The German Empire was the historical German nation state that existed from the unification of Germany in 1871 to the abdication of Kaiser Wilhelm II in 1918, when Germany became a federal republic. The German Empire consisted of 26 constituent territories, with most being ruled by royal families and this included four kingdoms, six grand duchies, five duchies, seven principalities, three free Hanseatic cities, and one imperial territory. Although Prussia became one of kingdoms in the new realm, it contained most of its population and territory. Its influence helped define modern German culture, after 1850, the states of Germany had rapidly become industrialized, with particular strengths in coal, iron and railways. In 1871, it had a population of 41 million people, and by 1913, a heavily rural collection of states in 1815, now united Germany became predominantly urban. During its 47 years of existence, the German Empire operated as an industrial, Germany became a great power, boasting a rapidly growing rail network, the worlds strongest army, and a fast-growing industrial base.
In less than a decade, its navy became second only to Britains Royal Navy, after the removal of Chancellor Otto von Bismarck by Wilhelm II, the Empire embarked on a bellicose new course that ultimately led to World War I. When the great crisis of 1914 arrived, the German Empire had two allies and the Austro-Hungarian Empire, however, left the once the First World War started in August 1914. In the First World War, German plans to capture Paris quickly in autumn 1914 failed, the Allied naval blockade caused severe shortages of food. Germany was repeatedly forced to send troops to bolster Austria and Turkey on other fronts, Germany had great success on the Eastern Front, it occupied large Eastern territories following the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk. German declaration of unrestricted submarine warfare in early 1917 was designed to strangle the British, it failed, but the declaration—along with the Zimmermann Telegram—did bring the United States into the war. Meanwhile, German civilians and soldiers had become war-weary and radicalised by the Russian Revolution and this failed, and by October the armies were in retreat, Austria-Hungary and the Ottoman Empire had collapsed, Bulgaria had surrendered and the German people had lost faith in their political system.
The Empire collapsed in the November 1918 Revolution as the Emperor and all the ruling monarchs abdicated, and a republic took over. The German Confederation had been created by an act of the Congress of Vienna on 8 June 1815 as a result of the Napoleonic Wars, German nationalism rapidly shifted from its liberal and democratic character in 1848, called Pan-Germanism, to Prussian prime minister Otto von Bismarcks pragmatic Realpolitik. He envisioned a conservative, Prussian-dominated Germany, the war resulted in the Confederation being partially replaced by a North German Confederation in 1867, comprising the 22 states north of the Main. The new constitution and the title Emperor came into effect on 1 January 1871, during the Siege of Paris on 18 January 1871, William accepted to be proclaimed Emperor in the Hall of Mirrors at the Palace of Versailles. The second German Constitution was adopted by the Reichstag on 14 April 1871 and proclaimed by the Emperor on 16 April, the political system remained the same.
The empire had a parliament called the Reichstag, which was elected by universal male suffrage, the original constituencies drawn in 1871 were never redrawn to reflect the growth of urban areas
1870 in literature
This article presents lists of the literary events and publications in 1871. March 7 – Thomas Hardy meets his first wife, Emma Gifford, march 28 – Serialisation of Kenward Philps The Bowery Detective in The Fireside Companion begins, the first known story to include the word detective in the title. April—September – Serialisation of Charles Dickens last novel The Mystery of Edwin Drood, spring – Serial publication begins of Aleksis Kivis only novel Seitsemän veljestä, the first significant Finnish language novel. September 17 – First performance of Alexander Pushkins play Boris Godunov at the Mariinsky Theatre in Saint Petersburg, september 20 – Friedrich Engels moves permanently to London from Manchester. December 18 – The Russian literary weekly Niva is first published by Adolf Marks in Saint Petersburg, karl May begins a second 4-year prison sentence for thefts and frauds, at Waldheim, Saxony. The David Sassoon Library in Bombay is completed
Jean Nicolas Arthur Rimbaud was a French poet who is known for his influence on modern literature and arts, which prefigured surrealism. Rimbaud was known to have been a libertine and for being a restless soul, having engaged in an at times violent romantic relationship with fellow poet Paul Verlaine, which lasted nearly two years. After the end of his career, he traveled extensively on three continents as a merchant before his death from cancer just after his thirty-seventh birthday. As a poet, Rimbaud is well known for his contributions to Symbolism and, among other works, A Season in Hell, Arthur Rimbaud was born in the provincial town of Charleville in the Ardennes département in northeastern France. He was the child of Frédéric Rimbaud and Marie Catherine Vitalie Cuif. Rimbauds father, a Burgundian of Provençal extraction, was an infantry captain risen from the ranks, from 1844 to 1850, he participated in the conquest of Algeria, and in 1854 was awarded the Légion dhonneur by Imperial decree.
Captain Rimbaud was described as good-tempered, easy-going and generous, with the long moustaches and goatee of a Chasseur officer. In October 1852, Captain Rimbaud, aged 38, was transferred to Mézières where he met Vitalie Cuif,11 years his junior and she came from a solidly established Ardennais family, but one with its share of bohemians, two of her brothers were alcoholics. Her personality was the exact opposite of Captain Rimbauds, she was narrowminded, completely lacking in a sense of humour. When Charles Houin, a biographer, interviewed her, he found her withdrawn. Arthur Rimbauds private name for her was Mouth of Darkness, nevertheless, on 8 February 1853, Captain Rimbaud and Vitalie Cuif married, their first-born, Jean Nicolas Frédéric, arrived nine months on 2 November. The next year, on 20 October 1854, Jean Nicolas Arthur was born, three more children followed, Victorine-Pauline-Vitalie on 4 June 1857, Jeanne-Rosalie-Vitalie on 15 June 1858 and, finally, Frédérique Marie Isabelle on 1 June 1860.
Though the marriage lasted seven years, Captain Rimbaud lived continuously in the home for less than three months, from February to May 1853. The rest of the time his military postings—including active service in the Crimean War and he was not at home for his childrens births, nor their baptisms. Isabelles birth in 1860 must have been the last straw, as after this Captain Rimbaud stopped returning home on leave entirely. Though they never divorced, the separation was complete, thereafter Mme Rimbaud let herself be known as Widow Rimbaud, neither the captain nor his children showed the slightest interest in re-establishing contact. Fearing her children were being over-influenced by the children of the poor. Rimbaud moved her family to the Cours dOrléans in 1862 and this was a better neighbourhood, and the boys, now aged nine and eight, who had been taught at home by their mother, were now sent to the Pension Rossat
1875 in literature
This article presents lists of the literary events and publications in 1875. January 16 – Henry James Byrons comedy Our Boys opens at the Vaudeville Theatre in London and it becomes the worlds longest-running play up to this time, with 1,362 performances until April 1879. It opens this year in New York, at the New Fifth Avenue Theatre, henley has met his future wife while in hospital and written the poems collected as In Hospital. October 1 – American poet and short story writer Edgar Allan Poe is reburied in Westminster Hall and Burying Ground, Maryland, some controversy arises years as to whether the correct body was exhumed. This introduces his innovative sprung rhythm and metre but, being rejected for publication in 1876, is not published until 1918, flammarion publishing house founded in Paris, France. Isaac K. Funk establishes the house of I. K. Funk & Company, predecessor of Funk & Wagnells, in the United States, caroline M. Hewins begins a childrens library in Hartford, Connecticut. Nebelspalter is founded by Jean Nötzli of Zürich as a humorous political weekly. W.
Harrison Ainsworth – The Goldsmiths Wife R. D. J. W
Sheridan Le Fanu
Joseph Thomas Sheridan Le Fanu was an Irish writer of Gothic tales and mystery novels. He was a leading ghost story writer of the century and was central to the development of the genre in the Victorian era. M. R. James described Le Fanu as absolutely in the first rank as a writer of ghost stories, three of his best-known works are Uncle Silas and The House by the Churchyard. Sheridan Le Fanu was born at 45 Lower Dominick Street, into a family of Huguenot. He had a sister, Catherine Frances, and a younger brother. His parents were Thomas Philip Le Fanu and Emma Lucretia Dobbin, both his grandmother Alicia Sheridan Le Fanu and his great-uncle Richard Brinsley Sheridan were playwrights, and his mother was a writer, producing a biography of Charles Orpen. The Phoenix Park and the adjacent village and parish church of Chapelizod would appear in Le Fanus stories, in 1826 the family moved to Abington, County Limerick, where Le Fanus father Thomas took up his second rectorship in Ireland. Although he had a tutor, according to his brother William, taught them nothing and was dismissed in disgrace.
By the age of fifteen, Joseph was writing poetry which he shared with his mother and siblings and his father was a stern Protestant churchman and raised his family in an almost Calvinist tradition. In 1832 the disorders of the Tithe War affected the region, there were about six thousand Catholics in the parish of Abington, and only a few dozen members of the Church of Ireland. However, the government compelled all farmers, including Catholics, to pay tithes for the upkeep of the Protestant church, the following year the family moved back temporarily to Dublin, to Williamstown Avenue in a southern suburb, where Thomas was to work on a Government commission. Although Thomas Le Fanu tried to live as though he were well-off, Thomas took the rectorships in the south of Ireland for the money, as they provided a decent living through tithes. However, from 1830, as the result of agitation against the tithes, in 1838 the government instituted a scheme of paying rectors a fixed sum, but in the interim the Dean had little besides rent on some small properties he had inherited.
In 1833 Thomas had to borrow £100 from his cousin Captain Dobbins to visit his sister in Bath. At his death Thomas had almost nothing to leave to his sons and his widow went to stay with the younger son William. Sheridan Le Fanu studied law at Trinity College in Dublin, where he was elected Auditor of the College Historical Society. Under a system peculiar to Ireland he did not have to live in Dublin to attend lectures and he was called to the bar in 1839, but he never practised and soon abandoned law for journalism. In 1838 he began contributing stories to the Dublin University Magazine, including his first ghost story, entitled The Ghost and he became owner of several newspapers from 1840, including the Dublin Evening Mail and the Warder
Gothic fiction, which is largely known by the subgenre of Gothic horror, is a genre or mode of literature and film that combines fiction and horror, and at times romance. Its origin is attributed to English author Horace Walpole, with his 1764 novel The Castle of Otranto, the effect of Gothic fiction feeds on a pleasing sort of terror, an extension of Romantic literary pleasures that were relatively new at the time of Walpoles novel. It originated in England in the half of the 18th century and had much success in the 19th, as witnessed by Mary Shelley’s Frankenstein. Another well known novel in this genre, dating from the late Victorian era, is Bram Stoker’s Dracula, the name Gothic refers to the -medieval buildings, emulating Gothic architecture, in which many of these stories take place. This extreme form of romanticism was very popular in England and Germany, the English Gothic novel led to new novel types such as the German Schauerroman and the French Georgia. The novel usually regarded as the first Gothic novel is Horace Walpoles The Castle of Otranto, Horace Walpoles declared aim was to combine elements of the medieval romance, which he deemed too fanciful, and the modern novel, which he considered to be too confined to strict realism.
Walpole published the first edition disguised as a romance from Italy discovered and republished by a fictitious translator. When Walpole admitted to his authorship in the edition, its originally favourable reception by literary reviewers changed into rejection. A romance with elements, and moreover void of didactical intention, was considered a setback. Walpoles forgery, together with the blend of history and fiction, contravened the principles of the Enlightenment and associated the Gothic novel with fake documentation. Clara Reeve, best known for her work The Old English Baron, set out to take Walpoles plot, the question now arose whether supernatural events that were not as evidently absurd as Walpoles would not lead the simpler minds to believe them possible. Ann Radcliffe developed the technique of the supernatural in which every seemingly supernatural intrusion is eventually traced back to natural causes. Among other elements, Ann Radcliffe introduced the figure of the Gothic villain.
Radcliffes novels, above all The Mysteries of Udolpho, were best-sellers, along with most novels at the time, they were looked down upon by many well-educated people as sensationalist nonsense. Radcliffe provided an aesthetic for the genre in an influential article On the Supernatural in Poetry, Romantic literary movements developed in continental Europe concurrent with the development of the Gothic novel. The roman noir appeared in France, by writers as François Guillaume Ducray-Duminil, Baculard dArnaud. In Germany, the Schauerroman gained traction with writers as Friedrich Schiller, with novels like The Ghost-Seer and these works were often more horrific and violent than the English Gothic novel. Matthew Gregory Lewiss lurid tale of debauchery, black magic
David Henry Friston
David Henry Friston was a British illustrator and figure painter in the Victorian Era. He is best remembered as the creator of the first illustrations of Sherlock Holmes in 1887, Friston produced illustrations and artworks from the 1850s to the late 1880s. His professional career appears to have started by 1853, when he exhibited Mazeppa at the Royal Academy of Art, Friston exhibited at the Royal Academy of Art a total of 14 times between 1853 and 1869, though he was never a member of the Academy. He exhibited at least six examples of his work at the British Institute, among his earlier published works was a frontispiece for Emma Davenports Our Birthdays, and How to Improve Them. For Cassell, he illustrated an edition of John Bunyans Pilgrims Progress and he illustrated short stories such as the cult-classic female vampire story Carmilla, The Three Lieutenants and The Three Commanders. For Groombridge, he illustrated a volume of stories called The magnet stories for summer days. Friston created four pictures for the story, which were engraved by W. M.
R, and published in the 1887 issue of Beetons Christmas Annual. Fristons pictures are acknowledged to be the first portraits of the Holmes character, the annual was issued in November at a price of one shilling and had sold out before Christmas. This first picture of Holmes would distress the devotees, Fristons Holmes is neither handsome nor intellectual. The Bedside and Armchair Companion to Sherlock Holmes agreed and described his Holmes as an outrage. It noted of the detail of Fristons creation, His head and hands appear small, almost feminine, his sideburns are ridiculously long, on his head appears a strange, rounded hat. This Holmes looks nothing like the detective we know, in the late 1880s, Friston illustrated the work of the American Mary Noailles Murfree, writing as Charles Egbert Craddock. 214 Illustration of Princess Ida at the Savoy Theatre,19 January 1884, from the Illustrated Sporting, cave scene from The Forty Thieves at Drury Lane from The Illustrated London News, January 1887, available online at PeoplePlayUK Large copy of Fristons first depiction of Holmes
Paul-Marie Verlaine was a French poet associated with the Decadent movement. He is considered one of the greatest representatives of the fin de siècle in international, born in Metz, Verlaine was educated at the Lycée Impérial Bonaparte in Paris and took up a post in the civil service. He began writing poetry at an age, and was initially influenced by the Parnassien movement and its leader. Verlaines first published poem was published in 1863 in La Revue du progrès, Verlaines first published collection, Poèmes saturniens, though adversely commented upon by Sainte-Beuve, established him as a poet of promise and originality. Verlaines private life spills over into his work, beginning with his love for Mathilde Mauté de Fleurville, Mathilde became Verlaines wife in 1870. At the proclamation of the Third Republic in the year, Verlaine joined the 160th battalion of the Garde nationale. He became head of the bureau of the Central Committee of the Paris Commune. Verlaine escaped the deadly street fighting known as the Bloody Week, or Semaine Sanglante, Verlaine returned to Paris in August 1871, and, in September, he received the first letter from Arthur Rimbaud.
By 1872, he had lost interest in Mathilde, and effectively abandoned her and their son and Verlaines stormy affair took them to London in 1872. In Brussels in July 1873 in a drunken, jealous rage, romances sans paroles was published while Verlaine was imprisoned. From there he went to teach in Boston, before moving to Bournemouth, while in England he produced another successful collection, Sagesse. He returned to France in 1877 and, while teaching English at a school in Rethel, fell in love one of his pupils, Lucien Létinois. Verlaine was devastated when Létinois died of typhus in 1883, Verlaines last years saw his descent into drug addiction and poverty. He lived in slums and public hospitals, and spent his days drinking absinthe in Paris cafes and his poetry was admired and recognized as ground-breaking, and served as a source of inspiration to composers. Gabriel Fauré composed many mélodies, such as the song cycles Cinq mélodies de Venise and La bonne chanson, claude Debussy set to music Clair de lune and six of the Fêtes galantes poems, forming part of the mélodie collection known as the Recueil Vasnier.
Reynaldo Hahn set several of Verlaines poems as did the Belgian-British composer Poldowski and his drug dependence and alcoholism caught up with him and took a toll on his life. Paul Verlaine died in Paris at the age of 51 on 8 January 1896, much of the French poetry produced during the fin de siècle was characterized as decadent for its lurid content or moral vision. But with the publication of Jean Moréas Symbolist Manifesto in 1886, along with Verlaine, Mallarmé, Paul Valéry, Albert Samain and many others began to be referred to as Symbolists
1865 in literature
This article presents lists of the literary events and publications in 1865. January – Our Young Folks, an American monthly for children produced by Ticknor and Fields in Boston, february – Publication of Leo Tolstoys 1805, an early version of War and Peace, begins in the magazine Russkiy Vestnik. June 9 – Charles Dickens is involved in the Staplehurst rail crash in England, June 14 – Karl May begins a 4-year prison sentence for thefts and frauds at Osterstein Castle. July – The American magazine for children The Little Corporal publishes its first issue, July 4 – Lewis Carrolls childrens book Alices Adventures in Wonderland is published by Macmillan in London for Charles Lutwidge Dodgson, three years after it was first narrated. November 18 – Mark Twains story The Celebrated Jumping Frog of Calaveras County is published in the New York weekly The Saturday Press in its version as Jim Smiley. English writer Edwin Abbott Abbott becomes headmaster of the City of London School at the age of 26, frederick Warne & Co established as publishers in London.
José de Alencar – Iracema R. M. Facey Romfords Hounds Anthony Trollope – Can You Forgive Her, swinburne Atalanta in Calydon Chastelard, a tragedy Annals of the Joseon Dynasty Matthew Arnold – Essays in Criticism P. T. B. Yeats, Irish poet June 20 – Enrico Corradini, Italian novelist and essayist June 26 – Bernard Berenson, American art historian July 21 – M. P