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1828 United States presidential election

The 1828 United States presidential election was the 11th quadrennial presidential election. It was held from Friday, October 31 to Tuesday, December 2, 1828, it featured a re-match of the 1824 election, as President John Quincy Adams of the National Republican Party faced Andrew Jackson of the Democratic Party. Both parties were new organizations, this was the first Presidential election their nominees contested. Unlike in 1824, Jackson defeated Adams, marking the start of Democratic dominance in Federal politics. In 1824, with four major candidates running for President as members of only one national party, Jackson had won a plurality both of the electoral vote and of the popular vote from among the 18 states whose voters chose Presidential electors. However, with the open support of House Speaker Henry Clay, Adams won the subsequent contingent election in the House of Representatives under the Twelfth Amendment. Many Jackson supporters perceived that his loss, though Constitutional, was unfair and contrary to the popular will, accusing Adams and Clay of having reached a "corrupt bargain" in which Clay helped Adams win the contingent election in return for the position of Secretary of State.

Intensifying political rivalry between supporters and opponents of Jackson fractured the once-dominant Democratic-Republican Party. Jackson and allies such as Martin Van Buren and Vice President John C. Calhoun laid the foundations of the Democratic Party, while supporter, states had expanded voting rights to nearly all white men in nearly all elections. For example, in 1824, state legislatures chose Presidential electors in six states, but by 1828, four had transitioned to voter choice. While nationally organized parties had fielded rival candidates before, 1828 was the first election in which broadly qualified voters chose the President from between nominees of two national parties, whose candidates or electors appeared on all ballots. With greater perceived and real impact, voter participation grew, with 9.5% of Americans casting a vote for President, compared with 3.4% in 1824. Jackson was aided by the passage of the Tariff of 1828. Denounced by opponents as the "Tariff of Abominations," the unpopular tariff and the greater charisma and popular appeal of Jackson helped him dominate the South and West.

Adams won only three other small states. Jackson became the first President whose home state was neither Massachusetts nor Virginia, while Adams was the second to lose re-election, following his father, John Adams; the election marked the rise of Jacksonian Democracy and the transition from the First Party System to the Second Party System. Historians debate the significance of the election, with many arguing that it marked the beginning of modern American politics by removing key barriers to voter participation and establishing a stable two-party system. While Andrew Jackson won a plurality of electoral votes and the popular vote in the election of 1824, he lost to John Quincy Adams as the election was deferred to the House of Representatives. Henry Clay, unsuccessful candidate and Speaker of the House at the time, despised Jackson, in part due to their fight for Western votes during the election, he chose to support Adams, which led to Adams being elected president on the first ballot. A few days after the election, Adams appointed Clay his Secretary of State, a position was held by Adams and his three immediate predecessors prior to becoming president.

Jackson and his followers promptly accused Clay and Adams of striking a "corrupt bargain," and continued to lambaste the president until the 1828 election. In the aftermath of the 1824 election, the national Democratic-Republican Party collapsed as national politics became polarized between supporters of Adams and supporters of Jackson. In a prelude to the presidential election, the Jacksonians bolstered their numbers in Congress in the 1826 Congressional elections, with Jackson ally Andrew Stevenson chosen as the new Speaker of the House of Representatives in 1827 over Adams ally Speaker John W. Taylor. Within months after the inauguration of John Quincy Adams in 1825, the Tennessee legislature re-nominated Jackson for president, thus setting the stage for a re-match between these two different politicians three years thence. Congressional opponents of Adams, including former William H. Crawford supporter Martin Van Buren, rallied around Jackson's candidacy. Jackson's supporters called themselves Democrats, would formally organize as the Democratic Party shortly after his election.

In hopes of uniting those opposed to Adams, Jackson ran on a ticket with sitting Vice President John C. Calhoun. Calhoun would decline the invitation to join the Democratic Party and instead formed the Nullifier Party after the election. No congressional nominating caucus or national convention was held. President Adams and his allies, including Secretary of State Clay and Senator Daniel Webster of Massachusetts, became known as the National Republicans; the National Republicans were less organized than the Democrats, many party leaders did not embrace the new era of popular campaigning. Adams was re-nominated on the endorsement of partisan rallies; as with the Democrats, no nominating caucus or national convention was held. Adams chose Secretary of the Treasury Richard Rush, a Pennsylvanian known for his protectionist views, as

Philipp Albert Stapfer

Philipp Albert Stapfer was a Swiss politician and philosopher. He was the plenipotentiary envoi of the Helvetic Republic to the French consulate in Paris from 1801 till 1803, he married and settled in France, at the Chateau de Talcy and in Paris where he became the friend of Maine de Biran -in 1805 at informal gatherings of Cabanis circle at Auteuil. He was vice-president of the Paris Protestant society, he is the recipient of Maine de Biran's essay: "Réponses aux arguments contre l'aperception immédiate d'une liaison causale entre le vouloir primitif et la motion et contre la dérivation d'un principe universel et nécessaire de causalités de cette source.". As a Minister of Sciences and Arts of the Helvetic Republic in 1798 he arranged the nomination of Pestalozzi as chief editor of the government paper "Helvetisches Volksblatt" -a post from which Pestalozzi resigned. In Paris Stapfer pleaded Pestalozzi's case for educational reform with Napoleon Bonaparte, who denigrated the program for its alleged lack of real science.

Maine de Biran however -following the encounters with Stapfer at Auteuil and his own appointement as "sous-préfet" of the Dordogne in 1806- reformed the education in his department by inviting to Bergerac a teacher formed by Pestalozzi at Yverdon. Apart from being an involved and tolerant Protestant philosopher Stapfer, with André-Marie Ampère, Joseph-Marie de Gérando, Pierre Paul Royer-Collard, Georges Cuvier and many others was a regular participant in the philosophical debates organised by Maine de Biran, after the latter settled in Paris as an administrator in 1812. Together with Degérando, who introduced Kant studies in France, he was one of Maine de Biran's main sources on the philosophy of Immanuel Kant whose work he followed in its development by one of Kant's pupils: Friedrich Bouterwek, professor in Philosophy at the Georg August University in Göttingen. Meyers Lexicon Mannheim 1990 links Bouterwek with Maine de Biran. Bouterwek was lecturing on Kant at Göttingen when Stapfer studied there in 1789-1790.

The extent of Stapfer's knowledge of Kant can be judged from the substantial notes he appended to Maine de Biran's: "Exposition de la doctrine philosophique de Leibniz. Composée pour la Biographie Universelle"; this exposition written at the instigation of Stapfer is one of only two philosophical texts by Maine de Biran published during his lifetime. Stapfer long survived his immediate contemporaries de Bouterwek, he arranged for his own salon, inviting guests such as Victor Cousin, Sainte-Beuve, Guizot to whom he became an important material witness of the preceding decades. It took the untiring persistence of Stapfer to encourage Victor Cousin and Joseph Lainé to classify and publish the works of Maine de Biran. De la lecture de la Bible, particulièrement de l'Ancien Testament: et des fruits que les hommes de toutes les capacités peuvent en recueillir, même sans le secours de notes et de commentaires Considérations sur les rapports de la lecture universelle et intégrale des Saintes Ecritures avec l'état moral des individus, le bonheur des peuples, et la cause du Christianisme Mélanges philosophiques, littéraires, historiques et religieux Albert Portmann-Tinguely.

"Philipp Albert Stapfer". In Bautz, Traugott. Biographisch-Bibliographisches Kirchenlexikon. 10. Herzberg: Bautz. Cols. 1206–1221. ISBN 3-88309-062-X. de La Valette Monbrun: "Maine de Biran" Paris: Librairie Philosophique J. Vrin, 1914 pp453–455 Henri Gouhier: "Maine de Biran: Oeuvres Choisies" Paris: Aubier Montaigne -Bibliothèque Philosophique, 1942 Max Liedtke: "Pestalozzi" Reinbek bei Hamburg: Rowohlt Taschenbuch Verlag, 1968

1986 ICC Trophy

The 1986 ICC Trophy was a limited-overs cricket tournament held in England between 11 June and 7 July 1986. It was the third ICC Trophy tournament to be staged, as with the previous two tournaments, games between the 16 participating teams played over 60 overs a side and with white clothing and red balls. All matches except the final were played in the Midlands, but the final was held at Lord's, where Zimbabwe defeated the Netherlands to win their 2nd ICC Trophy in a row and qualify for the 1987 World Cup; the weather was much better than the earlier competitions, all matches were played to a result. The 16 teams were divided into one containing seven teams and one containing nine; each teams played each other team in its group once in matches played between 16 June and 5 July, scoring four points for a win and two for a no-result or abandoned without a ball being bowled. The top two teams in each group went forward to the semi-finals, the top team in each group playing team with the second-highest number of points in the other.

Where teams finished with equal points totals, run rate was used to separate them. Group A: Argentina, Denmark, East Africa, Malaysia, Zimbabwe Group B: Bermuda, Fiji, Hong Kong, Netherlands, Papua New Guinea, USA In a match reduced to 50 overs a side, Denmark defeated Argentina. Soren Henriksen made 56 for the Danes, while Ole Mortensen took 4-15. A fine knock of 135 by Andy Pycroft helped Zimbabwe to pile up 315/7 against Bangladesh who could manage only 171/8 in reply. Meanwhile, 56 from P Banerji and 4-27 from DP John got Malaysia through to a tight two-wicket victory over East Africa, despite DM Patel claiming 4-19. 58 from P Budin helped Malaysia to 226/9, but the real culprits were the Argentine bowlers, who sent down a staggering 26 wides in the innings. In reply Argentina fell to 44/7 and DA Culley's 41 could do no more than delay the inevitable as they were bowled out for 88 to lose by 134 runs; the other match played on this date was much closer, Bangladesh defending a small total of 143 by bowling out Kenya for 134.

Denmark recovered from 20/2 to post a total of 274/7, with S Mikkelsen making 60, Ole Mortensen 59 and Soren Henriksen 50. In reply, East Africa could manage only 161; some excellent Zimbabwean bowling saw them dismiss Kenya for 82, cruising to a seven-wicket triumph with more than half their overs remaining. Argentina reduced Zimbabwe to 98/5, but a stand of 174 between Rawson and Gary Wallace saw the Africans through to a daunting 357/7. Argentina were never to threaten such a target, so it proved as they were bowled out for 150 to lose by a massive 207 runs. In the other Group A game, Jahangir Shah took 4-37 for Bangladesh but could not stop Malaysia making 239. Bangladesh made 162 against East Africa, with SM Lakha taking 4-31. In reply their opponents reached their target with only four wickets down, thanks to a stand of 125 for the third wicket between BR Bouri and FG Patel. 4-21 from England's future nemesis Eddo Brandes restricted Denmark to 146, a total which the Zimbabweans cruised past inside 35 overs, Grant Paterson making 86 not out.

And 66 from Stevens helped Malaysia to 154, but it was insufficient as Kenya, 99/5 at one stage, recovered to win by five wickets. Despite no player reaching fifty, East Africa's 261/8 was always to be too good for Argentina, so it proved as the South Americans were dismissed 84 runs short for 177, A Kumar claiming 6-26; the other match on this day saw Malaysia bowled out for 89 by Zimbabwe who reached their target with little drama for the loss of just two wickets. Extras top-scored with 29 in Argentina's poor total of 122 against Bangladesh. An exciting second match saw Denmark overcome Kenya by one wicket: some tight bowling from Mortensen had restricted the Kenyans to 121, although Denmark fell to 96/9, an unbroken last-wicket stand of 26 saw them through. For East Africa, GR Shariff made 72 and BR Bouri 31, but no-one else passed 7 as Brandes wreaked havoc to dismiss them for 140. In reply, Zimbabwe reached 143/0 with 33 overs to spare, with David Houghton scoring 87 not out and Paterson 55 not out.

Solid contributions throughout the order guided Denmark to a good-looking 265/8 against Malaysia, despite Stevens' haul of 4-48, it was too much for their opponents, who lost their first three wickets for 18 and were dismissed off the penultimate ball for 178, 87 runs behind, despite V Vijiyalingam's 51, his only Trophy half-century. Anil Patel made 65 out of Kenya's 209/9 against local rivals East Africa, who had no chance once they had slumped to 33/5 and lost in the end by 63 runs. Kenya's captain Tom Tikolo top-scored with 48 as the Africans reached 228 all out against Argentina, who were unable to cope with the bowling of Zahoor Sheikh and could do no better than 141, thus losing by 87 runs. Nehal Hasnain's 56 stood out for Bangladesh as Mortensen's 4-31 prevented their getting beyond 147. A one-sided match saw Bermuda amass 304/9 and bowl out Fiji for just 69, with two men bowling unchanged throughou

Kinetic theTechnologyAgency

Kinetic theTechnologyAgency is a software company based in Louisville, Kentucky. Kinetic provides The Globalizor™ translation management system; the company offers enterprise-level software packages to Forbes Global 2000 companies, allowing clients to optimize their translations process. Kinetic theTechnologyAgency is located in historic Distillery Commons in Kentucky. Kinetic Corporation was founded by Ray Schuhmann in 1968 as a commercial photography studio. Kinetic evolved into a full-service photography and graphics business. During the 1970s, Kinetic was nationally known for advertising photography, supported by an on-site full-service photo lab. Company founder Ray Schuhmann has been the official photographer and archivist of the Kentucky Derby for the last 50 years. By the 1990s, Kinetic was developing custom applications for a newly emerging platform: the Internet. In 2000, Kinetic began its focused transition from photography based services to software and technology based services. Kinetic now derives the majority of its revenue from technology licensing and digital services.

In 2011, Kinetic quadrupled its staff to meet the needs of the growing demand for its software solutions. In April 2013, Kinetic theTechnologyAgency and Netherlands-based Foxiz B. V. teamed up to increase adoption and support in Europe of Kinetic's translation management software and support services. Today, Kinetic theTechnologyAgency offers an integrated suite of SaaS software products; the Globalizor™ platform provides web-based services for global translation management that helps Global 2000 companies maximize their translation investments using translation memory, or TM. Kinetic is a provider of translation management systems known as a globalization management system, allowing the translation and localization of technical documents to over 143 languages. Kinetic theTechnologyAgency was named one of Louisville's 50 fastest growing businesses in 2012. Kinetic was named a Top 5 Information Technology company in Louisville in 2013. Kinetic was included in the 2013 Inc. 5000 list. Kinetic was a recipient of the 2013 Martha Layne Collins Award for International Trade Excellence.

Kinetic was named the 5th fastest-growing private company in the Louisville Area in 2013. Kinetic made its second consecutive appearance on the Inc. 5000 list in 2014. Kinetic was included on the 2014 Business First Louisville Fast 50 list for the third consecutive year. Globalization Language localisation Translation Official Website GALA Global Member profile Multilingual profile Translation Automation User Society Member profile

American Meteor Society

The American Meteor Society, Ltd. is a non-profit scientific organization established to encourage and support the research activities of both amateur and professional astronomers who are interested in the field of meteor astronomy. Its affiliates observe, collect data on, report on meteors, meteor showers, meteoric fireballs, related meteoric phenomena; the society was founded in 1911 by Charles P. Olivier of the Leander McCormick Observatory; the initial enrollment was fifteen members. These were recruited by Dr. Olivier by letter; the first paper based on the observations of the members appeared in the Astronomical Journal in 1912, describing the η Aquarid meteor shower. In 1926, Dr. Olivier began to publish meteor notes from the society on a nearly monthly basis in the Popular Astronomy magazine under the title "Monthly Notes"; this continued until Curvin H. Gingrich, died; some time prior to 1932, Dr. Olivier began appointing regional directors to facilitate the data collection for the society.

A director was appointed to the Pacific Northwest region in 1932. This consisted of Washington and Oregon states, but came to include the western provinces of Canada plus Idaho and Montana. In 1938, the Canadian provinces were withdrawn from the society; this western division was headquartered at the University of Oregon in Eugene. In 1960, Dr. Olivier published the first catalogue of hourly meteor rates based upon the data collected by the society members from 1901 to 1958; the second catalogue was published in 1965, which included data up to 1963. During the late 1970s, David Meisel became Executive Director of the society; the headquarters for the society was relocated to New York. The society research was expanded to include radio meteor studies spectroscopy of meteors; the society publishes observations and scientific interpretations quarterly in Meteor Trails, The Journal of American Meteor Society. Once per year they give the American Meteor Society Award to a person who has contributed to research on meteors.

They provide an annual research grant to a student of SUNY-Geneseo who has contributed to meteor research or to the AMS. International Meteor Organization List of astronomical societies Official website

Eucalyptus nova-anglica

Eucalyptus nova-anglica known as the New England peppermint or black peppermint, is a species of small to medium-sized tree endemic to eastern Australia. It has thick, fibrous bark on the trunk and larger branches, lance-shaped adult leaves, flower buds in groups of seven, white flowers and hemispherical or conical fruit. Eucalyptus nova-anglica is a tree that grows to a height of 15 mm and forms a lignotuber, it has thick, fissured, fibrous bark on the trunk and larger branches. Young plants and coppice regrowth have glaucous, sessile heart-shaped to more or less round leaves arranged in opposite pairs, 40–60 mm long and 35–65 mm wide. Adult leaves are arranged alternately, the same green to bluish green colour on both sides, lance-shaped, 90–190 mm long and 12–25 mm wide on a petiole 15–35 mm long; the flower buds are arranged in groups of seven in leaf axils on a peduncle 5–10 mm long, the individual buds on a pedicel 1–3 mm long. Mature buds are 4 -- 5 mm long and 2 -- 4 mm wide with a conical operculum.

Flowering occurs between February and May and the flowers are white. The fruit is a woody, conical or hemispherical capsule 3–4 mm long and 3–6 mm wide on a pedicel up to 2 mm long. Eucalyptus nova-anglica was first formally described in 1899 by Henry Deane and Joseph Maiden who published the description in Proceedings of the Linnean Society of New South Wales; the specific epithet refers to this species' occurrence in the New England area of New South Wales. New England peppermint grows in woodland and cold, swampy flats between Stanthorpe in far southeastern Queensland to near Nowendoc in New South Wales