England is a country that is part of the United Kingdom. It shares land borders with Scotland to the north and Wales to the west, the Irish Sea lies northwest of England and the Celtic Sea lies to the southwest. England is separated from continental Europe by the North Sea to the east, the country covers five-eighths of the island of Great Britain in its centre and south, and includes over 100 smaller islands such as the Isles of Scilly, and the Isle of Wight. England became a state in the 10th century, and since the Age of Discovery. The Industrial Revolution began in 18th-century England, transforming its society into the worlds first industrialised nation, Englands terrain mostly comprises low hills and plains, especially in central and southern England. However, there are uplands in the north and in the southwest, the capital is London, which is the largest metropolitan area in both the United Kingdom and the European Union. In 1801, Great Britain was united with the Kingdom of Ireland through another Act of Union to become the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland. In 1922 the Irish Free State seceded from the United Kingdom, leading to the latter being renamed the United Kingdom of Great Britain, the name England is derived from the Old English name Englaland, which means land of the Angles. The Angles were one of the Germanic tribes that settled in Great Britain during the Early Middle Ages, the Angles came from the Angeln peninsula in the Bay of Kiel area of the Baltic Sea. The earliest recorded use of the term, as Engla londe, is in the ninth century translation into Old English of Bedes Ecclesiastical History of the English People. According to the Oxford English Dictionary, its spelling was first used in 1538. The earliest attested reference to the Angles occurs in the 1st-century work by Tacitus, Germania, the etymology of the tribal name itself is disputed by scholars, it has been suggested that it derives from the shape of the Angeln peninsula, an angular shape. An alternative name for England is Albion, the name Albion originally referred to the entire island of Great Britain. The nominally earliest record of the name appears in the Aristotelian Corpus, specifically the 4th century BC De Mundo, in it are two very large islands called Britannia, these are Albion and Ierne. But modern scholarly consensus ascribes De Mundo not to Aristotle but to Pseudo-Aristotle, the word Albion or insula Albionum has two possible origins. Albion is now applied to England in a poetic capacity. Another romantic name for England is Loegria, related to the Welsh word for England, Lloegr, the earliest known evidence of human presence in the area now known as England was that of Homo antecessor, dating to approximately 780,000 years ago. The oldest proto-human bones discovered in England date from 500,000 years ago, Modern humans are known to have inhabited the area during the Upper Paleolithic period, though permanent settlements were only established within the last 6,000 years
Wanderers Football Club is an English amateur football club based in London. Founded as Forest Football Club in 1859, the changed its name to Wanderers in 1864. The club played friendly matches until the advent of the FA Cup in 1871. They won the FA Cup three times in succession during the late 1870s, a feat which has only been repeated once. Among the players who represented the club were C. W. Alcock, the father of modern sport. The club took its name from never having a stadium of its own but playing at various locations in London. By the 1880s the clubs fortunes had declined and it was reduced to playing only a match against Harrow School. The club was reformed in 2009, reportedly with the endorsement of the descendants of the Alcock family, since 2011, the revived club has competed in the Surrey South Eastern Combination. Alcock, who had just left Harrow School, his brother John F. Alcock, J. Pardoe, several Old Foresters also played for the Forest club, as Forest School was located less than a mile north of the ground. Forests first match against another club took place on 15 March 1862, both this match, and a return fixture between the two teams the following month, involved fifteen players on each team. The following year, the club played its first match under the name Wanderers Football Club, during this period the club played a number of home matches at Battersea Park and Middlesex County Cricket Clubs Lillie Bridge Grounds. Wanderers subsequently made Kennington Oval its semi-permanent home in 1869, the club played 151 matches at The Oval. In the 1870–71 season, the Wanderers finally turned around their fortunes, for the following season the FA, following a suggestion by Alcock, initiated the Football Association Challenge Cup, a knock-out tournament open to all member clubs. The club beat the Royal Engineers 1–0 to become the first ever winners of the cup, the goal being scored by Morton Betts. The following season, under the original rules, Wanderers, as holders. In the final Wanderers beat Oxford University 2–0 to retain the cup, the club was unable to replicate this success over the next two seasons, although the team did manage a club record 16–0 victory over Farningham in the first round of the 1874–75 FA Cup. In October 1875, Wanderers travelled to Scotland for the first time, to play a match against the team from north of the border. Despite fielding their strongest team, Wanderers were outclassed by the Scots, the London club gained its revenge four months later, however, when Queens Park travelled to London for a re-match and lost 2–0
Royal Engineers A.F.C.
The Royal Engineers Association Football Club is an association football team representing the Corps of Royal Engineers, the Sappers, of the British Army. The Engineers were pioneers of the game, where team-mates passed the ball to each other rather than kicking ahead. The club was founded in 1863, under the leadership of Major Francis Marindin. Sir Frederick Wall, who was the secretary of The Football Association 1895–1934, Wall states that the Sappers moved in unison and showed the advantages of combination over the old style of individualism. Contemporary match reports confirm that passing was a feature of the Engineers style. An 1869 report says they worked together and had learned the secret of football success – backing up. In February 1871 against Crystal Palace it is noted that Lieut, mitchell made a fine run down the left, passing the ball to Lieut. Rich, who had run up the centre, and who pinched another By early 1868, there is evidence that opponents sometimes adjusted their playing style to counteract the organisation and passing of the Engineers. This said that, very little dribbling was displayed The Engineers played in the first-ever FA Cup Final, losing 1–0 at Kennington Oval on 16 March 1872 and they also lost the 1874 Final, to Oxford University A. F. C. The Royal Engineers were the first football team to go on a tour, to Nottingham, Derby, walls memoirs state that this tour introduced the combination game to Sheffield and Nottingham. In 1875 the Engineers won the FA Cup, considered their greatest triumph, in the final against Old Etonians, they drew 1–1 with a goal from Renny-Tailyour and went on to win the replay 2–0 with a goal each from Renny-Tailyour and Stafford. The winning side was, Capt. W. Merriman, Lt. G. H, ruck, Lt. P. G. von Donop, Lt. C. K. Stafford, Lt. H. W. Renny-Tailyour, Lt. A. Mein and their last FA Cup Final appearance came in 1878, again losing to the Wanderers. They last participated in 1882–83 FA Cup, losing 6–2 in the round to Old Carthusians F. C. The evidence above contains detailed descriptions of passing that are lacking in reports of the 1872 Glasgow international, the Scotsman concludes that the difference in styles in the first half is the advantage the Queens Park players had through knowing each others play as all came from the same club. Unlike the 1872 Glasgow international, the evidence above shows that the Engineers team playing style benefited their team play by winning games. Similarly, the 5 March 1872 match between Wanderers and Queens park contains no evidence of ball passing, the early accounts all confirm that the Engineers were the first club to play a passing game of cooperation and organisation with both their forwards and their defence. Although they could also play rough – as would be expected for an army team – The Engineers are the first side to be considered to play the football beautifully, all of these developments occurred before and independent of the 1872 match between England and Scotland
The FA Cup, known officially as The Football Association Challenge Cup, is an annual knockout association football competition in mens domestic English football. First played during the 1871–72 season, it is the oldest association football competition in the world and it is organised by and named after The Football Association. For sponsorship reasons, from 2015 through to 2018 it is known as The Emirates FA Cup. A concurrent womens tournament is held, the FA Womens Cup. A record 763 clubs competed in 2011–12, the tournament consists of 12 randomly drawn rounds followed by the semi-finals and the final. The last entrants are the Premier League and Championship clubs, into the draw for the Third Round Proper, in the modern era, only one non-league team has ever reached the quarter finals, and teams below Level 2 have never reached the final. As a result, as well as who wins, significant focus is given to those minnows who progress furthest, especially if they achieve an unlikely giant-killing victory. Winners receive the FA Cup trophy, of which there have two designs and five actual cups, the latest is a 2014 replica of the second design. Winners also qualify for European football and a place in the FA Community Shield match, in 1863, the newly founded Football Association published the Laws of the Game of Association Football, unifying the various different rules in use before then. On 20 July 1871, in the offices of The Sportsman newspaper, the inaugural FA Cup tournament kicked off in November 1871. After thirteen games in all, Wanderers were crowned the winners in the final, Wanderers retained the trophy the following year. The modern cup was beginning to be established by the 1888–89 season, following the 1914–15 edition, the competition was suspended due to the First World War, and did not resume until 1919–20. The 1922–23 competition saw the first final to be played in the newly opened Wembley Stadium, due to the outbreak of World War II, the competition was not played between the 1938–39 and 1945–46 editions. Having previously featured replays, the modern day practice of ensuring the semi-final and final matches finish on the day, was introduced from 2000 onwards. Redevelopment of Wembley saw the final played outside of England for the first time, the final returned to Wembley in 2007, followed by the semi-finals from 2008. The competition is open to any club down to Level 10 of the English football league system which meets the eligibility criteria, all clubs in the top four levels are automatically eligible. Clubs in the six levels are also eligible provided they have played in either the FA Cup. Newly formed clubs, such as F. C. United of Manchester in 2005–06 and also 2006–07, all clubs entering the competition must also have a suitable stadium
Association football, more commonly known as football or soccer, is a team sport played between two teams of eleven players with a spherical ball. It is played by 250 million players in over 200 countries and dependencies making it the worlds most popular sport, the game is played on a rectangular field with a goal at each end. The object of the game is to score by getting the ball into the opposing goal, players are not allowed to touch the ball with their hands or arms while it is in play, unless they are goalkeepers. Other players mainly use their feet to strike or pass the ball, the team that scores the most goals by the end of the match wins. If the score is level at the end of the game, the Laws of the Game were originally codified in England by The Football Association in 1863. Association football is governed internationally by the International Federation of Association Football, the first written reference to the inflated ball used in the game was in the mid-14th century, Þe heued fro þe body went, Als it were a foteballe. The Online Etymology Dictionary states that the word soccer was split off in 1863, according to Partha Mazumdar, the term soccer originated in England, first appearing in the 1880s as an Oxford -er abbreviation of the word association. Within the English-speaking world, association football is now usually called football in the United Kingdom and mainly soccer in Canada and the United States. People in Australia, Ireland, South Africa and New Zealand use either or both terms, although national associations in Australia and New Zealand now primarily use football for the formal name. According to FIFA, the Chinese competitive game cuju is the earliest form of football for which there is scientific evidence, cuju players could use any part of the body apart from hands and the intent was kicking a ball through an opening into a net. It was remarkably similar to football, though similarities to rugby occurred. During the Han Dynasty, cuju games were standardised and rules were established, phaininda and episkyros were Greek ball games. An image of an episkyros player depicted in low relief on a vase at the National Archaeological Museum of Athens appears on the UEFA European Championship Cup, athenaeus, writing in 228 AD, referenced the Roman ball game harpastum. Phaininda, episkyros and harpastum were played involving hands and violence and they all appear to have resembled rugby football, wrestling and volleyball more than what is recognizable as modern football. As with pre-codified mob football, the antecedent of all football codes. Non-competitive games included kemari in Japan, chuk-guk in Korea and woggabaliri in Australia, Association football in itself does not have a classical history. Notwithstanding any similarities to other games played around the world FIFA have recognised that no historical connection exists with any game played in antiquity outside Europe. The modern rules of football are based on the mid-19th century efforts to standardise the widely varying forms of football played in the public schools of England
The swifts are a family, Apodidae, of highly aerial birds. They are superficially similar to swallows, but are not closely related to any of the passerine species, Swifts are placed in the order Apodiformes, which they share with hummingbirds. The treeswifts are closely related to the swifts, but form a separate family. Resemblances between swifts and swallows are due to convergent evolution, reflecting similar life styles based on catching insects in flight. The family name, Apodidae, is derived from the Greek ἄπους, meaning footless, the tradition of depicting swifts without feet continued into the Middle Ages, as seen in the heraldic martlet. Some species of swifts are among the fastest animals on the planet, the taxonomy of the swifts is complicated, with genus and species boundaries widely disputed, especially amongst the swiftlets. A prehistoric genus sometimes assigned to the swifts, Primapus, might also be a distant ancestor. There are around 100 species of swifts, normally grouped into two subfamilies and four tribes, cypseloidinae Tribe Cypseloidini Apodinae Tribe Collocaliini Tribe Chaeturini – needletails Tribe Apodini – typical swifts Swifts are the fastest of birds. Larger species are amongst the fastest fliers in the animal kingdom, even the common swift can cruise at a maximum speed of 31 metres per second. In a single year the common swift can cover at least 200,000 km, compared with typical birds, swiftlet wings have proportionately large wingtip bones. By changing the angle between the bones and the forelimb bones, they are able to alter the shape and area of their wings, maximizing their efficiency. This flight arrangement could also have benefits for the birds control, the swiftlets or cave swiftlets have developed a form of echolocation for navigating through dark cave systems where they roost. One species, Aerodramus papuensis, has recently found to use this navigation at night outside its cave roost too. Swifts occur on all the continents except Antarctica, and also not in the far north, in large deserts, the swifts of temperate regions are strongly migratory and winter in the tropics. Some species can survive periods of cold weather by entering torpor. Many have a shape, with a short forked tail. The flight of some species is characterised by a flicking action quite different from swallows. Swifts range in size from the pygmy swiftlet, which weighs 5.4 g and measures 9 cm long, to the purple needletail, which weighs 184 g and measures 25 cm long
1874 FA Cup Final
The 1874 FA Cup final was a football match between Oxford University and Royal Engineers on 14 March 1874 at Kennington Oval in London. It was the final of the worlds oldest football competition. Both teams had reached the final but been defeated by Wanderers. The Engineers had reached the final with ease, scoring sixteen goals. Oxfords opponents in the rounds had included two-time former winners Wanderers. The final was decided by two goals from Oxford in the first twenty minutes and their opponents had spent two weeks training for the match, an innovative concept at the time, but were repeatedly thwarted by Charles Nepean, the Oxford goalkeeper. The Engineers were said to have missed their best back, Lieut, Alfred Goodwyn, who had been posted overseas. Oxford University and the Chatham-based Royal Engineers were among 28 entrants to the competition in the 1873–74 season, both teams progressed through the first round of the competition with little difficulty, Oxford defeating Upton Park 4–0 and the Engineers winning 5–0 against Brondesbury. In the second round, the University beat Barnes 2–0 and the Sappers, as the Engineers were nicknamed, the Engineers comprehensively defeated their quarter-final opponents, Maidenhead, winning 7–0, the first time a team had ever scored as many as seven goals in an FA Cup match. Oxford, on the hand, were paired with Wanderers. They had defeated the Engineers in the 1872 final and Oxford in the 1873 final, the first match finished in a 1–1 draw, necessitating a replay which Oxford won 1–0 to end Wanderers grip on the competition. Both semi-final matches were played at Kennington Oval, the home of Surrey County Cricket Club, Royal Engineers defeated Swifts in the first match to be played, and Oxford booked their place in the final a month later with a 1–0 win over Clapham Rovers. Oxford were able to call on their first-choice goalkeeper, Charles Nepean, who had been unable to play in the years final. They also selected William Rawson, whose brother Herbert was in the Engineers team, oxfords players were not all students, as the team included Arthur H. Johnson, an ordained clergyman and Fellow of All Souls College. Around 2,000 spectators were in attendance, a smaller crowd than had attended the previous final, Oxford won the coin toss and elected to begin the game defending the Harleyford Road end of the stadium. Charles Mackarness gave Oxford the lead after just ten minutes, following an Oxford corner kick, a melee developed in front of the Engineers goal, and the ball fell to Mackarness, who shot it over the crowd of players and past goalkeeper William Merriman. Oxford could have had a goal when they managed to get the ball through the Engineers goalposts. At the time, as in cricket, the officials were not permitted to award a goal unless the players appealed for it and it is not recorded why the Oxford players never appealed
Marlow Football Club is an English football club based in Marlow, Buckinghamshire. The club are members of the Southern Football League and play at the Alfred Davis Memorial Ground. They are the football club in England to have applied for entry into the FA Cup every season since its inception in 1871. Their current manager is former Reading Town boss Mark Bartley who took over following the relegation from the Southern Football League in 2012. He was assisted by Marcus Richardson and is now assisted by Neville Roach, the club was formed at a meeting at the Compleat Angler Hotel on 22 November 1870. Cuthbert Ottaway, the first captain of England, played for The Blues at the beginning of its history, in 1871–72 the club competed in the first-ever FA Cup, losing 2–0 to Maidenhead. In 1881–82 they reached the semi-finals, losing 5–0 to Old Etonians, instead, they joined the Spartan League in 1908, but resigned midway through their third season in the league. In 1919 the club left its Crown Meadow ground to move to Star Meadow, resulting in them leaving the Great Western Suburban League, in 1928 they moved to a new ground, which was named after their long-serving secretary, Alfred Davis. They rejoined the Spartan League in 1928, winning Division Two West in 1929–30, in 1965 they joined Division Two of the Athenian League, and were promoted to Division One after finishing third in 1970–71. When the league disbanded in 1984 they joined Division Two North of the Isthmian League and they were transferred to Division Two South the following season, and in 1986–87 they finished second and were promoted to Division One. The following season they won Division One and were promoted to the Premier Division, in 1991–92 the club reached the first round of the FA Cup for the first time since 1892, but lost 6–0 to West Bromwich Albion. The following season Marlow reached the round of the FA Cup. They were drawn at home to Tottenham, but the match was switched to White Hart Lane, Two seasons later they reached the third round again, defeating Oxford United in the first round, before losing 2–0 at Swindon Town in the third. They remained in the Premier Division until being relegated at the end of the 1994–95 season, Two seasons later they were relegated again. In 2004 they were transferred to Division One West of the Southern League, the 2011–12 season saw the club finish bottom of Division One Central of the Southern League and the club was relegated to the Premier Division of the Hellenic Football League. The club managed to promotion a season later back to the Southern League, under manager Mark Bartley. After two seasons in the Southern League Division One Central, Marlow were shuffled over to the Southern League Division One South & West ahead of the 2015–16 season. Marlow play their games at the Alfred Davis Memorial Ground, Oak Tree Road, Marlow, Buckinghamshire
Reigate Priory F.C.
Reigate Priory Football Club is a football club based in Reigate, Surrey, England. They are currently members of the Surrey Elite Intermediate League and play at Park Lane, the club can trace its history as far back as 1870, not long after The Football Association was formed in 1863. In 1871 the club was one of only 15 teams that played for a £20 silver trophy, the team were drawn in the first round against the Royal Engineers, who went on to lose in the final. Reigate Priory withdrew before the game, and Royal Engineers were awarded a walkover, Reigate Priory was also present when the Surrey County F. A. decided to become affiliated to the Football Association on 16 March 1882. The club was one of the original 10 teams present at the meeting took place in Guildford. At the same time, a County Senior Cup competition was introduced, the first winners of this trophy, Priory were victorious six times in the competition before the end of the 20th century. The club is one of the oldest football clubs in the still playing on its original ground. It numbers among its former members WW Read, with whom it enjoyed a long, in 2008 the club became founder members of the Surrey Elite Intermediate League. As of the 2014-15 season, the club is enjoying its 7th consecutive season in the Surrey Elite Intermediate League,1 team and reserves Reigate Priory play their home games at Park Lane, Reigate, Surrey, RH2 8JX
Barnes Rugby Football Club
Barnes Rugby Football Club, formerly known simply as the Barnes Club, is a rugby union club which is claimed by some sources to be the worlds first and oldest club in any code of football. It is claimed that Barnes RFC was founded in as early as 1839 but there is no actual evidence, if the claim is true, then Barnes is the worlds oldest football club in all codes. The club, from Barnes, London, also played a role in the early years of association football. The club currently play in the tier of the English league system. Accounts of the date that the club was formed are contradictory, club records give 1839, while other accounts give credit to eminent club member Ebenezer Cobb Morley and its earliest recorded result was in November 1862 versus Richmond, played at Barn Elms. The club won that match and the replay that followed later in the year, the Barnes Club was a founder member of the Football Association and Morley is often said to be the father of The Football Association. On December 19,1863, Barnes participated in the first ever match under FA rules and it also competed in the first ever FA Cup and continued to do so through to the 1885–86 competition. The first three secretaries of the FA were members of Barnes, Barnes forward Charles Morice represented England in the first ever international football match between Scotland and England played at Hamilton Crescent, Glasgow in 1872. Of the only and original clubs forming the Football Association the Barnes Club alone has throughout the ages been an active and this is a matter of historical fact. For many years the club played at the Harrodian Club before moving to its Barn Elms location in 1987 when the grounds were sold to form a school, Barnes RFC first XV has been promoted eight times since being positioned in Surrey Division Three in 1987
Cambridge University A.F.C.
Cambridge University Association Football Club is an English football club representing the University of Cambridge. Official university publications have claimed that the club was formed in 1856 or 1857, varieties of football have been played for many centuries, but until the mid-19th century, none of the modern codes of football existed. Many different games were played at English Public schools and all of these were simply as football. Naturally, children who had learnt these games at school now sought to play them at university, eton, Harrow and Winchester, in particular, developed codes which revolved around a roughly spherical ball being kicked along the ground. Malden of Trinity combined these and other games in the Cambridge Rules, one of the first codes of football. Debate on the continued, and in 1846, a revised set of Cambridge Rules were created. Some records cite this as the date of the club. The foundation date of 1856 is based upon the 1856 copy of the Cambridge Rules held by Shrewsbury School which is entitled and this may have been the origin of the Cambridge AFC. This is borne out by the fact that the Cambridge Rules were the reference point for the initial rules of The Football Association in October 1863. In 2016 the National Football Museum presented an award to CUAFC who the museum recognise as the oldest football club in the world. Cambridge graduates set up many early football clubs, such as Hallam F. C. in the north and the Forest Club in Essex. Contemporaries described Cambridge as being the first combination team in each player was allotted an area of the field. The 1883 side was the first team to introduce the pyramid 235 formation, following the success of the Cambridge pyramid this formation became the norm for all football teams. Notable players of 1883 side included W. N. Cobbold and their passing, attacking style led to a 3–2 victory in the Varsity match. In this account Cambridge played well together, once Oxford had followed suit, there was immediate talk of a Varsity match, and on 30 March 1874 the two Universities first met. Although the Light Blues succumbed 1–0, they were to dominate their Oxford counterparts until the end of the century, in 1882, and CUAFC were still playing on Parkers Piece. A meeting of the Club concluded that it would be advisable to buy a ground, for Parkers Piece was not appropriate owing to the fact that anyone can walk across and about the ground during the game. But it was not until 1895, however, that they were able to acquire Grange Road, in tandem with the Rugby Club and they were still paying it off until just before the First World War
Uxbridge Football Club are a football club representing Uxbridge but now based in West Drayton, in the London Borough of Hillingdon England. They were established in 1871 and are one of the oldest clubs in the South of England and they were founder members of the Southern League Division Two in 1894 and have reached the 2nd round of the FA Cup once, in the 1873–74 season. The club is affiliated to the Middlesex County Football Association and is a FA chartered standard club and they are currently members of the Southern Football League Division One Central. Uxbridge Football Club was founded in 1871 and the team started playing friendly games, the club folded in 1874, due to financial difficulty and was reformed five years later in 1879. The next 10 years of the club were successful, with the Heron brothers gaining full international caps for England, in 1886 Uxbridge FC amalgamated with Uxbridge Crescents, and played under this name in the 1886-87 season, but changing back to Uxbridge the following season. The amalgamation also saw the club wear red shirts for the first time, which are still the colours worn today, the club stayed in the Southern league for five seasons, before dropping out for financial reasons to join the Middlesex league. However, they survived a single season in the Middlesex league before folding again with a debt of £130. After two seasons the club was reformed and they joined the West Middlesex league, two later they joined the Great Western Combination League and remained there until The Great War. After the First world War they joined the Athenian League, at the end of the 1919–20 season Uxbridge finished second from bottom and were relegated to the Great Western Combination League. The club returned to the Athenian league 4 seasons later and staying in the Athenian league until the 1936–37 season when they failed to be re-elected after finishing bottom of the league twice, the club then moved to the Spartan League, and finished top of the league. However, they were denied the championship, as it was discovered the club had played an ineligible player, the club then joined the London League the season afterwards and then rejoined the Great Western Combination League during World War II. After the war the club rejoined the London League in the 1945–46 season, the following season the club joined the Corinthian League. In 1948 a ground called Honeycroft was bought in Cleveland Road for £5,800, the ground was named HoneyCraft after a large house that stood on the ground. The 1959–60 season was a successful season with the club being Champions of the Corinthian League. The score, England 8 Uxbridge 0, in 1978 the club bought its current ground in West Drayton and also called the ground Honeycroft. The club spent over £170,000 on ground improvements and a 1–1 draw with Arsenal in 1981 saw the opening of the new floodlights. The 1981–82 season saw the finish third in the Athenian League. The club finished second in Division Two South in 1984–85 and gained promotion to Division One, throughout this period of the late 1960s to late 1980s the club was managed by Ron Clack
Sheffield Football Club is an English football club from Sheffield, South Yorkshire. They play in the Northern Premier League Division One South, at level 8 of the English football league system, founded in 1857, the club is the oldest club now playing association football. Sheffield F. C. initially played games under the Sheffield rules, the club competes in the Rules derby with near neighbours Hallam. On the pitch, the clubs finest hour came in 1904 when they won the FA Amateur Cup and they also finished as runners up of the FA Vase in 1977. In 1855, members of a Sheffield cricket club organised informal kick-abouts without any official rules, – subsequently two members, Nathaniel Creswick and William Prest, formed the Sheffield Football Club. The inaugural meeting of the club took place on 24 October 1857 at Parkfield House in the suburb of Highfield, initially, Sheffield FC games were played among club members themselves and took the format of Married v Singles or Professionals v the Rest. Creswick and Prest were responsible for drawing up the rules of play. They were referred to as the Sheffield Rules, and were the first official set of rules, at the time, before the formation of the Football Association, many different kinds of football were popular in England. For example, each of the public schools played football according to their own individual rules. The Sheffield Rules were later adopted by the Sheffield Football Association when it was formed in 1867, sheffields near neighbour, Hallam, was formed in 1860 and in the same year the two clubs first met each other in a local derby which is still contested today. By 1862 there were 15 clubs in the Sheffield area and they became members of The Football Association on 30 November 1863 but continued to use their own set of rules. On 2 January 1865, the club played its first fixture outside Sheffield against Nottingham, by this time the club had decided only to play teams outside Sheffield in order to seek a bigger challenge. On 31 March 1866, there was a match between a team representing the city of Sheffield and one representing London, at Battersea Park, Rules that differed only slightly from the FA rules were used. The game, played as an aside, was won by London by 2 goals. However the matter of rules remained a problem with Sheffield clubs continuing to play by their own rules, Sheffield clubs finally adopted the FA rules in 1878. They would reach the 4th Round of the competition in 1877–78 and their reluctance to play against local clubs led to the formation of Thursday Wanderers in 1876, a team of players registered to Sheffield who wished to play in the Sheffield Challenge Cup. The Wanderers operated from 1876 to 1879, winning the cup in their final year, after the legalisation of professionalism, the staunchly amateur Sheffield suggested to the FA the creation of a cup exclusively for amateur clubs. The FA Amateur Cup was inaugurated in 1893 and Sheffield themselves won the competition in 1904 and they joined their first league competition in 1889 when entering the Midland League, but left after just one season when they finished bottom of the table
Clapham Rovers F.C.
Clapham Rovers was from its foundation in 1869 a leading English sports organisation in the two dominant codes of football, association football and rugby union. It was a prominent club in the late 19th century but is now defunct, the club played variously on Clapham Common, Tooting Bec Common and Wandsworth Common and wore a cerise and French-grey kit. The club was formed on 10 August 1869 by a meeting arranged by W. E. Rawlinson, at this very first meeting it was agreed to play under both codes, with Association rules to be played one week, and Rugby the other. This peculiar feature in the constitution of the club obtained for the club the sobriquet of the Hybrid Club, the first match was played on 25 September 1869, against the Wanderers, at that time arguably the strongest Association club. Despite the prowess of their opponents The Rovers won by one goal to nil, at the close of the 1870 season only two matches had been lost, one under each rules, and in both instances the return match was won. Clapham Rovers were one of the fifteen teams to play in the very first edition of the FA Cup, the first ever FA Cup goal was scored by Clapham Rovers Jarvis Kenrick, in a 3–0 victory over Upton Park on 11 November 1871. Rovers greatest achievement was winning the FA Cup in 1879–80 with a 1–0 win over Oxford University at The Kennington Oval, the previous year, Clapham Rovers had also reached the final, but lost 1–0 to Old Etonians. Clapham Rovers were also one of ten members of the Surrey County Football Association. The clubs strength in rugby was borne out by their record, from 1870 to 1881 the club played 151 Rugby games, winning 80, losing 30, and drawing 41. During the 1870s they fielded a team that had four internationals, R. H. Birkett was captain, his brother, L. Birkett, and the Bryden brothers. Additionally Crampton, and Walker were well regarded forwards and Clapham was known to have the strongest combination of the time behind the scrummage. On 26 January 1871,32 members representing twenty-one London and suburban football clubs that followed Rugby School rules assembled at the Pall Mall Restaurant in Regent Street, E. C. Holmes, captain of the Richmond Club assumed the presidency. It was resolved unanimously that the formation of a Rugby Football Society was desirable and thus the Rugby Football Union was formed. A president, a secretary and treasurer, and a committee of thirteen were elected, R. H. Birkett represented The Rovers and was one of the thirteen original committee members. The first international match was played between Scotland and England in 1871 and The Rovers provided R. H. Birkett. In this match he scored Englands first ever try, when the club played one of the strongest and most well established clubs, Richmond, for the first time on 21 October 1871, they won the match by 1 goal and 2 tries. The date of the dissolution is unclear, although the last time they competed in the FA Cup was in the 1885–86 season. Their most successful player, Norman Bailey, was described as a Clapham Rovers player when he made the last of his 19 England appearances on 19 March 1887
Old Etonians F.C.
The Old Etonian Association Football Club is an English football club whose players are alumni of Eton College, in Eton, Berkshire. Founded by Lord Kinnaird, they were the last amateur or true blue club to win the FA Cup on 25 March 1882 when they beat Blackburn Rovers 1–0 at The Oval and they lost 2–1 after extra time to another Blackburn club, Blackburn Olympic, the following year. In all, they reached the six times in nine years between 1875 and 1883, winning twice. They also supplied a number of players for the England team, in modern times, Old Etonians are members of the Amateur Football Alliance and field three teams in the Arthurian League. The 1st XI have won the leagues Premier Division title on two occasions, whitfeld scored in a 2–1 victory. Official website Old Etonians at the Football Club History Database
Maidenhead United F.C.
Maidenhead United Football Club is a semi-professional English football club in Maidenhead, Berkshire. They currently play in the National League South, the tier of English football. The club was founded in 1870 and moved to their current ground at York Road the following year, the Football Association have acknowledged that it is the oldest senior football ground continuously used by the same club. On 16 February 1871 the club played their first game on the York Road site against Marlow, the club were one of the original 15 entrants for the first-ever FA Cup competition in 1871–72. The following season reached the last four before losing to Oxford University. Maidenhead reached the quarter-finals in the two seasons, but in 1876 withdrew, returning the following season. They also entered the first-ever Berks & Bucks Cup competition in 1878, in 1904 Maidenhead joined the Great Western Suburban League. Maidenhead Norfolkians, meanwhile, were founded in 1884 and were members of the South Bucks & East Berks League before also joining the West Berks League. In 1904 they joined Maidenhead FC in the Great Western Suburban League, Norfolkians played at Kidwells Park which can still be seen to this day, but as a public park – it once staged a Berks & Bucks Cup Final. After the Great War the two clubs amalgamated as Maidenhead Town and adopted the black and white stripes. They had immediate success winning the Great Western League, in 1920 the name United was adopted and two years later they entered the Spartan League. They won the three times in their nineteen-year stay. In 1936 Maidenhead reached the semi-final of the FA Amateur Cup losing 4–1 to Ilford at West Ham in front of 18,000 spectators and it was that season that the ground record attendance of 7,989 was set when Southall came to York Road in the quarter-final. In the 1929–30 season the club’s goal-scoring record for a season was set when Jack Palethorpe scored 65 goals in 39 games and he went on to play for Sheffield Wednesday and scored in the Owls FA Cup win in 1935. Following the end of the Second World War the club entered the Corinthian League and they also made three appearances in the First Round Proper of the FA Cup. In 1963 United joined the Athenian League, but were unable to repeat their Corinthian success and they had a flirtation with promotion to the Premier Division in 1979 and 1980 under Geoff Anthony, and then again in 1985 under Brian Caterer and Colin Lippiatt. It took four seasons to get out of Division Two, which was achieved under the guidance of Martyn Spong in 1991. An Isthmian League record of 13 straight wins at the start of the season was the springboard to success, following the departure of Spong to Enfield, Gary Goodwin, John Clements and then John Watt took on the manager’s job with mediocre results, the club regularly finishing mid-table
Civil Service F.C.
Civil Service Football Club is an English football club based in the city of London. However, the club is now a distinct entity and appears to have been so since the late nineteenth century. At what point the Civil Service Rugby Club became an entity from the Football Club is unclear. Certainly, the published by the official Football and Rugby clubs respectively do not refer to a joint history past even 1863. However, the club was still an entity when it became a founding member of the Rugby Football Union in 1871. However, in 1892 contemporary sources refer to Clapham Rovers as being unique in the respect that it played both codes, suggesting that the Civil Service had distinct teams by that point. The club was one of the founding sides of the Football Association on 26 October 1863, and lays claim to an earlier. It was represented at the meeting by Mr. Warne of the War Office. Civil Service was also one of the fifteen entrants to the first ever FA Cup competition in 1871–72, several members of the Civil Service took a prominent role in organising the first representative matches between sides representing England and Scotland in 1870. Civil Service played a significant role in the introduction and popularization of the game of football in Europe early in the 1900s through touring, undertaking their first continental tour in 1901, in recognition of their contributions the club is an honorary life member of Real Madrid and Slavia Prague. Early in the history the decision was taken to remain an amateur side in the face of the emergence of the professional game. Civil Service was subsequently active in the formation of amateur leagues including the Amateur Football Alliance, the Isthmian League. They also captured the Southern Amateur League title in 1913 and 1914, in later years clubs accumulation of honours was modest with a SAL title in 1939 and two more league triumphs in 1969 and 1971. More recently the club has seen the return of a measure of success. They captured the AFA Senior Cup in 1997 with a 4–3 win over Lensbury, the club has nine sides competing in the Southern Amateur League and a Vets side playing in the West London Veterans League. The club played in the first ever football match at Buckingham Palace in October 2013 to mark the Football Associations 150th anniversary. For notable Rugby players please see CS Rugby 1863 William A. Baillie-Hamilton - Represented Scotland in the international match in November 1870. William Heap Bailey - Represented Scotland in the international match in November 1870
Southall Football Club is a football club based in Southall in the London Borough of Ealing, England. The club is affiliated to the Middlesex County Football Association They are currently members of the Spartan South Midlands League Division One, the club was founded in 1871, and two seasons later they entered the FA Cup. After playing friendlies and cup competitions they joined the West London League as founder members in 1892, four seasons later the club joined Division Two of the Southern Football League in 1896. The club returning to amateur status merged with another club called Southall Athletic, in 1907 the club entered the Great Western Suburban League, where they remained until the first world war. After the first World War the club joined the Athenian League for the start of the 1919–20 season and they stayed in The Athenian league until the 1972–73 season during which time they won the league once in the 1926–27 season, two season after reaching the FA Amateur Cup final. Also during their Athenian league campaign the club reached the Third round of the FA Cup eventually losing to Watford and they became founding members of the Isthmian League Second Division for the start of the 1973–74 campaign. In their second season of the Isthmian league, they finished as runners up, promotion to the top division also saw the club change its name to Southall & Ealing Borough. The club stayed in the division until the end of the 1990–91 season. When the league reorganised for the 1991–92 season the club was moved up to the new division two, however they could only spend two seasons in the higher division before being relegated back to the bottom division of the league. During which time the club lost its Western Road ground, and they remained in the lowest division of the Isthmian league until the end of the 1999–00 season, when, finishing bottom, they were relegated to the Combined Counties Football League. They remained in the Combined Counties League until March 2006, when they were expelled, however, the club was able to clear its debts and continued to operate, restarting two levels lower, in the premier division of the Middlesex County Football League from the 2006–07 season. However, after the division was cut from 15 to 11 teams Southall were put in Division one Central and East, in 2010 the club was taken over by Football & More Ltd. Southall play their games at Reynolds Field ground, Perivale Lane, Perivale, Greenford. They are currently tenants of Hanwell Town, players who have achieved success in the media or other professions. Managers/Coaches that have played/managed in the league or any foreign equivalent to this level. Dave Anderson Gordon Bartlett Tom Tranter Official site last updated June 2014
The Oval, currently known for sponsorship reasons as the Kia Oval, is an international cricket ground in Kennington, in the London Borough of Lambeth, South London. The Oval has been the ground of Surrey County Cricket Club since it was opened in 1845. It was the first ground in England to host international Test cricket in September 1880, the final Test match of the English season is traditionally played there. In addition to cricket, The Oval has hosted a number of historically significant sporting events. In 1870, it staged Englands first international match, versus Scotland. It hosted the first FA Cup final in 1872, as well as those between 1874 and 1892, in 1876, it held both the England v Wales and England v Scotland rugby international matches, and in 1877, rugbys first Varsity match. The Oval is built on part of the former Kennington Common, Cricket matches were played on the common throughout the early 18th century. The earliest recorded match was the London v Dartford match on 18 June 1724. However, as the common was used regularly for public executions of those convicted at the Surrey Assizes. Kennington Common was eventually enclosed in the mid 19th century under a scheme sponsored by the Royal Family, in 1844, the site of the Kennington Oval was a market garden owned by the Duchy of Cornwall. Hence, Surrey County Cricket Club was established in 1845, the popularity of the ground was immediate and the strength of the SCCC grew. On 3 May 1875 the club acquired the remainder of the leasehold for a term of 31 years from the Otter Trustees for the sum of £2,800. In 1868,20,000 spectators gathered at The Oval for the first game of the 1868 Aboriginal cricket tour of England, the first tour of England by any foreign side. Thanks to C. W. Alcock, the Secretary of Surrey from 1872 to 1907, the Oval, thereby, became the second ground to stage a Test, after Melbourne Cricket Ground. In 1882, Australia won the Test by seven runs within two days, the Sporting Times printed a mocking obituary notice for English cricket, which led to the creation of the Ashes trophy, which is still contested whenever England plays Australia. The first Test double century was scored at The Oval in 1884 by Australias Billy Murdoch, surreys ground is noted as having the first artificial lighting at a sports arena, in the form of gas-lamps, dating to 1889. The current pavilion was completed in time for the 1898 season, in 1907, South Africa became the 2nd visiting Test team to play a Test match at the ground. In 1928, the West Indies played its first Test match at The Oval, in 1936, India became the fifth foreign visiting Test side to play at The Oval, followed by Pakistan in 1954 and Sri Lanka in 1998
London /ˈlʌndən/ is the capital and most populous city of England and the United Kingdom. Standing on the River Thames in the south east of the island of Great Britain and it was founded by the Romans, who named it Londinium. Londons ancient core, the City of London, largely retains its 1. 12-square-mile medieval boundaries. London is a global city in the arts, commerce, education, entertainment, fashion, finance, healthcare, media, professional services, research and development, tourism. It is crowned as the worlds largest financial centre and has the fifth- or sixth-largest metropolitan area GDP in the world, London is a world cultural capital. It is the worlds most-visited city as measured by international arrivals and has the worlds largest city airport system measured by passenger traffic, London is the worlds leading investment destination, hosting more international retailers and ultra high-net-worth individuals than any other city. Londons universities form the largest concentration of education institutes in Europe. In 2012, London became the first city to have hosted the modern Summer Olympic Games three times, London has a diverse range of people and cultures, and more than 300 languages are spoken in the region. Its estimated mid-2015 municipal population was 8,673,713, the largest of any city in the European Union, Londons urban area is the second most populous in the EU, after Paris, with 9,787,426 inhabitants at the 2011 census. The citys metropolitan area is the most populous in the EU with 13,879,757 inhabitants, the city-region therefore has a similar land area and population to that of the New York metropolitan area. London was the worlds most populous city from around 1831 to 1925, Other famous landmarks include Buckingham Palace, the London Eye, Piccadilly Circus, St Pauls Cathedral, Tower Bridge, Trafalgar Square, and The Shard. The London Underground is the oldest underground railway network in the world, the etymology of London is uncertain. It is an ancient name, found in sources from the 2nd century and it is recorded c.121 as Londinium, which points to Romano-British origin, and hand-written Roman tablets recovered in the city originating from AD 65/70-80 include the word Londinio. The earliest attempted explanation, now disregarded, is attributed to Geoffrey of Monmouth in Historia Regum Britanniae and this had it that the name originated from a supposed King Lud, who had allegedly taken over the city and named it Kaerlud. From 1898, it was accepted that the name was of Celtic origin and meant place belonging to a man called *Londinos. The ultimate difficulty lies in reconciling the Latin form Londinium with the modern Welsh Llundain, which should demand a form *lōndinion, from earlier *loundiniom. The possibility cannot be ruled out that the Welsh name was borrowed back in from English at a later date, and thus cannot be used as a basis from which to reconstruct the original name. Until 1889, the name London officially applied only to the City of London, two recent discoveries indicate probable very early settlements near the Thames in the London area
Charles Coleridge Mackarness was the Archdeacon of the East Riding between 1898 and 1916. In his youth, he had been an amateur sportsman and played twice in the FA Cup Final for Oxford University, being on the victorious side in 1874. Mackarness was born at Tardebigge in Worcestershire, the eldest son of John Mackarness and his wife, Alethea Buchanan Mackarness and his mother was the youngest daughter of John Taylor Coleridge, a judge, who was the nephew of the poet Samuel Taylor Coleridge. He was baptised at St Bartholomews Church, Tardebigge on 11 August 1850, another sister, Mary, married Bernard Coleridge, 2nd Baron Coleridge, a judge who became MP for Sheffield Attercliffe. Mackarness was educated at Winchester College, representing the school at cricket in 1868 and he matriculated and went up to Exeter College, Oxford in 1869, graduating with a BA 2nd class in 1873, and an MA in 1876. In 1901, he became a fellow of Denstone College and he obtained his Bachelor of Divinity and Doctor of Divinity degrees in 1914. Having played cricket for Winchester College in 1868, he made appearances for the Gentlemen of Devon. While at Oxford, he made appearances for teams, including a trial for the university team in May 1873. Mackarness was a member of the Oxford University Association Football Club on 9 November 1871. Mackarness played for the university side during its years, generally playing as a full back. Described as having a brilliant kick, never misses his kick, he was a back who knows, Oxford University did not enter the inaugural FA Cup tournament in which the first matches were played two days after the Oxford University AFC was founded. Queens, however, were unable to raise the funds to travel to London and withdrew from the competition, giving Oxford a bye into the final. In the final, played at Lillie Bridge on 29 March 1873, in a desperate attempt to secure an equalising goal, Oxford took the unusual step of dispensing with the use of a goalkeeper and moved Andrew Leach upfield to play as a forward. This plan back-fired at around the 80-minute mark, however, when Charles Wollaston broke through and scored a goal for the Wanderers. The final was played at Kennington Oval on 10 March 1874, Mackarness again played as the universitys sole full-back. Ten minutes later, the university doubled their lead with a goal from Frederick Patton, after some skilful dribbling by captain Cuthbert Ottaway and Robert Vidal. Despite some late attacks on goal from the Sappers, Oxford hung on to win 2–0 and thus secured the cup for the first, Mackarness was ordained as a deacon in 1874 and as a priest the following year. He was the Assistant Curate of St Marys, Reading from 1874 to 1879, and also a chaplain to his father, from 1887, he combined this role with that of rural dean at Aylesbury until January 1889, when he became vicar of St Martins, Scarborough
International Standard Book Number
The International Standard Book Number is a unique numeric commercial book identifier. An ISBN is assigned to each edition and variation of a book, for example, an e-book, a paperback and a hardcover edition of the same book would each have a different ISBN. The ISBN is 13 digits long if assigned on or after 1 January 2007, the method of assigning an ISBN is nation-based and varies from country to country, often depending on how large the publishing industry is within a country. The initial ISBN configuration of recognition was generated in 1967 based upon the 9-digit Standard Book Numbering created in 1966, the 10-digit ISBN format was developed by the International Organization for Standardization and was published in 1970 as international standard ISO2108. Occasionally, a book may appear without a printed ISBN if it is printed privately or the author does not follow the usual ISBN procedure, however, this can be rectified later. Another identifier, the International Standard Serial Number, identifies periodical publications such as magazines, the ISBN configuration of recognition was generated in 1967 in the United Kingdom by David Whitaker and in 1968 in the US by Emery Koltay. The 10-digit ISBN format was developed by the International Organization for Standardization and was published in 1970 as international standard ISO2108, the United Kingdom continued to use the 9-digit SBN code until 1974. The ISO on-line facility only refers back to 1978, an SBN may be converted to an ISBN by prefixing the digit 0. For example, the edition of Mr. J. G. Reeder Returns, published by Hodder in 1965, has SBN340013818 -340 indicating the publisher,01381 their serial number. This can be converted to ISBN 0-340-01381-8, the check digit does not need to be re-calculated, since 1 January 2007, ISBNs have contained 13 digits, a format that is compatible with Bookland European Article Number EAN-13s. An ISBN is assigned to each edition and variation of a book, for example, an ebook, a paperback, and a hardcover edition of the same book would each have a different ISBN. The ISBN is 13 digits long if assigned on or after 1 January 2007, a 13-digit ISBN can be separated into its parts, and when this is done it is customary to separate the parts with hyphens or spaces. Separating the parts of a 10-digit ISBN is also done with either hyphens or spaces, figuring out how to correctly separate a given ISBN number is complicated, because most of the parts do not use a fixed number of digits. ISBN issuance is country-specific, in that ISBNs are issued by the ISBN registration agency that is responsible for country or territory regardless of the publication language. Some ISBN registration agencies are based in national libraries or within ministries of culture, in other cases, the ISBN registration service is provided by organisations such as bibliographic data providers that are not government funded. In Canada, ISBNs are issued at no cost with the purpose of encouraging Canadian culture. In the United Kingdom, United States, and some countries, where the service is provided by non-government-funded organisations. Australia, ISBNs are issued by the library services agency Thorpe-Bowker