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1860 Oxford evolution debate

The 1860 Oxford evolution debate took place at the Oxford University Museum in Oxford, England, on 30 June 1860, seven months after the publication of Charles Darwin's On the Origin of Species. Several prominent British scientists and philosophers participated, including Thomas Henry Huxley, Bishop Samuel Wilberforce, Benjamin Brodie, Joseph Dalton Hooker and Robert FitzRoy; the debate is best remembered today for a heated exchange in which Wilberforce asked Huxley whether it was through his grandfather or his grandmother that he claimed his descent from a monkey. Huxley is said to have replied that he would not be ashamed to have a monkey for his ancestor, but he would be ashamed to be connected with a man who used his great gifts to obscure the truth. One eyewitness suggests that Wilberforce's question to Huxley may have been "whether, in the vast shaky state of the law of development, as laid down by Darwin, any one can be so enamoured of this so-called law, or hypothesis, as to go into jubilation for his great great grandfather having been an ape or a gorilla?", whereas another suggests he may have said that "it was of little consequence to himself whether or not his grandfather might be called a monkey or not."The encounter is known as the Huxley–Wilberforce debate or the Wilberforce–Huxley debate, although this description is somewhat misleading.

Rather than being a formal debate between the two, it was an animated discussion that occurred after the presentation of a paper by John William Draper of New York University, on the intellectual development of Europe with relation to Darwin's theory. Although Huxley and Wilberforce were not the only participants in the discussion, they were reported to be the two dominant parties. No verbatim account of the debate exists. There is considerable uncertainty regarding what Huxley and Wilberforce said, subsequent accounts were subject to distortion; the idea of transmutation of species was controversial in the first half of the nineteenth century, seen as contrary to religious orthodoxy and a threat to the social order, but welcomed by Radicals seeking to widen democracy and overturn the aristocratic hierarchy. The scientific community was wary, lacking a mechanistic theory; the anonymous publication of Vestiges of the Natural History of Creation in 1844 brought a storm of controversy, but attracted a wide readership and became a bestseller.

At the British Association for the Advancement of Science meeting at Oxford in May 1847, the Bishop of Oxford Samuel Wilberforce used his Sunday sermon at St. Mary's Church on "the wrong way of doing science" to deliver a stinging attack aimed at its author, Robert Chambers, in a church "crowded to suffocation" with geologists and zoologists; the scientific establishment remained skeptical, but the book had converted a vast popular audience. Charles Darwin's On the Origin of Species was published on 24 November 1859 to wide debate and controversy; the influential biologist Richard Owen wrote negative anonymous review of the book in the Edinburgh Review, coached Wilberforce, who wrote an anonymous 17,000-word review in the Quarterly Review. Thomas Huxley, one of the small group with whom Darwin had shared his theory before publication, emerged as the main public champion of evolution, he wrote a favourable review of "Origin" in The Times in December 1859, along with several other articles and a lecture delivered at the Royal Institution in February 1860.

The reaction of many orthodox churchmen was hostile, but their attention was diverted in February 1860 by a much greater furor over the publication of Essays and Reviews by seven liberal theologians. Amongst them, the Reverend Baden Powell had praised evolutionary ideas, in his essay he commended "Mr. Darwin's masterly volume" for substantiating "the grand principle of the self-evolving powers of nature"; the controversy was at the centre of attention when the British Association for the Advancement of Science convened their annual meeting at the new Oxford University Museum of Natural History in June 1860. On Thursday 28 June, Charles Daubeny read a paper "On the final causes of the sexuality in plants, with particular reference to Mr. Darwin's work..." Owen and Huxley were both in attendance, a debate erupted over Darwin's theory. Owen spoke of facts which would enable the public to "come to some conclusions... of the truth of Mr. Darwin's theory", repeated an anatomical argument which he had first presented in 1857, that "the brain of the gorilla was more different from that of man than from that of the lowest primate because only man had a posterior lobe, a posterior horn, a hippocampus minor."

Huxley was convinced this was incorrect, had researched its errors. For the first time he spoke publicly on this point, "denied altogether that the difference between the brain of the gorilla and man was so great" in a "direct and unqualified contradiction" of Owen, citing previous studies as well as promising to provide detailed support for his position. Wilberforce agreed to address the meeting on Saturday morning, there was expectation that he would repeat his success at scourging evolutionary ideas as at the 1847 meeting. Huxley was reluctant to engage Wilberforce in a public debate about evolution, but, in a chance encounter, Robert Chambers persuaded him not to desert the cause; the Reverend Baden Powell would have been on the platform, but he had died of a heart attack on 11 June. Word spread that Bishop Wilberforce, known as "Soapy Sam", would speak against

Guelph City Council

Guelph City Council is the governing body for the city of Guelph, Ontario. The council consists of the Mayor of 12 ward councillors; each ward elects 2 members to represent them. The council operates in the Guelph City Hall. Municipal elections are held every four years; the last election took place October 27, 2014. Guelph is divided up into sections; the areas east of and including most of downtown and the area east of the University of Guelph are considered Ward 1. The areas northeast of downtown are considered Ward 2, Ward 3 is in the central and some of the north ends, Ward 4 is in the northwest end of the city. Ward 5 is the area south of north of Stone Road; this ward includes the Stone Road Mall. Ward 6 is better known as the "south end" of Guelph; this ward is south of Stone Road and, in recent years, has seen rapid residential development. See List of Guelph municipal elections for previous election results

Love Is Here

Love Is Here is the debut studio album by indie rock band Starsailor, released on 8 October 2001. In 2002, Love Is Here was certified as platinum in the UK. Upon its release, Love Is Here received critical acclaim. At Metacritic, which assigns a weighted average score out of 100 to reviews and ratings from mainstream critics, the album received a score of 72, based on 19 reviews, indicating "generally favorable reviews"; the album sold 58,424 copies on its opening week of release, charting at No.2 in the UK album charts. Q listed Love Is Here as one of the best 50 albums of 2001, while NME rated it as the fifth best album of the year. "Tie Up My Hands" – 5:46 "Poor Misguided Fool" – 3:51 "Alcoholic" – 2:56 "Lullaby" – 4:13 "Way to Fall" – 4:30 "Fever" – 4:03 "She Just Wept" – 4:12 "Talk Her Down" – 4:11 "Love Is Here" – 4:41 "Good Souls" – 4:53 "Coming Down" – 14:30 The album includes a hidden track at 13:35 of the track "Coming Down", consisting of under a minute of humming from the band members.

The humming is an alternate take of background accompaniment for the song "Coming Down. Ben Byrne – drums James "Stel" Stelfox – bass guitar James Walshvocals, guitar Barry Westheadkeyboards The song "Way to Fall" is played during the ending credits of the 2004 video game Metal Gear Solid 3: Snake Eater. Director Hideo Kojima hand-picked the song for the game's soundtrack having discovered the group by accident while looking for another group

Devil's Cave (Pottenstein)

The Devil's Cave is a dripstone cave located in the town of Pottenstein, Germany. The cave is 1,500 metres long and is the longest in Germany and the largest in Franconian Switzerland; the cave as it is today has been known to locals for many years. The cave is named for the disappearance of livestock in the vicinity of the cave being attributed to the Devil. Centuries after the cave had been explored, the missing livestock as well as numerous other animals including deer and cave bears were discovered to have fallen into the cave and died. One of these cave bear skeletons can be seen on the tour of the cave; the cave offers guided tours year round in both German and English although the opening hours vary by season. The cave tour takes about an hour to complete and the guides stop to explain the history of the particular chamber and to describe the rock formations; some of these formations have been named by the guides such as the Turtle, Pipe Organ, the Crucifixion. Any tour can become English language tours if visitors ask the tour guide on any tour to switch on loudspeakers with English explanations.

Nordic walking trails pass by both the entrance and exit of the cave and network into the surrounding area. These trails provide views of the Weiherbach Valley in which the cave lies as well as the numerous rock faults and stone formations that litter the area. Rainbow and brown trout can be fed in the river at the entrance of the cave. There is an operational therapeutic station located inside the cave intended to assist in the treatment of lung ailments with speleotherapy. List of show caves in Germany Official Site Showcave's article on the cave

Chadlington Road

Chadlington Road is a road in North Oxford, England. At the northern end is Linton Road, close to the front entrance of Wolfson College, a graduate college of the University of Oxford. Many of the houses on the east side are used by the College. At the southern end, the road continues as Bardwell Road by the Dragon School. Here a small lane leads east down to the Cherwell Boathouse on the River Cherwell, where punts can be hired and a restaurant is now located. Parallel to the west is Charlbury Road. Houses in the road were first leased between 1910 and 1917. Most of the houses were designed by the architect N. W. Harrison. No. 11 was designed with stone-battered buttresses by Frank Mountain. William Henry Perkin, Jr. an organic chemist at the University of Oxford and the son of the notable chemist W. H. Perkin, leased No. 3 Chadlington Road in 1917. The historian and author Antonia Fraser lived at 8 Chadlington Road as a child when she attended the Dragon School, a short walking distance away. J.

H. R. Lynam, headmaster of the Dragon School from 1942–65, leased 6 Chadlington Road in 1958; the Haldane family lived at'Cherwell', a house located between Chadlington Road and the River Cherwell, in the early 20th century. The family included the physiologist and father, John Scott Haldane, together with his children, the geneticist and evolutionary biologist, J. B. S. Haldane, the novelist Naomi Mitchison; the house included a private laboratory. It was demolished to make way for Wolfson College, completed in 1974. Chadlington

PKP class SP45

SP45 is the name for a Polish diesel locomotive. It was built for the purpose of passenger traffic. No operating examples of this loco remain. All have been phased out or rebuilt into SU45. In the early 1960s in Poland an urgent need became apparent to introduce locomotives capable of servicing passenger traffic on main and secondary rail routes; the number of steam locomotives was shrinking and electrification was far too slow to introduce electric locos on a large scale. In the second half of the 1960s a few models of a new locomotive, with Co-Co bogies and electric transmission, were built at the Hipolit Cegielski Metal Works in Poznań. In general, all prototypes differed by engine-alternator combination; the final decision was to use an Alsthom-licensed alternator. The first locos were assigned to the Poznań railway district, on passing the necessary tests, they entered service in Warsaw. Between 1970 and 1976, a total number of 265 locomotives were produced; this type served on all main routes in Poland All locomotives of this type were rebuilt into SU45 or phased out.

These locomotives used to be called the following names: Fiat - because of diesel engine licensed by Fiat Suka - from the two first letters of the code name Polish locomotives designation Modern Locos Gallery Rail Service Mikoleje Chabówka Rail Museum