The 1840 United States presidential election was the 14th quadrennial presidential election, held from Friday, October 30 to Wednesday, December 2, 1840. Economic recovery from the Panic of 1837 was incomplete, Whig nominee William Henry Harrison defeated incumbent President Martin Van Buren of the Democratic Party; the election marked the first of two Whig victories in presidential elections. In 1839, the Whigs held a national convention for the first time; the 1839 Whig National Convention saw 1836 nominee William Henry Harrison defeat former Secretary of State Henry Clay and General Winfield Scott. Van Buren faced little opposition at the 1840 Democratic National Convention, but controversial Vice President Richard Mentor Johnson was not re-nominated; the Democrats thus became the only major party since the passage of the Twelfth Amendment to fail to select a vice presidential nominee. Referencing vice presidential nominee John Tyler and Harrison's participation in the Battle of Tippecanoe, the Whigs campaigned on the slogan of "Tippecanoe and Tyler Too."
With Van Buren weakened by economic woes, Harrison won a popular majority and 234 of 294 electoral votes. Voter participation surged as white manhood suffrage became nearly universal, a contemporary record of 42.4% of the voting age population voted for Harrison. Van Buren's loss made him the third president to lose re-election; the Whigs did not enjoy the benefits of victory. The 67-year-old Harrison was the oldest U. S. president elected. Harrison died a little more than a month after inauguration. Harrison was succeeded by John Tyler. While Tyler had been a staunch supporter of Clay at the convention, he was a former Democrat, a passionate supporter of states' rights, an independent; as President, Tyler was expelled from the Whig Party. Three years after Democrat Martin Van Buren was elected President in the election of 1836 over three Whig candidates, the Whigs met in national convention determined to unite behind a single candidate; the convention was chaired by Isaac C. Bates of Massachusetts and James Barbour of Virginia presided over the convention.
The party nominated the popular retired general William Henry Harrison of Ohio for President, the most successful of the three Whig presidential candidates from the previous election. Harrison won a close victory on the convention's fifth ballot against party founder Henry Clay and General Winfield Scott. Harrison, though a aristocrat, was perceived as being simple and a commoner; the convention nominated former Senator John Tyler from Virginia for Vice President. The two would go on to win the 1840 presidential election by defeating Van Buren; because Harrison was considered a Northerner, the Whigs needed to balance the ticket with a Southerner. They sought a Clay supporter to help unite the party after Clay's loss on the balloting. Tyler was chosen by the convention after several Southern Clay supporters had been approached but refused. Tyler had been the running-mate of Hugh Lawson White and Willie Person Mangum during the four-way Whig campaign at the previous election. Van Buren, the incumbent president, was re-nominated in Baltimore in May 1840.
While the party refused to re-nominate the incumbent vice president, Richard M. Johnson, they were unable to agree on an alternative, decided not to nominate anyone; this is the only time since the passage of the 12th Amendment in 1804 that a major party has failed to do so. In the electoral college, the Democratic vice-presidential votes were divided among Johnson, Littleton W. Tazewell, James K. Polk. After the negative views of Freemasonry among a large segment of the public began to wane in the mid 1830s, the Anti-Masonic Party had begun to disintegrate, its leaders began to move one by one to the Whig party. Party leaders met in September 1837 in Washington, D. C. and agreed to maintain the party. The third Anti-Masonic Party National Convention was held in Philadelphia on November 13-14, 1838. By this time, the party had been entirely supplanted by the Whigs; the delegates unanimously voted to nominate William Henry Harrison for president and Daniel Webster for Vice President. However, when the Whig National Convention nominated Harrison with John Tyler as his running mate, the Anti-Masonic Party did not make an alternate nomination and ceased to function and was absorbed into the Whigs by 1840.
The Liberty Party was announced in November 1839, first gathered in Warsaw, New York. Its first national convention took place in Arcade on April 1, 1840; the Liberty Party nominated James G. Birney, a Kentuckian, former slaveholder, prominent abolitionist, for President while Thomas Earle of Pennsylvania was selected as his running mate. In the wake of the Panic of 1837, Van Buren was unpopular, Harrison, following Andrew Jackson's strategy, ran as a war hero and man of the people while presenting Van Buren as a wealthy snob living in luxury at the public expense. Although Harrison was comfortably wealthy and well educated, his "log cabin" image caught fire, sweeping all sections of the country. Harrison avoided campaigning on the issues, with his Whig Party attracting a broad coalition with few common ideals; the Whig strategy overall was to win the election by avoiding discussion of difficult national issues such as slavery or the national bank and concentrate instead on exploiting dissatisfaction over the failed policies of the Van Buren administration with colorful campaigning techniques.
Harrison was the first president to campaign actively
Super Blue is a 1978 album by jazz musician Freddie Hubbard. It was released on the Columbia label and peaked at #6 on the Billboard Charts; the album features performances by Hubbard, Hubert Laws, Joe Henderson and Kenny Barron with George Benson guesting on one track. In 2007 the album was rereleased on the Mosaic Contemporary label with three alternate takes. "Super Blue" - 7:50 "To Her Ladyship" - 6:01 "Take It To The Ozone" - 7:01 "The Gospel Truth" - 4:59 "The Surest Things Can Change" - 6:20 "Theme For Kareem" - 6:07 "Super Blue" - 10:36 Bonus track on 2007 CD reissue "Take It To The Ozone" - 6:56 Bonus track on 2007 CD reissue "Theme For Kareem" - 6:44 Bonus track on 2007 CD reissueAll compositions by Freddie Hubbard except as indicated Recorded at CBS Recording Studios, New York, on March 30, 31 & April 1, 4, 1978 by Don Puluse Freddie Hubbard - trumpet and flugelhorn Hubert Laws - flutes Joe Henderson - tenor sax Ron Carter - bass Jack DeJohnette - drums Kenny Barron - keyboards George Benson - guitar Dale Oehler - keyboards
Turstin fitz Rolf known as Turstin le Blanc and Turstin fitz Rou played a prominent role in the Norman conquest of England and is regarded as one of the few proven companions of William the Conqueror at the Battle of Hastings in 1066. He appears to have originated from Bec-de-Mortagne, Pays de Caux, Normandy, As the prefix fitz indicates, Turstin was the son of a man called Rolf or Rou, names that are synonymous with their latinized equivalent Rollo; the given name Turstin originated in the Old Norse Þórstæinn and is sometimes spelt Tosteins, Thurstan and similar variants. Turstin appears to have originated in Bec-de-Mortagne, Pays-de-Caux, about five miles south-east of Fécamp, according to the Roman de Rou poem written by Wace: Tosteins fitz Rou-le-Blanc out non, Al Bec en Caux aveit meison Orderic Vitalis wrote, sometime after 1110, “Turstinus filius Rollonis vexillum Normannorum portavit” Wace wrote in his cronicle Roman de Rou as follows: Then the Duke called for the standard which the Pope had sent him, and, he who bore it having unfolded it, the Duke took it and called to Raoul de Conches.
"Bear my standard" said he "for I do you right. But Raoul said that he would serve the Duke that day in other guise, would fight the English with his hand as long as life should last; the Duke bade Walter Giffard bear the standard. But he was old and white-headed, bade the Duke give the standard to some younger and stronger man to carry; the Duke said fiercely, “by the splendour of God, my lords, I think you mean to betray and fail me in this great need”. Giffard replied “Sire, not so! We have done no treason, nor do I refuse from any felony toward you. Never had I such good means of serving you as I now have. "By my faith” quoth the Duke, “I always loved thee, now I love thee more. He called out a knight, whom he had heard much praised, Tosteins Fitz-Rou le Blanc by name, whose abode was at Bec-en-Caux. To him he delivered the standard, Tosteins took it right cheerfully, bowed low to him in thanks, bore it gallantly and with good heart, his kindred still have quittance of all service for their inheritance on this account, their heirs are entitled so to hold their inheritance forever.
It is thought by some that Turstin is depicted on the Bayeux Tapestry as standard bearer, yet the mounted knight so depicted is more to be Eustace II, Count of Boulogne, due to the embroidered annotation above E... TIUS a Latinised form of Eustace; the figure is shown in conversation with Duke William, points to the rear, urging a retreat, as he is recorded as having done by William of Poitiers: "With a harsh voice he called to Eustace of Boulogne, who with 50 knights was turning in flight and was about to give the signal for retreat. This man came up to the Duke and said in his ear that he ought to retire since he would court death if he went forward, but at the moment when he uttered the words Eustace was struck between the shoulders with such force that blood gushed out from his mouth and nose and half dead he only made his escape with the aid of his followers". Yet the matter is not certain as William of Poitiers does not mention Eustace as having been a standard bearer, whilst the figure otherwise so convincingly Eustace in the Tapestry is holding what appears to be the papal banner, depicting a cross.
Turstin was recorded in the Domesday Book of 1086 as holding many manors, many of them grants for loyal service to William of Normandy. He appears to have been the first holder of the extensive Barony of North Cadbury, which included several manors in nearby counties. In particular, the Domesday Book of 1086 recorded Turstin holding a small colony of eight carucates of land in the jurisdiction of Caerleon just within the welsh Lordship of Gwynllwg held by Owain ap Caradog, son of Caradog ap Gruffydd and ancestor of the welsh Lords of Caerleon. Caerleon Castle was a Motte and Bailey Norman-style castle erected by the Welsh lords and/or Norman invaders on the western bank of the River Usk at the edge of the site of a Roman castle known as Ischia, which formed the southern end of the early western border of England with Wales. There were one plough within the demesne lands. Listed on the manor were three Welshmen with as many ploughs and carucates, who continued their Welsh customs; the manor was valued at 40 shillings.
Turstin did not hold the land directly from the king, but from William de Scohies, a magnate of unknown antecedents with lands in Hereford and the Marches, Norfolk and in several other counties. Caerleon itself changed hands frequently. Turstin held some property in Chepstow, just east of Caerleon, the important crossing to Aust in Gloucestershire on the opposite east bank of the River Severn estuary. Gloucestershire Alvington, Gloucestershire Ampney Crucis, Gloucestershire. There were 2 other holdings
Neonatal sepsis is a type of neonatal infection and refers to the presence in a newborn baby of a bacterial blood stream infection in the setting of fever. Older textbooks may refer to neonatal sepsis as "sepsis neonatorum". Criteria with regards to hemodynamic compromise or respiratory failure are not useful clinically because these symptoms do not arise in neonates until death is imminent and unpreventable. Neonatal sepsis is divided into two categories: late-onset sepsis. EOS refers to sepsis presenting in the first 7 days of life, with LOS referring to presentation of sepsis after 7 days. Neonatal sepsis is the single most common cause of neonatal death in hospital as well as community in developing country, it is difficult to clinically exclude sepsis in newborns less than 90 days old that have fever (defined as a temperature > 38 °C. Except in the case of obvious acute viral bronchiolitis, the current practice in newborns less than 30 days old is to perform a complete workup including complete blood count with differential, blood culture, urine culture, cerebrospinal fluid studies and CSF culture, admit the newborn to the hospital, treat empirically for serious bacterial infection for at least 48 hours until cultures are demonstrated to show no growth.
Attempts have been made to see whether it is possible to risk stratify newborns in order to decide if a newborn can be safely monitored at home without treatment despite having a fever. One such attempt is the Rochester criteria; the signs of sepsis are non-specific and include: Body temperature changes Breathing problems Diarrhea Low blood sugar Reduced movements Reduced sucking Seizures Bradycardia Swollen belly area Vomiting Yellow skin and whites of the eyes. Hemorrhagic rashA heart rate above 160 can be an indicator of sepsis, this tachycardia can present up to 24 hours before the onset of other signs. A study performed at Strong Memorial Hospital in Rochester, New York, showed that infants ≤ 60 days old meeting the following criteria were at low-risk for having a serious bacterial illness: well-appearing healthy full term no antibiotics perinatally no unexplained hyperbilirubinemia that required treatment no antibiotics since discharge no hospitalizations no chronic illness discharged at the same time or before the mother no evidence of skin, soft tissue, joint, or ear infection White blood cells count 5,000-15,000/mm3 absolute band count ≤ 1,500/mm3 urine WBC count ≤ 10 per high power field stool WBC count ≤ 5 per high power field only in infants with diarrheaThose meeting these criteria do not require a lumbar puncture, are felt to be safe for discharge home without antibiotic treatment, or with a single dose of intramuscular antibiotics, but will still require close outpatient follow-up.
One risk for Group B streptococcal infection is Preterm rupture of membranes. Screening women for GBS and treating culture positive women with intrapartum chemoprophylaxis is reducing the number of neonatal sepsis caused by GBS. Neonatal sepsis screening: DLC showing increased numbers of polymorphs. DLC: band cells > 20%. Increased haptoglobins. Micro ESR titer > 15mm. Gastric aspirate showing > 5 polymorphs per high power field. Newborn CSF screen: showing increased cells and proteins. Suggestive history of chorioamnionitis, PROM, etc... Culturing for microorganisms from a sample of CSF, blood or urine, is the gold standard test for definitive diagnosis of neonatal sepsis; this can give false negatives due to the low sensitivity of culture methods and because of concomitant antibiotic therapy. Lumbar punctures should be done when possible as 10-15% presenting with sepsis have meningitis, which warrants an antibiotic with a high CSF penetration. CRP is not accurate in picking up cases. Note that, in neonates, sepsis is difficult to diagnose clinically.
They may be asymptomatic until hemodynamic and respiratory collapse is imminent, so, if there is a remote suspicion of sepsis, they are treated with antibiotics empirically until cultures are sufficiently proven to be negative. In addition to fluid resuscitation and supportive care, a common antibiotic regimen in infants with suspected sepsis is a beta-lactam antibiotic in combination with an aminoglycoside or a third-generation cephalosporin The organisms which are targeted are species that predominate in the female genitourinary tract and to which neonates are vulnerable to Group B Streptococcus, Escherichia coli, Listeria monocytogenes Of course, neonates are vulnerable to other common pathogens that can cause meningitis and bacteremia such as Streptococcus pneumoniae and Neisseria meningitidis. Although uncommon, if anaerobic species are suspected (such as in cases where necrotizing enterocolitis or intestinal perforation is a concern, clindamycin is added. Granulocyte-macrophage colony stimulating factor is sometimes used in neonatal sepsis.
However, a 2009 study found that GM-CSF corrects neutropenia if present but it has no effect on reducing sepsis or improving survival. Since the 1990s early-onset sepsis has declined because of screening of
Leopoldo Batres was a pioneer of the archaeology of Mexico. He worked as an anthropologist and archaeologist for the Museo Nacional de Antropología between 1884 and 1888, beginning his excavations at Teotihuacan, working on the Temple of Agriculture and the Pyramid of the Moon, he worked at Monte Albán, Mitla, La Quemada, Isla de los Sacrificios, Mexico City, more work at Teotihuacan, including his flawed reconstruction of the Pyramid of the Sun. Batres claimed distinguished ancestry, his father, Salvador Batres was a consul in Germany for President Antonio López de Santa Anna. According to Batres's autobiography, his mother, Francisca Huerta, encouraged his patriotism. Batres was a cavalry officer. In the early 1880s, during the first years of the regime of former army general Porfirio Díaz, Batres went to Paris and studied archeology at the Museum of Natural History under Ernest Théodore Hamy and Armand de Quatrefages, but nothing is known about the nature of his training. Batres created the first archeological maps of Mexico, one of, aimed at the 1910 delegates of the International Congress of Americanists, which met in Mexico to coincide with the centenary of Mexican independence.
The marking of 110 archeological sites was superimposed on a map of Mexican railway lines. One scholar views the map as symbolic, "The ruins of antiquity and train tracks of modernity act like joined metaphors, making reference to the past and present and conveying that Mexico is a nation both ancient and modern."Graham Hancock has called Bartres's restoration of the Pyramid of the Sun at Teotihuacan "grotesque vandalism", citing the removal and selling of a layer of sheet mica between two of the upper levels—mined from 2,000 miles away and used for unknown purpose—removing the outer layer to a depth of more than 20 feet, adding a fifth stage. Hancock argues that because scientific data might have been incorporated into many of the key dimensions, drastically distorting the original shape and size of the pyramid had deprived posterity of some of the most important lessons Teotihuacan had to teach. Antigüedades mejicanas: Falsificación y falsificadores. Arqueología mexicana: Civilización de algunas de las diferentes tribus que habitaron el territorio, hoy mexicano, en la antigüedad.
Cartilla histórica de la ciudad de México. Cuadro arqueológico y etnográfico de la República Mexicana, La piedra del agua, Excavaciones en la calle de las Escalerillas, Exploraciones de Monte Albán, Exploraciones en Huexotla, Texcoco El Gavilán, México, La lápida arqueológica de Tepatlaxco, Teotihuacan. Batres, Leopoldo. "Visit to the Archeological Remains of La Quemada, Mexico" in The North American Frontier, edited by Basil C. Hedrick, J. Charles Kelley, Carroll L. Riley, 1-20. Carbondale: Southern Illinois University Press 1971. Bueno, Christina; the Pursuit of Ruins: Archeology and the Making of Modern Mexico. Albuquerque: University of New Mexico Press 2016. Morales Moreno, Luis Gerardo. Orígenes de la museología mexicana: Fuentes para el estudio histórico del Museo Nacional, 1780-1940. Mexico City: Universidad Iberoamericana 1994. Sellen, Adam. "Orphans of the Muse. Archaeological Collecting in Nineteenth-Century Oaxaca." Merida: CEPHCIS-UNAM 2015
Ely Sakhai is a United States art dealer and civil engineer who owned Lower Manhattan art galleries The Art Collection and Exclusive Art. He was charged and convicted for selling forged art and was sentenced to 41 months in federal prison for fraud. After his release he continued to operate The Art Collection in Great New York. Sakhai emigrated from Iran to the United States in 1962 and gained a civil engineering degree from Columbia University, he developed an interest in art and opened a number of small art galleries in the 1970s and 1980s. In the 1980s, Sakhai purchased a range of impressionist and post-impressionist works by artists including Marc Chagall, Paul Gauguin, Marie Laurencin, Auguste Renoir and Paul Klee. Sakhai and his wife became active members of the Long Island community where they donated money to Jewish organisations and established a Torah study centre. According to the Federal Bureau of Investigation and the United States Attorney's Office, Sakhai bought lesser-known works and had the paintings copied by Chinese immigrants working in the upstairs area of his gallery.
Sakhai took the genuine certificates of authenticity and attached them to copies to sell. Months or years he would obtain a new certificate of authenticity for the original and sell it. In several instances he sold the forgeries to Asian collectors and real works to New York and London galleries. According to reports, Japanese collectors trusted the certificates and would not subsequently commission European experts to authenticate the paintings. Sakhai would buy worthless paintings to reuse the canvases for new forgeries. Sakhai denied involvement and suggested that he consigned paintings to other dealers which put them out of his control. In May 2000, both Christie's and Sotheby's realized they were both offering Paul Gauguin's Vase de Fleurs, both original. Both auction houses took the paintings to Gauguin expert Sylvie Crussard at the Wildenstein Institute in Paris, she confirmed. They informed the owners, Gallery Muse in Tokyo; the original painting was auctioned at Sotheby's and Ely Sakhai received $310,000, traced by the FBI.
On March 9, 2000, the FBI arrested Sakhai at his gallery on Broadway and charged him with eight counts of wire and mail fraud and estimated Sakhai had made $25 million from the deals. He was released on bail. On March 4, 2004, Sakhai was charged with eight counts of fraud, again released on bail. In 2004 he pleaded guilty to, according to his lawyer, "resolve his difficulties with the government and get this behind him". In July 2005 he was sentenced to 41 months in prison, fined $12.5 million, ordered to forfeit eleven works of art. Both before and after charges were laid, Sakhai maintained he was innocent and discussed the case and his other business ventures with journalists. After charges were laid against him, Sakhai closed his Manhattan galleries and opened a new gallery, The Art Collection, in Great Neck, New York, which he continued to operate after his imprisonment. In 2009, Sakhai cooperated with ICE agents seeking to return a copy of Belgian artist Anto Carte's Young Girl in a Blue Dress stolen by the Nazis during World War II.
Sakhai remains a resident of New York