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1838 Mormon War

The 1838 Mormon War known as the Missouri Mormon War, was a conflict between Mormons and non-Mormons in Missouri from August to November 1838, the first of the three "Mormon Wars". Members of the Latter Day Saint movement, founded by Joseph Smith, had migrated from New York to northwestern Missouri since 1831 settling in Jackson County, where tensions with non-Mormon residents led to episodes of anti-Mormon violence; the Mormons were evicted from Jackson County in 1833 and resettled in new counties nearby, where tensions grew again and attempts to evict them resumed. On August 6, 1838, the war began following a brawl at an election in Gallatin, resulting in increased organized violence between Mormons and non-Mormons backed by the Missouri Volunteer Militia in northwestern Missouri; the Battle of Crooked River in late October led to Lilburn Boggs, the Governor of Missouri, issuing the Missouri Executive Order 44 ordering the Mormons to leave Missouri or be killed. On November 1, 1838, Smith surrendered at the church's headquarters, ending the war.

Smith was charged for treason but escaped in custody and fled to Illinois with the remainder of the estimated 10,000 Missouri Mormons, establishing the new settlement of Nauvoo. During the conflict 22 people were killed and an unknown number of non-combatants died due to exposure and hardship as a result of being expelled from their homes in Missouri. All of the conflicts in the Mormon War occurred in a corridor 100 miles to the east and northeast of Kansas City. Shortly after what Mormons consider to be the restoration of the gospel in 1830, Smith stated he had received a revelation that the Second Coming of Christ was near, that the City of Zion would be near the town of Independence in Jackson County and that his followers were destined to inherit the land held by the current settlers. If ye are faithful, ye shall assemble yourselves together to rejoice upon the land of Missouri, the land of your inheritance, now the land of your enemies. Smith's followers known as Mormons, began to settle in Jackson County in 1831 to "build up" the city of Zion.

Tensions built up between the growing Mormon community and the earlier settlers for a number of reasons: They believed—after a revelation recorded on June 6, 1831—that if they were righteous they would inherit the land held by others in Missouri. Their economic cohesion allowed the Mormons to dominate local economies, they believed that the Native Americans were descendants of Israelites, proselytized among them extensively. Most Mormon immigrants to Missouri came from areas; these tensions led to mob violence against the Mormon settlers. In October 1833, anti-Mormon mobs drove the Mormons from Jackson County. At that time, opponents of the Mormons used a pattern that would be repeated four times, culminating in the expulsion of the Mormons from the entire state. Lilburn Boggs, as a Jackson county resident, as Lieutenant Governor, was in a position to observe and assist in executing the tactics described by one Mormon historian: In 1833 Boggs passively saw community leaders and officials sign demands for Mormon withdrawal, next force a gunbarrel contract to abandon the county before spring planting...anti-Mormon goals were reached in a few simple stages.

Executive paralysis permitted terrorism, which forced Mormons to self-defense, labeled as an "insurrection", was put down by the activated militia of the county. Once Latter-day Saints were disarmed, mounted squads visited Mormon settlements with threats and enough beatings and destruction of homes to force flight. Forcefully deprived of their homes and property, the Latter-day Saints temporarily settled in the area around Jackson County in Clay County. Mormon petitions and lawsuits failed to bring any satisfaction: the non-Mormons in Jackson refused to allow the Mormons to return and reimbursement for confiscated and damaged property was refused. In 1834, Mormons attempted to effect a return to Jackson County with a quasi-military expedition known as Zion's Camp, but this effort failed when the governor failed to provide the expected support. New converts to Mormonism continued to settle in Clay County. Tensions rose in Clay County. In an effort to keep the peace, Alexander William Doniphan of Clay County pushed a law through the Missouri legislature that created Caldwell County, Missouri for Mormon settlement in 1836.

Mormons had begun buying land in the proposed Caldwell County, including areas that were carved off to become parts of Ray and Daviess Counties. They had founded the Caldwell County town of Far West as their Missouri headquarters. Once they were established in a county of their own, a period of relative peace ensued. According to an article in the Elders' Journal – a Latter Day Saint newspaper published in Far West – "The Saints here are at perfect peace with all the surrounding inhabitants, persecution is not so much as once named among them..."John Corrill, one of the Mormon leaders, remembered: Friendship began to be restored between and their neighbors, the old prejudices were fast dying away, they were doing well, until the summer of 1838 In 1837, problems at the church's headquarters in Kirtland, centering on the Kirtland Safety Society bank, led to schism. The church relocated from Kirtland to Far West. Mormon settlement increased as hundreds of members from


Transculturation is a term coined by Cuban anthropologist Fernando Ortiz in 1940 to describe the phenomenon of merging and converging cultures. Transculturation encompasses more than transition from one culture to another. Rather, it merges these concepts and instead carries the idea of the consequent creation of new cultural phenomena in which the blending of cultures is understood as producing something new. Although transculturation is somewhat inevitable, cultural hegemony has shaped this process. Ortiz referred to the devastating effects of Spanish colonialism on Cuba's indigenous peoples as a "failed transculturation". Further, he affirmed "that when cultures encounter each other, each of the parties invariably exerts a strong influence on the other." Transculturation is the result of colonial conquest and subjugation. In a postcolonial era, the effects of this oppression remain, as native peoples struggle to regain their own sense of identity. On the other hand, new musical genres have emerged as a result of transculturation.

In reference to Cuba in particular, there exists a mixture between European and African musics as "African slaves left a major imprint on Cuban society in the area of Cuban popular music."Where transculturation affects ethnicity and ethnic issues, the term "ethnoconvergence" is sometimes used. In a general sense, transculturation covers war, ethnic conflict, multiculturalism, cross-culturalism, interracial marriage, any other of a number of contexts that deal with more than one culture. In the other general sense, transculturation is one aspect of human events; the general processes of transculturation are complex—steered by powerful forces at the macrosocial level, yet resolved at the interpersonal level. The driving force for conflict is simple proximity—boundaries, once separating people become the issue of a conflict when societies encroach upon one another territorially. If a means to co-exist cannot be found conflicts can be hostile, leading to a process by which contact between individuals leads to some resolution.

History shows us, the processes of co-existence begins with hostilities, with the natural passing of polarist individuals, comes the passing of their polarist sentiments, soon some resolution is achieved. Degrees of hostile conflict vary from outright genocidal conquest, to lukewarm infighting between differing political views within the same ethnic community; these changes represent differences between homeland pons, their diasporic communities abroad. Obstacles to ethnoconvergence are not great; the primary issue, can be overcome within a single generation—as is evident in the easy acclimation of children of foreign parents. English, for example, is spoken by more non-Anglo-American people than by Anglo-Americans, it has become the worldwide de facto standard international language. Processes of transculturation become more complex within the context of globalization, given the multiple layers of abstraction that permeate everyday experiences. Elizabeth Kath argues that in the global era we can no longer consider transculturation only in relation to the face-to-face, but that we need to take into account the many layers of abstracted interactions that are interwoven through face-to-face encounters, a phenomenon that she describes as layers of transculturation.

Kath draws upon the concept of constitutive abstraction as seen in the work of Australian social theorists Geoff Sharp and Paul James. It has been observed that in monolingual, industrial societies like urban North America, some individuals do cling to a "modernized" primordial identity, apart from others; some intellectuals, such as Michael Ignatieff, argue that convergence of a general culture does not directly entail a similar convergence in ethnic identities. This can become evident in social situations, where people divide into separate groups, despite being of an identical "super-ethnicity", such as nationality. Within each smaller ethnicity, individuals may tend to see it justified to assimilate with other cultures, some others view assimilation as wrong and incorrect for their culture; this common theme, representing dualist opinions of ethnoconvergence itself, within a single ethnic group is manifested in issues of sexual partners and marriage, employment preferences, etc. These varied opinions of ethnoconvergence represent themselves in a spectrum.

It's in a secular, multi-ethnic environment that cultural concerns are both minimised and exacerbated. The elderly, more conservative-in-association of a clan, tend to reject cross-cultural associations, participate in ethnically similar community-oriented activities. Xenophobes tend to think of cross-cultural contact as a component of assimilation, see this as harmful; the obstacle to ethnoconvergence is ethnocentrism, the view that one's culture is of greater importance than another's. Ethnocentrism takes different forms, as it is a personal bias, manifests itself in countless aspects of culture. Religion, or belief, is the prime ethnocentric divider. Second is custo

Gleaning (birds)

Gleaning is a feeding strategy by birds in which they catch invertebrate prey arthropods, by plucking them from foliage or the ground, from crevices such as rock faces and under the eaves of houses, or as in the case of ticks and lice, from living animals. This behavior is contrasted with hawking insects from the air or chasing after moving insects such as ants. Gleaning, in birds, does not refer to foraging for seeds or fruit. Gleaning is a common feeding strategy for some groups of birds, including nuthatches, wrens, treecreepers, Old World flycatchers, Tyrant flycatchers, Old World warblers, New World warblers and some hummingbirds and cuckoos. Many birds make use of multiple feeding strategies, depending on the availability of different sources of food and opportunities of the moment. Foliage gleaning, the strategy of gleaning over the leaves and branches of trees and shrubs, can involve a variety of styles and maneuvers; some birds, such as the common chiffchaff of Eurasia and the Wilson's warbler of North America and appear energetic.

Some will hover in the air near a leaf or twig while gleaning from it. Other birds are more methodical in their approach to gleaning seeming lethargic as they perch upon and deliberately pick over foliage; this behavior is characteristic of many vireos. Another tactic is to hang upside-down from the tips of branches to glean the undersides of leaves. Tits such as the familiar black-capped chickadee are observed feeding in this manner; some birds, like the ruby-crowned kinglet and red-eyed vireo of North America use a combination of these tactics. Gleaning birds are small with compact bodies and have small pointed bills; these features are seen in gleaning birds that are not related. For example, in flycatchers of the family Tyrannidae, in which some member species are more adapted for hawking insects on the wing and others for gleaning, the gleaners have bills that resemble those of tits and warblers, unlike their larger-billed relatives; some members of the woodpecker family piculets such as the rufous piculet of Southeast Asia, are adapted for gleaning, with small, compact bodies and sharp bills, rather than the long, supportive tails and wedge-shaped bills more typical of woodpeckers.

Birds such as the aforementioned piculet are specialized for gleaning the bark of trees, as are nuthatches and treecreepers. Most bark-gleaners work their way up tree trunks or along branches, though nuthatches are well known as the birds that can go the opposite direction, facing down and working their way down the trunk, as well; this requires strong legs and feet on the part of the nuthatch and piculet, while birds that face upwards tend to have stiff tail feathers to prop them up. Birds specialize in a particular niche, such as a particular stratum of forest or type of vegetation. In South and Southeast Asia, for example, the mountain tailorbird is found gleaning in thickets and stands of bamboo, Abbott's babbler gleans lower-storey foliage in lowland forest, the rufous-chested flycatcher and brown fulvetta are birds of the mid-storey forest, the yellow-breasted warbler gleans in the mid- to upper-storey, the greater green leafbird specializes in the upper-storey forest; the Javan white-eye is a bird of coastal scrub and mangroves, while the related black-capped white-eye is restricted to montane forest.

Further specialization within a habitat is associated with morphological adaptations. Tiny birds are lightweight enough to pluck small prey; the related common firecrest is similar in size and shape, but bulkier, has less of a tendency to glean along twigs and more of a habit of flying from perch to perch. Having a small bill seems to be good for taking tiny prey from the surfaces of leaves, small-billed birds such as the blue tit forage in broad-leafed woodlands; the long-billed gnatwren and speckled spinetail of Central and South America, the ashy tailorbird and striped tit-babbler of South Asia, show a preference for gleaning in tangles of vines. The ash-browed spinetail of South America specializes in gleaning among epiphytes on moss-covered tree branches. Many hummingbirds take small insects from flowers while probing for nectar, some species glean among bark and leaves; the Puerto Rican emerald is one such hummingbird. Found only on the island of Puerto Rico, the female subsists on insects and spiders, while the male has a typical hummingbird diet of nectar.

Hummingbirds and other gleaners are sometimes attracted to the sap wells created by sapsuckers. Sapsuckers, which are in the woodpecker family, drill small holes in living tree branches to get the sap flowing; the sap and the insects it attracts are consumed, rufous hummingbirds have been observed to follow the movements of sapsuckers and take advantage of this food source. Clusters of dead leaves often harbor invertebrate prey, the Bewick's wren and worm-eating warbler of North America have long bills well-suited for probing them, as do certain Asian babblers, such as the rusty-cheeked scimitar-babbler. In Central and South America, foliage-gleaners such as the red-faced spinetail and buff-throated foliage-gleaner are examples of birds that glean clusters of dead leaves. Crevice-gleaning is a niche particular to rocky habitats. Adaptations for crevice-gleaning are similar to that of bark-gleaning. Just as the Bewick's wren, as mentioned in the preceding paragr

The Bishop's Heir

The Bishop's Heir is a fantasy novel by American-born author Katherine Kurtz. It was first published by Del Rey Books in 1984, it was the seventh of Kurtz' Deryni novels to be published, the first book in her third Deryni trilogy, The Histories of King Kelson. Although The Legends of Camber of Culdi trilogy was published prior to the Histories trilogy, The Bishop's Heir is a direct sequel to Kurtz' first Deryni series, The Chronicles of the Deryni; the novel is set in the land of one of the fictional Eleven Kingdoms. Gwynedd itself is a medieval kingdom similar to the British Isles of the 12th century, with a powerful Holy Church, a feudal government ruled by a hereditary monarchy; the population of Gwynedd includes both humans and Deryni, a race of people with inherent physic and magical abilities who have been brutally persecuted and suppressed for over two centuries. The novel begins over two years after the conclusion of High Deryni, shortly after the seventeenth birthday of King Kelson Haldane.

As a recurring political rivalry threatens to erupt into open rebellion, Kelson must face a dangerous combination of new and old foes who rise up against him. The Bishop's Heir details the events of a period of time lasting a month and a half, beginning in late November 1123 and ending in early January 1124; the novel begins as the Curia of Bishops meets in Culdi to choose the successor to the deceased Bishop of Meara. The selection of the next bishop is a delicate matter, as the Mearans have made several attempts to secede from Gwynedd over the past century. King Kelson Haldane addresses the assembled clerics departs to make a survey of the local barons. Shortly thereafter, Kelson is reunited with Lord Dhugal MacArdry, an old friend who he has not seen since before his coronation, the king decides to visit Dhugal's father, Earl Caulay MacArdry of Transha. While visiting Transha, Kelson learns more about the Mearan Pretender. Descended from the ancient line of Mearan rules, Caitrin is determined to establish herself as queen of a free and independent Meara, a land, ruled by Gwynedd for over a century.

However, Kelson is forced to return to Culdi after Duke Alaric Morgan contacts him and informs him that Duncan McLain has been attacked and wounded. Upon returning to Culdi, Kelson acknowledges the election of Bishop Henry Istelyn, chosen as the new Bishop of Meara. Shortly after Kelson returns to his capital of Rhemuth, Dhugal is captured while attempting to stop the escape of Edmund Loris, the former Archbishop of Valoret, imprisoned for his past treason. Loris takes Dhugal to the Mearan city of Ratharkin, where he places both Dhugal and Istelyn in confinement; when the news of Loris' escape and Dhugal's capture reaches Kelson, the king decides to make a daring winter raid on Ratharkin. Caitrin arrives in Ratharkin, accompanied by her children and her husband, Dhugal's uncle Sicard MacArdry. Although Istelyn refuses to assist Loris and Caitrin in their treason, Dhugal pretends to agree, hoping to find a way to warn Kelson, he manages to escape Ratharkin, taking his cousin Sidana prisoner as he flees.

Dhugal is rescued by Kelson's approaching forces, Sidana's younger brother, Llewell, is captured. Kelson gives Sicard until Christmas to surrender Loris returns to Rhemuth with Caitrin's two youngest children as hostages. Upon returning to Rhemuth, Kelson bows to the pressure of his advisors and agrees to marry Sidana if her mother refuses to surrender, hoping to avert open rebellion by joining the two royal lines. A short time when Duncan is consecrated a bishop, the power of the ceremony nearly overwhelms Dhugal, who possesses mental shields that no human should have; when Christmas arrives, Caitrin's messenger brings Istelyn's severed head to court defying the orders of the king. Although reluctant to marry a girl he knows and, raised to hate him, Kelson follows through on his promise and asks Sidana to marry him. Sidana reluctantly agrees, but Llewell is furious at the possibility of his sister marrying his enemy. Two weeks of preparations ensue, during which time both Kelson and Sidana try to adjust to the realities of their approaching nuptials.

On the morning of the wedding, Duncan recognizes a cloak clasp that Dhugal is wearing, the same clasp that Duncan gave his wife many years ago. Duncan tells the tale of his unusual marriage to Dhugal's mother, Morgan uses his powers to confirm that Duncan is Dhugal's natural father. Realizing that he is part-Deryni, Dhugal is able to lower his shields, father and son exchange memories of their lives during their time apart. A short time Kelson and Sidana ride through Rhemuth to the castle, where the entire court waits to witness the marriage of their king and their new queen. Kelson and Sidana exchange their vows as man and wife, but the ceremony is interrupted when Llewell slashes his sister's throat, making a final desperate attempt to prevent the wedding. Morgan and Duncan frantically try to save Sidana, but she dies instantly. Stunned and horrified, Kelson hold the body of his dead bride and weep. King Kelson Haldane: King of Gwynedd Duke Alaric Morgan: Duke of Corwyn, Lord General of the Royal Armies, King's Champion Monsignor Duncan McLain: Duke of Cassan, Earl of Kierney, King's Confessor Lord Dhugal MacArdry: Master of Transha and Tanist of Clan MacArdry Prince Nigel Haldane: Prince of Gwynedd, Duke of Carthmoor, uncle of King Kelson Archbishop Bradene: Archbishop of Valoret and Primate of All Gwynedd Archbishop Thomas Cardiel: Archbishop of Rhemuth Bishop Denis Arilan: Bishop of Dhassa and member of th

Gilbert Ramano

Lieutenant General Gilbert Lebeko Ramano is a South African military commander. Ramano was born in Sophiatown, he completed his schooling at Madibane High School and worked as a senior clerk at the WNLA mines depot in Johannesburg from 1961 to 62. He left South Africa in 1962 to join the armed wing of the African National Congress, Umkhonto weSizwe, he attended a number of military courses in Tanzania and the Soviet Union, including a Soviet Army Staff Course in 1971. He returned to South Africa in 1992 and attended the Zimbabwe Army Staff Course in 1994. In 1995, he attended the SANDF Joint Staff Course and was appointed General Officer Commanding Northern Cape Command in July of that year. In May 1997 he was appointed Deputy Chief of the Army and on 1 July 1998 he was promoted to lieutenant-general and appointed Chief of the Army. In 1999, Lt General Ramano was awarded the Order of the Star of South Africa His awards include the following: Star of South Africa, Silver Southern Cross Decoration Merit Medal in Silver Military Merit Medal Merit Medal in Bronze Operational Medal for Southern Africa South Africa Service Medal Unitas Medal Medal for Distinguished Conduct and Loyal Service Service Medal in Gold Service Medal in Silver Service Medal in Bronze Legion of Merit Order of Military Merit List of South African military chiefs


Bakhmach is a city located in Chernihiv Oblast, in northern Ukraine. It is the administrative center of Bakhmach Raion. Population: 18,552 . Bakhmach was first mentioned in 1147 in the Hypatian Codex. Rapid development began in the 1860s and 1870s when the Libau–Romny Railway line nearby was under construction; the Battle of Bakhmach was fought between the Czech legion in Russia and German forces occupying Ukraine. Following a Legion victory the Germans negotiated a truce. In January 1919, the city was the site of battles between the invading Bolsheviks forces and the Chornomorska Division, attempting to keep the Left-bank Ukraine under the control of the army of the Ukrainian National Republic. During World War II, Bakhmach was under German occupation from 13 September 1941 and was liberated 9 September 1943 by the 75th Guards Rifle Division. An ethnographer explains the name of the city:"The word Bahmach belongs to the ancient Turkish words that were used in Ukraine before the invasion. "Bahmach" in Turkish means "plantations", it indicates that there was at the end of the first millennium BC in Kyiv and Chernihiv areas of Turkish people from the Turk hordes, which whom called the land their settlement " However, the most authoritative historian of the city Bahmach Vladimir Stepanovich Yevfymovskyy indicates that the settlement is based on the Bahmach River, thus originated in an agriculture tradition.

The old city defense is one of the oldest settlements in the East. First mentioned in 1147 in "The Tale of Bygone Years" from the Hypatian Codex, belonged to the Chernigov principality, but soon was destroyed along with the cities Vyvolozh, White Tower, Unizh during the feudal strife between the princes Olegovichy Chernihiv and Mstislavovich Kyiv. In the first half of the 17th century on the site of the ancient city of Bahmach was reborn with the same name. In 1648, during the war under the direction of B. Khmelnitsky, residents of Bahmach were formed as part of a Chernigov Sotnia Regiment thus making the town a "Sotnia town"; some of the famous Sotnia Captains from Bahkmach: Bilotserkivets Panko Omelyanovych Pavlo S. Tishchenko Hrodetskyy John S. Pavlo S. Tishchenko Hrodetskyy John S. Paschenko Jacob Bilotserkivets Michael Omelyanovych Biliak Theodore L. R. Stephen Sawicki Samiylo Bahkmach and neighboring Holinska Sotnia were a sort of guard for Hetman Ivan Mazepa, who were committed to their captains, supported his union with Sweden - against Moscow's destroyers and usurpers Baturin.

At the end of the 17th - beginning of the 18th century near Bahmach, Mazepa "sponsored" the construction of the palace park plantation VI. This country residence stayed long "Secret Friend Hetman, inconvenient to show to others." This brought Philip Orlik Jesuit Zelensky with the versatile Polish king. In October 1708 Mazepa sent from the palace to Charles XII Bystrytsky a statement: "Come to Bakhmach yourself and publicly swear on the Gospel..., not for the own private profit, but for the common good of the whole of the motherland and the troops will give the patronage to the King of Sweden." Since 1781 Bahmach - was a township of Konotop raion within the Chernigov Oblast. Bahkmach gain official status as a city in 1938; the Great street In the 19th century. Bahmach was known "chumak" corporations that kept trade of Crimean salt and Cherkassy fish on the market; as of 1866 in the town and the Konotopsky raion within the Chernigov oblast lived 5270 people, there were 601 farm yard, there were two Orthodox churches, rural court, there were bazaars and fair.

Bahmach's rapid development began after the completion of the 1869 Kursk-Kiev and Libau-Romny railways. The station was built and the village railway, which marked the beginning of the modern city; as of 1885 the former state and proprietary village Bahkmach raion lived 4741 person, there were 888 yard farms, there were three Orthodox churches, 2 schools, post office, inn, 10 stood houses, windmill and annual fairs. In the 1897 census the number of inhabitants rose to 6844 people, of which 6623 - the Orthodox faith. Railway settlements existed in isolation: the station Kiev-Voronezh railway: the 1897 census the number of inhabitants was 839 persons, of which 617 - the Orthodox Faith, 170 - Jewish the station Libau-Romny railroads: the 1897 census the number of residents was 1,047 persons, of which 624 - the Orthodox Faith, 321 - JewishIn 1892 opened the Zemstvo school for children of railway workers. In Bahkmach a steam mill began operation in 1894, a distillery in 1894. In 1903 and 1905 railroad strike occurred.

November 10, 1917 was an attempt to declare Bahmach a Communist government. The military command of the Central Council resumed and Ukrainian authorities took control of the important railway point. Headquarters units of the Bakhmatsk Blue division of the UNR located themselves in Seven local school. January 15, 1918 troops from Moscow and the Petrograd Bolsheviks with the Red Cossacks regiment broke into Bakhmach with significant troops and captured the Central Council and railway junction. Bakhmach has a local history and geography museum, eight libraries, a central Raion administrative building, three health centers, a culture club, more; the city has three railway stations: Bakhm