1817 to 1825. A member of the Democratic-Republican Party, Monroe was the last president of the Virginia dynasty, his presidency coincided with the Era of Good Feelings, he is best known for issuing the Monroe Doctrine, a policy of opposing European colonialism in the Americas. He served as the governor of Virginia, a member of the United States Senate, the U. S. ambassador to France and Britain, the seventh Secretary of State, the eighth Secretary of War. Born into a planter family in Westmoreland County, Monroe served in the Continental Army during the American Revolutionary War. After studying law under Thomas Jefferson from 1780 to 1783, he served as a delegate in the Continental Congress; as a delegate to the Virginia Ratifying Convention, Monroe opposed the ratification of the United States Constitution. In 1790, he won election to the Senate, he left the Senate in 1794 to serve as President George Washington's ambassador to France, but was recalled by Washington in 1796.
Monroe won election as Governor of Virginia in 1799 and supported Jefferson's candidacy in the 1800 presidential election. As President Jefferson's special envoy, Monroe helped negotiate the Louisiana Purchase, through which the United States nearly doubled in size. Monroe fell out with his long-time friend, James Madison, after the latter rejected the Monroe–Pinkney Treaty that Monroe negotiated with Britain, he unsuccessfully challenged Madison in the 1808 presidential election, but in April 1811 he joined Madison's administration as Secretary of State. During the stages of the War of 1812, Monroe served as Madison's Secretary of State and Secretary of War, his war-time leadership established him as Madison's heir apparent, he defeated Federalist Party candidate Rufus King in the 1816 presidential election. Monroe's presidency was coterminous with the Era of Good Feelings, as the Federalist Party collapsed as a national political force; as president, Monroe signed the Missouri Compromise, which admitted Missouri as a slave state and banned slavery from territories north of the parallel 36°30′ north.
In foreign affairs and Secretary of State John Quincy Adams favored a policy of conciliation with Britain and a policy of expansionism against the Spanish Empire. In the 1819 Adams–Onís Treaty with Spain, the United States secured Florida and established its western border with New Spain. In 1823, Monroe announced the United States' opposition to any European intervention in the independent countries of the Americas with the Monroe Doctrine, which became a landmark in American foreign policy. Monroe was a member of the American Colonization Society, which supported the colonization of Africa by freed slaves, Liberia's capital of Monrovia is named in his honor. Following his retirement in 1825, Monroe was plagued by financial difficulties, he died in New York City on July 4, 1831. He has been ranked as an above-average president. James Monroe was born on April 28, 1758, in his parents' house located in a wooded area of Westmoreland County, Virginia; the marked site is one mile from the unincorporated community known today as Virginia.
The James Monroe Family Home Site was listed on the National Register of Historic Places in 1979. His father Spence Monroe was a moderately prosperous planter who practiced carpentry, his mother Elizabeth Jones married Spence Monroe in 1752 and they had five children: Elizabeth, Spence and Joseph Jones. His paternal 2nd great grandfather Patrick Andrew Monroe emigrated to America from Scotland in the mid-17th century, was part of an ancient Scottish clan known as Clan Munro. In 1650 he patented a large tract of land in Westmoreland County, Virginia. Monroe's mother was the daughter of a wealthy immigrant by the name of James Jones, who immigrated from Wales and had settled in nearby King George County, Virginia. Jones was an architect. Among James Monroe's ancestors were French Huguenot immigrants, who came to Virginia in 1700. At age eleven, Monroe was enrolled in the lone school in the county. Monroe attended this school for only eleven weeks a year. During this time, Monroe formed a lifelong friendship with John Marshall.
Monroe's mother died in 1772, his father died two years later. Though he inherited property from both of his parents, the sixteen-year-old Monroe was forced to withdraw from school to support his younger brothers, his childless maternal uncle, Joseph Jones, became a surrogate father to his siblings. A member of the Virginia House of Burgesses, Jones took Monroe to the capital of Williamsburg and enrolled him in the College of William and Mary. Jones introduced Monroe to important Virginians such as Thomas Jefferson, Patrick Henry, George Washington. In 1774, opposition to the British government grew in the Thirteen Colonies in reaction to the "Intolerable Acts," and Virginia sent a delegation to the First Continental Congress. Monroe became involved in the opposition to Lord Dunmore, the colonial governor of Virginia, he took part in the storming of the Governor's Palace. In early 1776, about a year and a half after his enrollment, Monroe dropped out of college and joined the 3rd Virginia Regiment in the Continental Army.
As the fledgling army valued literacy in its officers, Monroe was commissioned with the rank of lieutenant, serving under Captain William Washington. After months of training and seven hundred Virginia infantrymen were called north to
Tariff in United States history
The tariff history of the United States spans from 1789 to present. The first tariff law passed by the U. S. Congress, acting under the then-recently ratified Constitution, was the Tariff of 1789, its purpose was to generate revenue for the federal government, to act as a protective barrier around newly starting domestic industries. An Import tax set by tariff rates was collected by treasury agents before goods could be unloaded at U. S. ports. Tariffs have served a key role in the nation's foreign trade policy and as a source of federal income. Tariffs were the greatest source of federal revenue until the Federal income tax began after 1913. For well over a century the federal government was financed by tariffs averaging about 20% on foreign imports. Tariffs are now employed, in the present trade war with China. Tariffs were the main source of all Federal revenue from 1790 to 1914. At the end of the American Civil War in 1865 about 63% of Federal income was generated by the excise taxes, which exceeded the 25.4% generated by tariffs.
In 1915 during World War I tariffs generated only 30.1% of revenues. Since 1935 tariff income has continued to be a declining percentage of Federal tax income. After the United States achieved independence in 1783, under the Articles of Confederation, the U. S. federal government, could not collect taxes directly but had to "request" money from each state—an fatal flaw for a federal government. Lack of ability to tax directly was one of several major flaws in the Articles of Confederation; the ability to tax directly was addressed in the drafting of the United States Constitution in May to September 1787 Constitutional Convention in Philadelphia. After it was ratified by ten states in 1788 the new Constitution came into effect; the First United States Congress consisting of the United States Senate, the United States House of Representatives, newly elected President George Washington met on March 4, 1789 in the temporary capitol in New York City. The new Congress needed a way to collect taxes from all the states that were easy to enforce and had only a nominal cost to the average citizen.
They had just finished a war on "Taxation without Representation". The Tariff of 1789 was the second bill of the Republic signed by President Washington allowing Congress to impose a fixed tariff of about 5% on nearly all imports, with a few exceptions. In 1790 the United States Revenue Cutter Service was established to enforce and collect the import tariffs; this service became the United States Coast Guard. Britain was the first country to use a large-scale infant industry promotion strategy. However, its most ardent user was the U. S.. S. "the homeland and bastion of modern protectionism". Britain did not want to industrialize the American colonies, implemented policies to that effect. Thus, the American Revolution was, to some extent, a war against this policy, in which the commercial elite of the colonies rebelled against being forced to play a lesser role in the emerging Atlantic economy; this explains why, after independence, the Tariff Act of 1789 was the second bill of the Republic signed by President Washington allowing Congress to impose a fixed tariff of 5% on all imports, with a few exceptions.
Most American intellectuals and politicians during the country's catching-up period felt that the free trade theory advocated by British classical economists was not suited to their country. It was against the advice of economists like Adam Smith and Jean Baptiste Say that the United States were protecting their industries. Alexander Hamilton, the first Secretary of the Treasury of the United States and Daniel Raymond were the first theorists to present the infant industry argument, not the German economist Friedrich List. Indeed, List started out as a free trade advocate and only converted to the infant industry argument following his exile in the U. S. Hamilton was the first to use the term "infant industries" and to introduce it to the forefront of economic thinking. Hamilton feared that Britain's policy towards the colonies would condemn the United States to be only producers of agricultural products and raw materials. Washington and Hamilton believed that political independence was predicated upon economic independence.
Increasing the domestic supply of manufactured goods war materials, was seen as an issue of national security. In Report on Manufactures, considered the first text to express modern protectionist theory, he argued that the competition from abroad and the "forces of habit" would mean that new industries would not be started in the United States, unless the initial losses were guaranteed by government aid. According to him, this aid could take the form of import duties or, in rare cases, prohibition of imports, he called for customs barriers to allow American industrial development and to help protect infant industries, including bounties derived in part from those tariffs. He believed that duties on raw materials should be low. Hamilton explained that despite an initial "increase of price" caused by regulations that control foreign competition, once a "domestic manufacture has attained to perfection… it invariably becomes cheaper"; the Congress passed a tariff act. Between 1792 and the war with Britain in 1812, the average tariff level remained around 12.5%.
In 1812 all tariffs were doubled to an average of 25% in order to cope with the increase in public expenditure due to the war. A sign