The temperance movement is a social movement against the consumption of alcoholic beverages. Participants in the movement criticize alcohol intoxication or promote complete abstinence, with leaders emphasizing alcohol's negative effects on health and family life; the movement promotes alcohol education as well as demands new laws against the selling of alcohols, or those regulating the availability of alcohol, or those prohibiting it. During the 19th and early 20th centuries, the temperance movement became prominent in many countries English-speaking and Scandinavian ones, it led to Prohibition in the United States from 1920 to 1933. In the late-seventeenth century, alcohol was a vital part of colonial life as a beverage and commodity for men and children. Drinking was accepted and integrated into society. Despite that, drunkenness was common and not seen as a social problem; the attitudes towards alcohol began to change in the late eighteenth century. One of the reasons for the shifting attitudes was the necessity for sober laborers to operate heavy machinery, developed as a result of the Industrial Revolution.
Anthony Benezet suggested abstinence from alcohol in 1775. As early as the 1790s, physician Benjamin Rush researched the danger that drinking alcohol could lead to disease that leads to a lack of self-control and he cited abstinence as the only treatment option. Rush condemned the use of distilled spirits; as well as addiction, Rush noticed the correlation that drunkenness had with disease, death and crime. According to, “Pompili, Maurizio et al,” there is increasing evidence that, aside from the volume of alcohol consumed, the pattern of the drinking is relevant for health outcomes. Overall, there is a causal relationship between alcohol consumption and more than 60 types of diseases and injuries. Alcohol is estimated to cause about 20–30% of cases of esophageal cancer, liver cancer, cirrhosis of the liver, homicide and motor vehicle accidents. After the American Revolution, Rush called upon ministers of various churches to act in preaching the messages of temperance. However, abstinence messages were ignored by Americans until the 1820s.
In the eighteenth century, there was a "Gin Craze" in the Kingdom of Great Britain. The bourgeoisie became critical of the widespread drunkenness among the lower classes. Motivated by the bourgeoisie's desire for order, amplified by the population growth in the cities, the drinking of gin became the subject of critical national debate. In the early nineteenth-century United States, alcohol was still regarded as a necessary part of the American diet for both practical and social reasons. On one hand, water supplies were polluted, milk was not always available, coffee and tea was expensive. On the other hand, social construct of the time made. Drunkenness was not a problem, because people would only drink small amounts of alcohol throughout the day, but at the turn of the nineteenth-century and subsequent intoxication became an issue that led to the disintegration of the family. Early temperance societies associated with churches were located in upstate New York and New England, but only lasted a few years.
These early temperance societies called for moderate drinking, but had little influence outside of their geographical areas. In 1743, John Wesley, the founder of the Methodist Churches, proclaimed "that buying and drinking of liquor, unless necessary, were evils to be avoided". In 1810, Calvinist ministers met with a seminary in Massachusetts to write articles about abstinence from alcohol to use in preaching to their congregations; the Massachusetts Society for the Suppression of Intemperance was formed in 1813. The organization only accepted men of high social standing and encouraged moderation in alcohol consumption, its peak of influence was in 1818, but the MSSI ended in 1820 and made no significant mark on the future of the temperance movement. Other small temperance societies appear in the 1810s, but had little impact outside their immediate regions and they disbanded soon after, their methods had little effect in implementing temperance, drinking increased until after 1830. The temperance movement began at a national level in the 1820s, having been popularized by evangelical temperance reformers and among the middle classes.
There was a concentration on advice against hard spirits rather than on abstinence from all alcohol and on moral reform rather than legal measures against alcohol. An early temperance movement began during the American Revolution in Connecticut and New York state, with farmers forming associations to ban whiskey distilling; the movement spread to eight states, advocating temperance rather than abstinence and taking positions on religious issues such as observance of the Sabbath. After the American Revolution there was a new emphasis on good citizenship for the new republic. With the Evangelical Protestant religious revival of the 1820s and'30s, called the Second Great Awakening, social movements began aiming for a perfect society; this included temperance. The Awakening brought with it an optimism about moral reform, achieved through volunteer organizations. Although the temperance movement was nonsectarian in principle, the movement consisted of church-goers; the temperance movement promoted temperance and emphasized th
A chemisette is an article of women's clothing worn to fill in the front and neckline of any garment. Chemisettes give the appearance of a blouse or shirt worn under the outer garment without adding bulk at the waist or upper arm. Chemisettes of linen or cotton were worn with day dresses in the mid-19th century, could be decorated with tucks, embroidery, or lace; when wide pagoda sleeves were fashionable, chemisettes might have matching engageantes. Godey's Lady's Book 1850s in fashion 1860s in fashion Trim Victorian fashion S. F. A. Caulfield and B. C. Saward, The Dictionary of Needlework, 1885. Picken, Mary Brooks: The Fashion Dictionary and Wagnalls, 1957. Apparel Search glossary of textile and apparel terms
A crinoline is a stiffened or structured petticoat designed to hold out a woman's skirt, popular at various times since the mid-19th century. Crinoline described a stiff fabric made of horsehair and cotton or linen, used to make underskirts and as a dress lining. By the 1850s the term crinoline was more applied to the fashionable silhouette provided by horsehair petticoats, to the hoop skirts that replaced them in the mid-1850s. In form and function these hoop skirts were similar to the 16th- and 17th-century farthingale and to 18th-century panniers, in that they too enabled skirts to spread wider and more fully; the steel-hooped cage crinoline, first patented in April 1856 by R. C. Milliet in Paris, by their agent in Britain a few months became popular. Steel cage crinolines were mass-produced in huge quantity, with factories across the Western world producing tens of thousands in a year. Alternative materials, such as whalebone, gutta-percha and inflatable caoutchouc were all used for hoops, although steel was the most popular.
At its widest point, the crinoline could reach a circumference of up to six yards, although by the late 1860s, crinolines were beginning to reduce in size. By the early 1870s, the smaller crinolette and the bustle had replaced the crinoline. Crinolines were worn by women of every social standing and class across the Western world, from royalty to factory workers; this led to widespread media scrutiny and criticism in satirical magazines such as Punch. They were hazardous if worn without due care. Thousands of women died in the mid-19th century. Alongside fire, other hazards included the hoops being caught in machinery, carriage wheels, gusts of wind, or other obstacles; the crinoline silhouette was revived several times in the 20th century in the late 1940s as a result of Christian Dior's "New Look" of 1947. The flounced nylon and net petticoats worn in the 1950s and 1960s to poof out skirts became known as crinolines when there were no hoops in their construction. In the mid-1980s Vivienne Westwood designed the mini-crini, a mini-length crinoline, influential on 1980s fashion.
Late 20th and early 21st century designers such as John Galliano and Alexander McQueen have become famous for their updated crinoline designs. Since the 1980s and well into the 21st century the crinoline has remained a popular option for formal evening dresses, wedding dresses, ball gowns; the name crinoline is described as a combination of the Latin word crinis and/or the French word crin. The crinoline was not the first garment designed to support the wearer's skirts in a fashionable shape. Whilst the bell-shaped skirts seen on statuettes from the ancient Minoan civilization are compared to crinolines under the assumption that hoops were required to retain their shape, there is no evidence to confirm this and the theory is dismissed; the crinoline's ancestors are more recognised as the Spanish verdugada known as the farthingale worn in Europe from the late 15th century to the early 17th century, the side-hoops and panniers worn throughout the 18th century. The horsehair fabric called crinoline was first noted by 1829, when it was offered for lining and dress-making.
That year, Rudolph Ackermann's Repository of Fashions described the new textile as a "fine clear stuff, not unlike in appearance to leno, but of a strong and durable description: it is made in different colours. By 1847, crinoline fabric was being used as a stiffening for skirt linings, although English women preferred separate crinoline fabric petticoats which were beginning to collapse under the increasing weight of the skirts. One alternative to horsehair crinoline was the quilted petticoat stuffed with down or feathers, such as that worn in 1842 by Lady Aylesbury. However, quilted skirts were not produced until the early 1850s. In about 1849, it was possible to buy stiffened and corded cotton fabric for making petticoats, marketed as'crinoline,' and designed as a substitute for the horsehair textile; the artificial crinoline with hoops did not emerge until the 1850s. The cage crinoline made out of spring steel wire was first introduced in the 1850s, with the earliest British patent for a metal crinoline granted in July 1856.
Alison Gernsheim suggests that the unidentified French inventor was R. C. Milliet of Besançon, as the July 1856 patent was filed by their British agent, C. Amet. Milliet had patented a'tournure de femme' in Paris on 24 April 1856, described as comprising'elastic extensible circles joined together by vertical bands.' Following its introduction, the women's rights advocate Amelia Bloomer felt that her concerns about the hampering nature of multiple petticoats had been resolved, dropped dress reform as an issue. Diana de Marly, in her biography of the couturier Charles Frederick Worth noted that by 1858 there existed steel factories catering to crinoline manufacturers, shops that sold nothing else but crinolines. One of the most significant manufacturers of crinolines was that of Thomson & Co. founded by an American with branches across Europe and the United States. At the height of
A cloak is a type of loose garment, worn over indoor clothing and serves the same purpose as an overcoat. Cloaks have been used by a myriad historic societies. Over time cloak designs have been changed to match fashion and available textiles. Cloaks fasten at the neck or over the shoulder, vary in length, from hip all the way down to the ankle, mid-calf being the normal length, they may have an attached hood and may cover and fasten down the front, in which case they have holes or slits for the hands to pass through. However, cloaks are always sleeveless; the word cloak comes from Old North French cloque meaning "travelling cloak", from Medieval Latin clocca "travelers' cape," "a bell," so called from the garment's bell-like shape. Thus the word is related to the word clock. Ancient Greeks and Romans were known to wear cloaks. Greek men and women wore the himation, from the Archaic through the Hellenistic periods. Romans would wear the Greek-styled cloak, the pallium; the pallium was quadrangular, shaped like a square, sat on the shoulders, not unlike the himation.
Romans of the Republic would wear the toga as a formal display of their citizenship. It was worn by magistrates on all occasions as a badge of office; the toga was claimed to have originated with the second king of Rome. In full evening dress in the Western countries and gentlemen use the cloak as a fashion statement, or to protect the fine fabrics of evening wear from the elements where a coat would crush or hide the garment. Opera cloaks are made of quality materials such as wool or cashmere and satin. Ladies may wear a long cloak called a cape, or a full-length cloak. Gentlemen wear an full-length cloak. Formal cloaks have expensive, colored linings and trimmings such as silk, satin and fur. According to the King James Version of the Bible, Matthew recorded Jesus of Galilee saying in Matthew 5:40: "And if any man will sue thee at the law, take away thy coat, let him have thy cloke also." The King James Version of the Bible has the words recorded a little differently in Luke 6:29: "...and him that taketh away thy cloke, forbid not to take thy coat also."
Cloaks are a staple garment in the fantasy genre due to the popularity of medieval settings, although fantasy cloak designs have more resemblance to 18th or 19th-century cloaks rather than medieval ones. They are usually associated with witches and vampires; when Lugosi reprised his role as Dracula for the 1931 Universal Studios motion picture version of the play, he retained the cloak as part of his outfit, which made such a strong impression that cloaks came to be equated with Count Dracula in nearly all non-historical media depictions of him. Fantasy cloaks are magical. For example, they may grant the person wearing it invisibility as in the Harry Potter series by J. K. Rowling. A similar sort of garment is worn by the members of the Fellowship of the Ring in The Lord of the Rings by J. R. R. Tolkien, although instead of granting complete invisibility, the Elf-made cloaks appear to shift between any natural color to help the wearer to blend in with his or her surroundings. Alternatively, they may nullify magical projectiles, as the "cloak of magic resistance" in NetHack.
In addition, the magical hide armor that Hercules made for himself from the skin of the Nemean Lion, at the end of Hercules' first labor, might be seen as an early idea of a magical cloak. This latter was notable because it was said to be impervious to all impact weapons. Figuratively, a cloak may be anything that conceals something. In many science fiction worlds, such as Star Trek, there are cloaking devices, which provide a way to avoid detection by making objects appear invisible; because they keep a person hidden and conceal a weapon, the phrase cloak and dagger has come to refer to espionage and secretive crimes: it suggests murder from hidden sources. "Cloak and dagger" stories are thus mystery and crime stories of this. The vigilante duo of Marvel comics Cloak and Dagger is a reference to this. Oxford English Dictionary Ashelford, Jane: The Art of Dress: Clothing and Society 1500-1914, Abrams, 1996. ISBN 0-8109-6317-5 Baumgarten, Linda: What Clothes Reveal: The Language of Clothing in Colonial and Federal America, Yale University Press, 2016.
ISBN 0-300-09580-5 Payne, Blanche: History of Costume from the Stone Age to the Twentysecond Century, Harper & Row, 2965. No ISBN for this edition.
The Princesse de Broglie
The Princesse de Broglie is an oil on canvas painting by the French Neoclassical artist Jean-Auguste-Dominique Ingres. Completed between 1851 and 1853, it shows Pauline de Broglie, styled Princesse, who, in 1845, married Albert de Broglie, the 28th Prime Minister of France. Pauline was aged 28 at the time of its completion, she was intelligent known for her beauty, religious, but suffered from profound shyness, the painting captures her melancholia. Pauline contracted tuberculosis in her early 30s and died in 1860 aged 35. Although Albert lived until 1901, he did not remarry. In preparation for the commission, Ingres undertook a number of preparatory pencil sketches, each of which captures her personality and sense of taste, they show her in various poses, including standing, in differently styled dresses. The eventual painting is considered one of Ingres' finest later-period portraits of women, along with the Comtesse d'Haussonville, Portrait of Baronne de Rothschild and Madame Moitessier; as with many of Ingres' female portraits, details of costume and setting are rendered with a chilly precision while her body seems to lack a solid bone structure.
The painting is held in the collection of the Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York, is signed and dated 1853. Joséphine-Éléonore-Marie-Pauline de Galard de Brassac de Béarn married Albert de Broglie on 18 June 1845, they had five sons together. Although not high royalty, on the occasion of their marriage, they styled themselves Prince and Princesse respectively. Pauline was a intelligent and religious woman, well read and wrote a number of texts in her lifetime, her shyness was well known. Albert was devoted to his wife, commissioned the painting after being impressed by Ingres' 1845 portrait of his sister, the Comtesse d'Haussonville. Albert approached Ingres around 1850 to undertake the portrait. Ingres dined with the de Broglie family in January 1850, according to one eye witness, "seemed to be happy with his model."Although Ingres' main source of income came from portraiture, it distracted from his main interest in history painting, which early in his career, was far less lucrative. He found acclaim in the 1840s.
This painting was Ingres' second-last female portrait, final society portrait. Influenced by the working methods of Jacques-Louis David, Ingres began with a number of nude preparatory sketches, for which he employed professional models, he built up a picture of the sitter's underlying anatomical structure, as seen in the Musée Bonnat study, before deciding on how to build the lavish costume and accessories. Although there is no surviving record of the commissions, the exact sequence of events is uncertain, the sketches can be dated from 1850, the year the style of her evening dress came into fashion. Ingres signed and dated the final picture at the left center "J. INGRES. Pit 1853". Pauline died in 1860 aged 35 from tuberculosis. After her death, Albert published three volumes of her essays on religious history. Albert lived until 1901, but did not remarry, he kept her portrait for the remainder of his life draped in fabric and hidden behind a velvet curtain, only lending it to select exhibitions.
After his own death, the painting passed within the family until 1958 when it was sold to the Metropolitan Museum of Art via the banker and art collector Robert Lehman, is today held in the Lehman Wing. The family kept most of the jewelry and accessories seen in the painting, although the marabou feathers were sold to the Costume Institute of the Metropolitan Museum. There are comparatively few extant preparatory sketches for the de Broglie painting compared to other of his period portraits. Ingres' usual technique was to use sketches both to plot the final work and to provide guidance for assistants on whom he relied to paint in the less important passages; some others may have been destroyed. The extant sketches are drawn with graphite on paper or tracing paper, they vary in elaboration and detail, but show Ingres thinking through the eventual form and pose of the sitter. The earliest consists of a brief sketch of the princess in a seated pose. There is a full-length study of a nude standing in the final pose, in which Ingres experimented with two different positions of the crossed arms.
A second full-length study shows a clothed figure. Two others are focused on her hands. A finished drawing of the princess standing with her left hand at the neck and dressed in a simpler costume than in the painting, may be a study for the painting or an independent work. Besides these five or six extant sketches, about the same number are known to be lost; the painting's central motifs were established in the earliest studies, in which her oval face, arched eyebrows, habit of folding her arms with one stuffed into the opposing sleeve appear. Ingres found the sittings agonised over every detail, he wrote to his friend and patron Charles Marcotte that he was "killing eyes on the background of the Princesse de Broglie, which I am painting at her house, that helps me advance a great deal. The Princesse de Broglie is shown in three quarters view, her arms resting on a lavishly upholstered, pale gold damask easy chair, her head is tilted to the viewer's left, black hair pulled back and
Crochet is a process of creating fabric by interlocking loops of yarn, thread, or strands of other materials using a crochet hook. The name is derived from the French term crochet, meaning'small hook'; these are made of materials such as metal, wood, or plastic and are manufactured commercially and produced in artisan workshops. The salient difference between crochet and knitting, beyond the implements used for their production, is that each stitch in crochet is completed before the next one is begun, while knitting keeps a large number of stitches open at a time; the word crochet is derived from the Old French crochet, a diminutive of croche, in turn from the Germanic croc, both meaning "hook". It was used in 17th-century French lace making, crochetage designating a stitch used to join separate pieces of lace, crochet subsequently designating both a specific type of fabric and the hooked needle used to produce it. Although the fabric is not known to be crochet in the present sense, a genealogical relationship between the techniques sharing that name appears likely.
Knitted textiles survive from early periods, but the first substantive evidence of crocheted fabric relates to its appearance in Europe during the 19th century. Earlier work identified as crochet was made by nålebinding, a different looped yarn technique; the first known published instructions for crochet explicitly using that term to designate the craft in its present sense appeared in the Dutch magazine Penélopé in 1823. This includes a color plate showing five styles of purse of which three were intended to be crocheted with silk thread; the first is "simple open crochet". The second starts in a semi-open form, where chain-stitch arches alternate with long segments of slip-stitch crochet, closes with a star made with "double-crochet stitches"; the third purse is made in double-crochet. The instructions prescribe the use of a tambour needle and introduce a number of decorative techniques; the earliest dated English reference to garments made of cloth produced by looping yarn with a hook—shepherd's knitting—is in The Memoirs of a Highland Lady by Elizabeth Grant.
The journal entry, itself, is dated 1812 but was not recorded in its subsequently published form until some time between 1845 and 1867, the actual date of publication was first in 1898. Nonetheless, the 1833 volume of Penélopé describes and illustrates a shepherd's hook, recommends its use for crochet with coarser yarn. In 1842, one of the numerous books discussing crochet that began to appear in the 1840s states: "Crochet needles, sometimes called Shepherds' hooks, are made of steel, ivory, or box-wood, they have a hook at one end similar in shape to a fish-hook, by which the wool or silk is caught and drawn through the work. These instruments are to be procured of various sizes..."Two years the same author, writes: "Crochet, — a species of knitting practised by the peasants in Scotland, with a small hooked needle called a shepherd’s hook, — has, within the last seven years, aided by taste and fashion, obtained the preference over all other ornamental works of a similar nature. It derives its present name from the French.
This art has attained its highest degree of perfection in England, whence it has been transplanted to France and Germany, both countries, although unjustifiably, have claimed the invention."An instruction book from 1846 describes Shepherd or Single Crochet as what in current British usage is either called single crochet or slip-stitch crochet, with U. S. American terminology always using the latter, it equates "Double" and "French crochet". Notwithstanding the categorical assertion of a purely British origin, there is solid evidence of a connection between French tambour embroidery and crochet; the former method of production was illustrated in detail in 1763 in Diderot's Encyclopedia. The tip of the needle shown there is indistinguishable from that of a present-day inline crochet hook and the chain stitch separated from a cloth support is a fundamental element of the latter technique; the 1823 Penélopé instructions unequivocally state that the tambour tool was used for crochet and the first of the 1840s instruction books uses the terms tambour and crochet as synonyms.
This equivalence is retained in the 4th edition of that work, 1847. The strong taper of the shepherd's hook eases the production of slip-stitch crochet but is less amenable to stitches that require multiple loops on the hook at the same time. Early yarn hooks were continuously tapered but enough to accommodate multiple loops; the design with a cylindrical shaft, commonplace today was reserved for tambour-style steel needles. Both types merged into the modern form that appeared toward the end of the 19th century, including both tapered and cylindrical segments, the continuously tapered bone hook remained in industrial production until World War II; the early instruction books make frequent reference to the alternative use of'ivory, bone, or wooden hooks' and'steel needles in a handle', as appropriate to the stitch being made. Taken with the synonymous labeling of shepherd's- and single crochet, the similar equivalence of French- and double crochet, there is a strong suggestion that crochet is rooted both in tambour embroidery and shepherd's knitting, leading to thread and yarn crochet
In modern clothing and fashion design, a button is a small fastener, now most made of plastic, but frequently made of metal, wood or seashell, which secures two pieces of fabric together. In archaeology, a button can be a significant artifact. In the applied arts and in craft, a button can be an example of folk art, studio craft, or a miniature work of art. Buttons are most attached to articles of clothing but can be used on containers such as wallets and bags. However, buttons may be sewn onto garments and similar items for purposes of ornamentation. Buttons serving as fasteners work by slipping through a fabric or thread loop, or by sliding through a buttonhole. Other types of fastenings include zippers and magnets. Buttons and button-like objects used as ornaments or seals rather than fasteners have been discovered in the Indus Valley Civilization during its Kot Diji phase as well as Bronze Age sites in China, Ancient Rome. Buttons made from seashell were used in the Indus Valley Civilization for ornamental purposes by 2000 BC.
Some buttons were carved into geometric shapes and had holes pierced into them so that they could be attached to clothing with thread. Ian McNeil holds that: "The button, in fact, was used more as an ornament than as a fastening, the earliest known being found at Mohenjo-daro in the Indus Valley, it is made of a curved shell and about 5000 years old."Functional buttons with buttonholes for fastening or closing clothes appeared first in Germany in the 13th century. They soon became widespread with the rise of snug-fitting garments in 13th- and 14th-century Europe. Since at least the seventeenth century, when box-like metal buttons were constructed for the purpose, buttons have been one of the items in which drug smugglers have attempted to hide and transport illegal substances. At least one modern smuggler has tried to use this method. Making use of the storage possibilities of metal buttons, during the World Wars, British and U. S. military locket buttons were made. Because buttons have been manufactured from every possible material, both natural and synthetic, combinations of both, the history of the material composition of buttons reflects the timeline of materials technology.
Buttons can be individually crafted by artisans, craftspeople or artists from raw materials or found objects, or a combination of both. Alternatively, they can be the product of low-tech cottage industry or can be mass-produced in high-tech factories. Buttons made by artists are art objects, known to button collectors as "studio buttons". In 1918 the U. S. Government made an extensive survey of the international button market, which listed buttons made of vegetable ivory, glass, silk, cotton-covered crochet, snap fasteners, enamel, buckhorn, horn, leather, pressed cardboard, mother-of-pearl, porcelain, tin, xylonite, cloth-covered wooden forms, papier-mâché. Vegetable ivory was said to be the most popular for suits and shirts, papier-mâché far and away the commonest sort of shoe button. Nowadays, hard plastic, seashell and wood are the most common materials used in button-making. Over 60 % of the world's button supply comes from Yongjia County, China. Fashions in buttons have reflected trends in applied aesthetics and the applied visual arts, with buttonmakers using techniques from jewellery making, sculpture, printmaking, metalworking and others.
The following are just a few of the construction and decoration techniques that have been used in button-making: Shank buttons have a hollow protrusion on the back through which thread is sewn to attach the button. Button shanks may be made from a separate piece of the same or a different substance as the button itself, added to the back of the button, or be carved or moulded directly onto the back of the button, in which latter case the button is referred to by collectors as having a'self-shank'. Flat or sew-through buttons have holes. Flat buttons may be attached by sewing machine rather than by hand, may be used with heavy fabrics by working a thread shank to extend the height of the button above the fabric. Stud buttons are composed from an actual button, connected to a second, button-like element by a narrow metal or plastic bar. Pushed through two opposing holes within what is meant to be kept together, the actual button and its counterpart press it together, keeping it joined. Popular examples of such buttons are shirt cufflinks.
Snap fasteners are metal round discs pinched through the fabric. They are found on clothing, in particular on denim pieces such as pants and jackets, they are more securely fastened to the material. As they rely on a metal rivet attached securely to the fabric, pressure buttons are difficult to remove without compromising the fabric's integrity, they are made of two couples: the female stud couple. Each couple has rear side. Covered buttons are fabric-covered forms with a separate back piece that secures the fabric over the knob. Mandarin buttons or frogs are knobs made of intricately knotted strings. Mandarin buttons are a key element in Mandarin dress. Pairs of mandarin buttons worn as cuff l