1823 in art
Events in the year 1823 in Art. John Constable - Salisbury Cathedral from the Bishop's Grounds Eugène Delacroix Head of a Woman Orphan Girl at the Cemetery Francesco Hayez Antonietta Vitali Sola Conte Ninni The Last Kiss of Romeo and Juliet George Hayter – The Trial of Queen Caroline James Arthur O'Connor – View of Irishtown from Sandymount Rembrandt Peale – approximate date DeWitt Clinton Washington Before Yorktown Gilbert Stuart – Portrait of John Adams J. M. W. Turner – Childe Harold's Pilgrimage Ferdinand Waldmüller – Portrait of Ludwig van Beethoven March 1 – Charles Callahan Perkins, American art critic and author March 31 – William Hart, Scottish-born American landscape painter May 9 – Thomas Dalziel, English engraver August 8 – Théodule Ribot, French realist painter September 28 – Alexandre Cabanel, French painter December 23 – Jozef Van Lerius, Belgian romantic-historical painter January/February – George Brookshaw, English painter and illustrator January 22 – John Julius Angerstein, Russian-born British art collector January 25 – Johann Heinrich Bleuler, Swiss painter February 3 – Étienne-Pierre-Adrien Gois, French sculptor February 16 – Pierre-Paul Prud'hon, French painter March 15 – Jean-Louis Anselin, French engraver March 20 – Grigory Ugryumov, Russian painter April 23 – Joseph Nollekens, British sculptor July 8 – Sir Henry Raeburn, Scottish portrait painter August 9 – Johan Erik Hedberg, Finnish painter October 21 – Aleksander Lauréus, Finnish painter December 4 – Luigi Acquisti, Italian sculptor known for his works in the neoclassical style December 30 – Claude André Deseine, French sculptor date unknown – Thomas Pardoe, English enameller noted for flower painting
Henry IV of France
Henry IV known by the epithet Good King Henry or Henry the Great, was King of Navarre from 1572 and King of France from 1589 to 1610. He was the first monarch of France from the House of Bourbon, a cadet branch of the Capetian dynasty, he was assassinated in 1610 by François Ravaillac, a fanatical Catholic, was succeeded by his son Louis XIII. The son of Antoine de Bourbon, Duke of Vendôme and Jeanne d'Albret, the Queen of Navarre, Henry was baptised as a Catholic but raised in the Protestant faith by his mother, he inherited the throne of Navarre in 1572 on his mother's death. As a Huguenot, Henry was involved in the French Wars of Religion escaping assassination in the St. Bartholomew's Day massacre, he led Protestant forces against the royal army. Henry IV and his predecessor Henry III of France are both direct descendants of the Saint-King Louis IX. Henry III belonged to the House of Valois, descended from Philip III of France, elder son of Saint Louis; as Head of the House of Bourbon, Henry was "first prince of the blood."
Upon the death of his brother-in-law and distant cousin Henry III in 1589, Henry was called to the French succession by the Salic law. He kept the Protestant faith and had to fight against the Catholic League, which denied that he could wear France's crown as a Protestant. To obtain mastery over his kingdom, after four years of stalemate, he found it prudent to abjure the Calvinist faith; as a pragmatic politician, he displayed an unusual religious tolerance for the era. Notably, he promulgated the Edict of Nantes, which guaranteed religious liberties to Protestants, thereby ending the Wars of Religion. Considered a usurper by some Catholics and a traitor by some Protestants, Henry became target of at least 12 assassination attempts. An unpopular king among his contemporaries, Henry gained more status after his death, he was admired for his conversion to Catholicism. The "Good King Henry" was remembered for his geniality and his great concern about the welfare of his subjects. An active ruler, he worked to regularise state finance, promote agriculture, eliminate corruption and encourage education.
During his reign, the French colonization of the Americas began with the foundation of the colony of Acadia and its capital Port-Royal. He was celebrated in Voltaire's Henriade. Henry de Bourbon was born in Pau, the capital of the joint Kingdom of Navarre with the sovereign principality of Béarn, his parents were Queen Joan III of Navarre and her consort, Antoine de Bourbon, Duke of Vendôme, King of Navarre. Although baptised as a Roman Catholic, Henry was raised as a Protestant by his mother, who had declared Calvinism the religion of Navarre; as a teenager, Henry joined the Huguenot forces in the French Wars of Religion. On 9 June 1572, upon his mother's death, the 19-year-old became King of Navarre. At Queen Joan's death, it was arranged for Henry to marry Margaret of Valois, daughter of Henry II and Catherine de' Medici; the wedding took place in Paris on 18 August 1572 on the parvis of Notre Dame Cathedral. On 24 August, the St. Bartholomew's Day massacre began in Paris. Several thousand Protestants who had come to Paris for Henry's wedding were killed, as well as thousands more throughout the country in the days that followed.
Henry narrowly escaped death thanks to the help of his wife and his promise to convert to Catholicism. He was forced to live at the court of France, but he escaped in early 1576. On 5 February of that year, he formally abjured Catholicism at Tours and rejoined the Protestant forces in the military conflict, he named Catherine de Bourbon, regent of Béarn. Catherine held the regency for nearly thirty years. Henry became heir presumptive to the French throne in 1584 upon the death of Francis, Duke of Anjou and heir to the Catholic Henry III, who had succeeded Charles IX in 1574; because Henry of Navarre was the next senior agnatic descendant of King Louis IX, King Henry III had no choice but to recognise him as the legitimate successor. Salic law barred the king's sisters and all others who could claim descent through only the female line from inheriting. Since Henry of Navarre was a Huguenot, the issue was not considered settled in many quarters of the country, France was plunged into a phase of the Wars of Religion known as the War of the Three Henries.
Henry III and Henry of Navarre were two of these Henries. The third was Henry I, Duke of Guise, who pushed for complete suppression of the Huguenots and had much support among Catholic loyalists. Political disagreements among the parties set off a series of campaigns and counter-campaigns that culminated in the Battle of Coutras. In December 1588, Henry III had Henry I of Guise murdered, along with his brother, Cardinal de Guise. Henry III thought that the removal of the brothers would restore his authority. However, the populace rose against him. In several cities, the title of the king was no longer recognized, his power was limited to Blois and the surrounding districts. In the general chaos, Henry III relied on King Henry of his Huguenots; the two kings were united by a common interest—to win France from the Catholic League. Henry III acknowledged the King of Navarre as a true subject and Frenchman, not a fanatic Huguenot aiming for the destruction of
The Louvre, or the Louvre Museum, is the world's largest art museum and a historic monument in Paris, France. A central landmark of the city, it is located on the Right Bank of the Seine in the city's 1st arrondissement. 38,000 objects from prehistory to the 21st century are exhibited over an area of 72,735 square metres. In 2018, the Louvre was the world's most visited art museum; the museum is housed in the Louvre Palace built as the Louvre castle in the late 12th to 13th century under Philip II. Remnants of the fortress are visible in the basement of the museum. Due to the urban expansion of the city, the fortress lost its defensive function and, in 1546, was converted by Francis I into the main residence of the French Kings; the building was extended many times to form the present Louvre Palace. In 1682, Louis XIV chose the Palace of Versailles for his household, leaving the Louvre as a place to display the royal collection, from 1692, a collection of ancient Greek and Roman sculpture. In 1692, the building was occupied by the Académie des Inscriptions et Belles-Lettres and the Académie Royale de Peinture et de Sculpture, which in 1699 held the first of a series of salons.
The Académie remained at the Louvre for 100 years. During the French Revolution, the National Assembly decreed that the Louvre should be used as a museum to display the nation's masterpieces; the museum opened on 10 August 1793 with an exhibition of 537 paintings, the majority of the works being royal and confiscated church property. Because of structural problems with the building, the museum was closed in 1796 until 1801; the collection was increased under Napoleon and the museum was renamed Musée Napoléon, but after Napoleon's abdication many works seized by his armies were returned to their original owners. The collection was further increased during the reigns of Louis XVIII and Charles X, during the Second French Empire the museum gained 20,000 pieces. Holdings have grown through donations and bequests since the Third Republic; the collection is divided among eight curatorial departments: Egyptian Antiquities. The Louvre Palace, which houses the museum, was begun as a fortress by Philip II in the 12th century to protect the city from English soldiers which were in Normandy.
Remnants of this castle are still visible in the crypt. Whether this was the first building on that spot is not known. According to the authoritative Grand Larousse encyclopédique, the name derives from an association with wolf hunting den. In the 7th century, St. Fare, an abbess in Meaux, left part of her "Villa called Luvra situated in the region of Paris" to a monastery.. The Louvre Palace was altered throughout the Middle Ages. In the 14th century, Charles V converted the building into a residence and in 1546, Francis I renovated the site in French Renaissance style. Francis acquired what would become the nucleus of the Louvre's holdings, his acquisitions including Leonardo da Vinci's Mona Lisa. After Louis XIV chose Versailles as his residence in 1682, constructions slowed. Four generations of Boulle were granted Royal patronage and resided in the Louvre in the following order: Pierre Boulle, Jean Boulle, Andre-Charles Boulle and his four sons, after him. André-Charles Boulle is the most famous French cabinetmaker and the preeminent artist in the field of marquetry known as "Inlay".
Boulle was "the most remarkable of all French cabinetmakers". He was commended to Louis XIV of France, the "Sun King", by Jean-Baptiste Colbert as being "the most skilled craftsman in his profession". Before the fire of 1720 destroyed them, André-Charles Boulle held priceless works of art in the Louvre, including forty-eight drawings by Raphael'. By the mid-18th century there were an increasing number of proposals to create a public gallery, with the art critic La Font de Saint-Yenne publishing, in 1747, a call for a display of the royal collection. On 14 October 1750, Louis XV agreed and sanctioned a display of 96 pieces from the royal collection, mounted in the Galerie royale de peinture of the Luxembourg Palace. A hall was opened by Le Normant de Tournehem and the Marquis de Marigny for public viewing of the Tableaux du Roy on Wednesdays and Saturdays, contained Andrea del Sarto's Charity and works by Raphael. Under Louis XVI, the royal museum idea became policy; the comte d'Angiviller broadened the collection and in 1776 proposed conversion of the Grande Galerie of the Louvre – which contained maps – into the "French Museum".
Many proposals were offered for the Louvre's renovation into a museum. Hence the museum remained incomplete until the French Revolution. During the French Revolution the Louvre was transformed into a public museum. In May 1791, the Assembly declared that the Louvre would be "a place for bringing together monuments of all the sciences and arts". On 10 August 1792, Louis XVI was imprisoned and the royal collection i
John Julius Angerstein
John Julius Angerstein was a London businessman and Lloyd's underwriter, a patron of the fine arts and a collector. It was the prospect that his collection of paintings was about to be sold by his estate in 1824 that galvanised the founding of the British National Gallery. John Julius Angerstein was born in 1732 in Russia, it has wrongly been suggested that he was a natural son of empress Catherine II or of Elizabeth, Empress of Russia. Family tradition holds that his true parents were empress Anna of Russia and the London businessman, Andrew Poulett Thompson. In 1771 Angerstein married Anna Crockett at Old Broad Street, they had two children - Juliana, who married General Nikolai Sablukov of the Russian service, John Angerstein. Anna died in 1783, in 1785 John Julius Angerstein married Eliza Lucas. A portrait of Angerstein and his second wife, Eliza, by Thomas Lawrence was exhibited at the Royal Academy in 1792. In his role as a merchant Angerstein was said to own a third share in slave estates in Grenada, using profits from the slave trade to build up his art collection.
Angerstein was chairman of Lloyd's from 1790 to 1796 and counted king George III, British Prime Minister William Pitt the Younger and artist Sir Thomas Lawrence among his friends. Although a slave owner, he was on the Committee for the Relief of the Black Poor an organisation with strong abolitionist connections. After a number of knife attacks on women by the so-called "London Monster", Angerstein promised a reward of £100 for capture of the perpetrator. Among his earliest art purchases was The Rape of the Sabines by Rubens. Acquisitions included works by Rembrandt, Velázquez, Raphael and Hogarth, plus early drawings by J. M. W. Turner. From the sale in London of the French Orleans Collection he bought The Raising of Lazarus by Sebastiano del Piombo and other works. After his death, thirty-eight of his finest paintings were bought by the British government for £60,000 to form the nucleus of the collection of the British National Gallery; until the National Gallery was built in Trafalgar Square in London, the 38 works from Angerstein's collection were displayed in Angerstein's town house in Pall Mall.
He lived for some years in Greenwich in south-east London, leasing a 54-acre estate from Sir Gregory Page in 1774 and over the next two years building a house, Woodlands. This area is now known as Westcombe Park, part of a wide area on the north-eastern fringes of Blackheath that he sought to enclose in 1801; the house fell empty in 1870. In 1806 Angerstein served as Vice-president of the newly formed London Institution, the previous year became a founding governor of the British Institution for Promoting the Fine Arts in the United Kingdom; as an active church-goer, he worshipped at St Alfege's Church, where he was churchwarden. His family's connections with Greenwich are still commemorated. Angerstein Lane, near the heath at Blackheath, bears the family name. A public house, The Angerstein Hotel, is on Woolwich Road, close to the Woolwich Road flyover – on the opposite side of which lies the Angerstein Business Park. Just behind this is the'Angerstein Railway Line', linking the peninsula at North Greenwich with the main railway network.
Baynes, T. S. ed. "John Julius Angerstein", Encyclopædia Britannica, 2, New York: Charles Scribner's Sons, p. 29 Chisholm, Hugh, ed. "Angerstein, John Julius", Encyclopædia Britannica, 2, Cambridge University Press, p. 9 Biography and Collection from the National Gallery
1834 in art
Events from the year 1834 in art. October 16 – Burning of Parliament in London witnessed by J. M. W. Turner, John Constable and Augustus Pugin Thomas Cole – The Savage State and The Arcadian or Pastoral State from The Course of Empire Eugène Delacroix – The Women of Algiers Edward Hicks – Peaceable Kingdom Jean Auguste Dominique Ingres – The Martyrdom of Saint Symphorian Thomas Luny – Battle of the Nile, August 1st 1798 at 10 pm John Martin – The Deluge J. M. W. Turner – The Fountain of Indolence Hiroshige – The Sixty-nine Stations of the Kiso Kaidō Hokusai – One Hundred Views of Mount Fuji Francis Chantrey – Memorial to Mary Anne Boulton Antoine-Augustin Préault – The Killing February 15 – Paul Guigou, painter February 28 – Léon Bonvin and watercolorist May 9 – Alexander Calandrelli, sculptor July 6 – Joseph Boehm, sculptor July 10 – James McNeill Whistler, painter July 19 – Edgar Degas and sculptor August 2 – Frédéric Bartholdi, sculptor of the Statue of Liberty December 9 – Leopold Müller, painter date unknown Caspar Buberl, American sculptor Emily Mary Osborn, painter January 4 – Mauro Gandolfi, Italian painter and engraver of the Bolognese School February 26 – Alois Senefelder, German actor and inventor of lithography March 30 – Rudolph Ackermann, German-born printer and lithographer March 31 – Landolin Ohmacht, German sculptor April 27 – Thomas Stothard, English painter and engraver June 4 – Robert Bowyer, English miniature painter and publisher August 7 – William Birch, English miniature painter and engraver c.
August 13 – Peter Rindisbacher, Swiss-born painter in the United States December 3 – Ferdinand Runk, German-Austrian landscape painter and etcher December 17 – Henry Bone, English enamel painter December 22 – Prince Hoare, English painter and dramatist date unknown Samuel Elmgren, Finnish painter Vicente Escobar, Cuban painter Anne Forbes, Scottish portrait painter Ulrika Melin, textile artist and member of the Royal Swedish Academy of Art Zacarías González Velázquez, Spanish painter
1819 in art
Events in the year 1819 in Art. November - The Museo del Prado opens to the public as the Royal Museum of Paintings and Sculptures in Madrid. Francisco Goya begins the series of "Black Paintings", working directly onto the walls of his dining and sitting rooms at his home, Quinta del Sordo, near Madrid. Washington Allston – Florimell's Flight John Constable – The Gathering Storm Marie Ellenrieder – Self-portrait as a painter Caspar David Friedrich – On a Sailing Ship Théodore Géricault – The Raft of the Medusa Anne-Louis Girodet de Roussy-Trioson – Pygmalion and Galatea Francisco Goya The Madhouse A Procession of Flagellants Jean-Baptiste Paulin Guérin – Christ on the Knees of the Virgin Louis Hersent – Abdication of Gustavus Vasa Jean-Auguste-Dominique Ingres – Gianciotto Discovers Paolo and Francesca John Martin – The Fall of Babylon Joseph Paelinck – William I of the Netherlands Henry Raeburn – Francis MacNab, The MacNab Bertel Thorvaldsen – Christ and the Twelve Apostles John Trumbull – Declaration of Independence J. M. W. Turner Childe Harold's Pilgrimage England: Richmond Hill, on the Prince Regent's Birthday January 19 – William Powell Frith, painter February 8 – John Ruskin and critic March 20 – Roger Fenton, photographer June 3 – Johan Jongkind, painter June 10 – Gustave Courbet, painter June 23 – Henry Peters Gray, portrait painter June 28 – Henri Harpignies, landscape painter September 20 – Théodore Chassériau, painter December 19 – Arthur Gilbert, painter date unknown Nicholas Joseph Crowley, portrait painter Edwin Hayes, marine watercolourist Helena Sophia Isberg, woodcut artist January 15 – Gustav Philipp Zwinger and etcher February 16 – Pierre-Henri de Valenciennes, French painter March 4 – Johann Nepomuk della Croce, Austrian painter May 2 – Mary Moser, painter May 10 – Mariano Salvador Maella, Spanish painter and engraver July 10 – Pierre-Simon-Benjamin Duvivier, French engraver of coins and medals July 31 – Jurriaan Andriessen, Dutch decorative painter August 1 – Pierre-Adrien Pâris, French architect and designer September 15 – Johann Georg Edlinger, Austrian court painter November 2 – Edward Bird, painter November 5 – Alexander Kucharsky, Polish portrait painter November 11 – Moses Griffith, Welsh draughtsman and water colourist December 3 – Johann Conrad Felsing, German topographer and engraver using stippling date unknown Prosper-Gabriel Audran, French engraver and teacher William Beilby, British glassworker and enameller Paolo Borroni, Italian painter of the Neoclassical style Wojciech Kucharski, Polish sculptor and mason John Lewin, English-born Australian artist Anna Brita Sergel, textile artist of the royal Swedish court Archibald Skirving, Scottish portrait painter Gustava Johanna Stenborg, Swedish artist Dionys van Dongen, Dutch painter
1817 in art
Events in the year 1817 in Art. October 5 – Hokusai paints the "Big Daruma" on paper measuring 18x10.8 m at the Hongan-ji Nagoya Betsuin in Nagoya, Japan. December 28 – English painter Benjamin Haydon introduces John Keats to William Wordsworth and Charles Lamb at a dinner in London to celebrate progress on his painting Christ's Entry into Jerusalem. Dulwich Picture Gallery in London, designed by John Soane as Britain's first purpose-built public art gallery, is completed and opened. Construction of the Vatican Museum begins. Louis-Marie Autissier – Miniature self-portrait François Joseph Bosio – Hyacinth Awaiting His Turn Antonio Canova – The Three Graces Francis Chantrey – The Sleeping Children John Constable Flatford Mill Weymouth Bay: Bowleaze Cove and Jordon Hill John Crome – Boys Bathing on the River Wensum John James Halls – Rear-Admiral George Cockburn George Hayter – The Tribute Money Orest Kiprensky – Young Gardener January 29 – John Callcott Horsley, English painter February 15 – Charles-François Daubigny, French painter February 23 – George Frederic Watts, English painter and sculptor February 28 – Walter Hood Fitch, Scottish-born botanical artist March 1 – Josephine Calamatta, French painter and engraver March 7 – Alexandre Antigna, French painter April 4 – P. C.
Skovgaard, Danish romantic nationalist landscape painter July 1 – John Gilbert, English painter August 1 – Richard Dadd, English painter and draughtsman August 4 – Antoine Dominique Magaud, French painter November 3 – Ernest Hébert, French painter and academician November 22 – François Bonvin, French realist painter March 27 – Josiah Boydell and painter May 10 – Georg Haas, Danish engraver June – Claude-Jean-Baptiste Hoin, French portrait and landscape painter June 4 – Daniël Dupré, Dutch engraver, painter and watercolorist September – Thomas Wyon, engraver of medals September 8 – John Carter, English draughtsman and architect October 13 – Julius Caesar Ibbetson, landscape painter November 5 – Carl Haller von Hallerstein, art historian November 8 – Andrea Appiani, neoclassical painter December 20 – Lié Louis Périn-Salbreux, painter and miniaturist December 27 – Pierre-Michel Alix, French engraver date unknown Jean Népomucène Hermann Nast, porcelain manufacturer Joaquín Bernardo Rubert, Spanish still life floral painter