1867 in architecture
The year 1867 in architecture involved some significant architectural events and new buildings. May 12 — Construction work begins on Toluca Cathedral in Mexico, may 20 — Queen Victoria lays the foundation stone for the Royal Albert Hall in London, designed by Captain Francis Fowke and Colonel H. Y. Ildefons Cerdà publishes Teoría General de la Urbanización, the United States Congress directs the United States Army Corps of Engineers to begin improvements on the Navigation Structures at Frankfort Harbor, Michigan. January 1 — The John A.29, Alaska Grande halle de la Villette, France, designed by Jules de Mérindol, grand Prix de Rome, architecture — Émile Bénard. March 10 — Hector Guimard, French Art Nouveau architect June 8 — Frank Lloyd Wright, American architect, interior designer and educator June 22 — John A
Emanuel Vincent Harris OBE, RA, often known under the pseudonym E. Vincent Harris, was an English architect who designed several important public buildings. He was born in Devonport and educated at Kingsbridge Grammar School and he was articled to the Plymouth architect James Harvey in 1893, in 1897 he moved to London, where he assisted E. Keynes Purchase, Leonard Stokes and Sir William Emerson. From 1901 to 1907 he worked for the London County Council before setting up in private practice and he was primarily a classicist, A. Stuart Gray wrote, Some of his buildings suggest the influence of Sir Edwin Lutyens, but are bolder and his work was often criticised by modernist architects. He became an Associate of the Royal Academy in 1942 and he died in Bath in 1971 and is buried in the village of Chaffcombe, Somerset
1874 in architecture
The year 1874 in architecture involved some significant architectural events and new buildings. California State Capitol in Sacramento, California, USA, eads Bridge at St. Louis, USA, designed by James B. Grand Synagogue of Paris, designed by Alfred-Philibert Aldrophe, palais Garnier, France, designed by Charles Garnier. St. Nicholas Church, Germany, designed by George Gilbert Scott, Richard Wagners villa in Bayreuth, Germany. The Ancoats Hospital, an enlargement of the current building, in Manchester, designed by Lewis and Crawcroft, George Devey begins to remodel Ascott House in England. Royal Gold Medal - George Edmund Street, grand Prix de Rome, Benoît Édouard Loviot
George Gilbert Scott
Over 800 buildings were designed or altered by him. Born in Gawcott, Buckinghamshire, Scott was the son of a cleric and he studied architecture as a pupil of James Edmeston and, from 1832 to 1834, worked as an assistant to Henry Roberts. He worked as an assistant for his friend, Sampson Kempthorne, who specialised in the design of workhouses, Scotts first work was built in 1833. It was a vicarage for his father, a clergyman, in the village of Wappenham and it replaced the previous vicarage occupied by other relatives of Scott. Scott went on to several other buildings in the village. In about 1835, Scott took on William Bonython Moffatt as his assistant, over ten years or so, Scott and Moffatt designed more than forty workhouses, during the boom in building such institutions brought about by the Poor Law of 1834. In 1837 they built the Parish Church of St John in Wall, at Reading, they built the prison in a picturesque, castellated style. Scotts first church, St Nicholas, was built at Lincoln, with Moffat he built the Neo-Norman church of St Peter at Norbiton, Surrey.
Meanwhile, he was inspired by Augustus Pugin to participate in the Gothic revival, while still in partnership with Moffat. He designed the Martyrs Memorial on St Giles, and St Giles Church, Camberwell and it did, like many churches of the time, incorporate wooden galleries, not used in medieval churches and highly disapproved of by the high church ecclesiological movement. In 1844 he received the commission to rebuild the Nikolaikirche in Hamburg, Scotts entry had been the only design in the Gothic style. In 1854 he remodelled the Camden Chapel in Camberwell, a project in which the critic John Ruskin took a close interest and he added an apse, in a Byzantine style, integrating it to the existing plain structure by substituting a waggon roof for the existing flat ceiling. Scott was appointed architect to Westminster Abbey in 1849, in 1853 he built a Gothic terraced block adjoining the abbey in Broad Sanctuary. Between 1864 and 1876, the Albert Memorial, designed by Scott, was constructed in Hyde Park and it was a commission on behalf of Queen Victoria in memory of her husband, Prince Albert.
Scott advocated the use of Gothic architecture for secular buildings, rejecting what he called the absurd supposition that Gothic architecture is exclusively and intrinsically ecclesiastical and he was the winner of a competition to design new buildings in Whitehall to house the Foreign Office and War Office. Before work began, the administration which had approved his plans went out of office, the new Prime Minister, objected to Scotts use of the Gothic, and the architect, after some resistance drew up new plans in a more acceptable style. Scott was awarded the RIBAs Royal Gold Medal in 1859 and he was appointed an Honorary Liveryman of the Turners Company and in 1872, he was knighted. He died in 1878 and is buried in Westminster Abbey, a London County Council blue plaque marks Scotts residence at the Admirals House on Admirals Walk in Hampstead
Frank Heyling Furness was an American architect of the Victorian era. Furness was a Medal of Honor recipient for his bravery during the Civil War, toward the end of his life, his bold style fell out of fashion, and many of his significant works were demolished in the 20th century. Furness was born in Philadelphia on November 12,1839 and his father, William Henry Furness, was a prominent Unitarian minister and abolitionist, and his brother, Horace Howard Furness, became Americas outstanding Shakespeare scholar. Frank, did not attend a university and apparently did not travel to Europe and he began his architectural training in the office of John Fraser, Philadelphia, in the 1850s. He attended the École des Beaux-Arts-inspired atelier of Richard Morris Hunt in New York from 1859 to 1861, Furness considered himself Hunts apprentice and was influenced by Hunts dynamic personality and accomplished, elegant buildings. He was influenced by the concepts of the French engineer Viollet-le-Duc. The trio lasted less than five years, and its major commissions were Rodef Shalom Synagogue, Louis Sullivan worked briefly as a draftsman for Furness & Hewitt, and his use of organic decorative motifs can be traced, at least in part, to Furness.
By the beginning of 1876, Furness had broken with Hewitt and his brother William formed their own firm, G. W. & W. D. Hewitt, and became Furnesss biggest competitor, in 1881, Furness promoted his chief draftsman, Allen Evans, to partner, and, in 1886, did the same for four other long-time employees. The firm continued under the name Furness, Evans & Company as late as 1932, over his 45-year career, Furness designed more than 600 buildings, including banks, office buildings and synagogues. As chief architect of the Reading Railroad, he designed about 130 stations and he was one of the most highly paid architects of his era, and a founder of the Philadelphia Chapter of the American Institute of Architects. C. New York state, and Chicago, Furness broke from dogmatic adherence to European trends, and juxtaposed styles and elements in a forceful manner. His strong architectural will is seen in the way he combined materials, iron, terra cotta. And his straightforward use of materials, often in innovative or technologically advanced ways.
Furness married Fanny Fassit in 1866, and they had four children, Theodore, James and he died on June 27,1912, at Idlewild, his summer house outside Media, and is buried at Laurel Hill Cemetery in Philadelphia. During the Civil War, Furness served as Captain and commander of Company F and he received the Medal of Honor for his gallantry at the Battle of Trevilian Station. Rank and organization, Company F, 6th Pennsylvania Cavalry and date, At Trevilian Station, June 12,1864. Date of issue, October 20,1899, hey are depicted in a resting position, as if waiting to be seized at any instant and brought into battle
Great Zlatoust Church
The Bolshoi Zlatoust is a 77-metre -high bell tower that formerly dominated the skyline of the city Yekaterinburg before the Russian Revolution. It was the tallest building in the Urals region and it was destroyed in 1930 and rebuilt 80 years later. This church occupied the place during the early 19th century, the bell tower was designed in 1847 by Vasily Morgan in a Russo-Byzantine style derived from Konstantin Thons works. It required almost 30 years to build, the church in the ground floor was dedicated to St. Maximian, one of the Seven Sleepers and the patron saint of the Czars son-in-law, Maximilian de Beauharnais, 3rd Duke of Leuchtenberg. After the Russian Revolution the church of St. Maximian was closed for worship, the church was rebuilt in the early 21st century. The builders relied on old photographs and descriptions
In Australia, Wardell designed many public buildings. Most notable were St Patricks Cathedral, Government House, Melbourne, St Johns College, University of Sydney and St Marys Cathedral and he worked in both the Gothic and classical styles. Wardell not only constructed major works in the sector, he maintained a large private practice building houses. He was Inspector-General of Public Works and Building, for the Colony of Victoria, as an architect he is often compared with his friend and English counterpart Augustus Pugin. As a young man, Wardell studied under the Gothic architect Augustus Pugin, Pugin became his friend and mentor, and was to inspire him not only in architecture but in his religious convictions. In 1843 Wardell made the conventionally unusual decision to convert from Anglicanism to Roman Catholicism, the leader of the Oxford movement, John Henry Newman, did not himself make the leap of faith until 1845. Wardells conversion to the Roman Catholic faith was the result of a period of internal reflection.
This affiliation to a high church ritual was manifested in his architectural interests which concentrated on the more Gothic designs of Englands medieval architecture. For the remainder of his life he saw architecture as a means of praising God and he always had a room in his home set aside as a chapel for personal devotion which he visited several times during the course of a day. Dominating this room was an ancient carved wooden French cross that now belongs to the Melbourne Diocesan Historical Commission, Wardell wrote, in particular two prayers devoted to the Virgin Mary, who he seems to have regarded as his especial saint. It is known that he prayed for help and guidance when working on plans of church buildings. On 7 October 1847 Wardell married Lucy Ann Butler, the daughter of William Henry Butler, the couple married at St. Marys Catholic Church and are known to have had at least two sons and one daughter. By the time of his marriage aged 23, he was already a successful architect, between 1846 and 1858 he designed over 30 churches in England, at the rate of over two a year, a phenomenal output.
As this was an era of church restoration it is possible that this high figure may include churches Wardell only redesigned or restored. Whatever the true number of churches he designed in England, this was a not only of church restoration. Wardells work wasnt just limited to England though and he was commissioned by Robert Hope-Scott and his wife, of Abbotsford, Melrose, to build a church for the growing Roman Catholic community in the nearby town of Galashiels. The designs drawn, work began in 1856 and wouldnt be completed for another 20 years and our Lady & Saint Andrews is still in use as the Parish Church to this day. Wardell and John Newman were by no means the only converts to Catholicism, thus the newly converted Pugin and his protegé Wardell were well placed to receive the numerous commissions which came flooding in
In 1682, William Penn, an English Quaker, founded the city to serve as capital of the Pennsylvania Colony. Philadelphia was one of the capitals in the Revolutionary War. In the 19th century, Philadelphia became an industrial center. It became a destination for African-Americans in the Great Migration. The areas many universities and colleges make Philadelphia a top international study destination, as the city has evolved into an educational, with a gross domestic product of $388 billion, Philadelphia ranks ninth among world cities and fourth in the nation. Philadelphia is the center of activity in Pennsylvania and is home to seven Fortune 1000 companies. The Philadelphia skyline is growing, with a market of almost 81,900 commercial properties in 2016 including several prominent skyscrapers. The city is known for its arts and rich history, Philadelphia has more outdoor sculptures and murals than any other American city. Fairmount Park, when combined with the adjacent Wissahickon Valley Park in the watershed, is one of the largest contiguous urban park areas in the United States.
The 67 National Historic Landmarks in the city helped account for the $10 billion generated by tourism, Philadelphia is the only World Heritage City in the United States. Before Europeans arrived, the Philadelphia area was home to the Lenape Indians in the village of Shackamaxon, the Lenape are a Native American tribe and First Nations band government. They are called Delaware Indians and their territory was along the Delaware River watershed, western Long Island. Most Lenape were pushed out of their Delaware homeland during the 18th century by expanding European colonies, Lenape communities were weakened by newly introduced diseases, mainly smallpox, and violent conflict with Europeans. Iroquois people occasionally fought the Lenape, surviving Lenape moved west into the upper Ohio River basin. The American Revolutionary War and United States independence pushed them further west, in the 1860s, the United States government sent most Lenape remaining in the eastern United States to the Indian Territory under the Indian removal policy.
In the 21st century, most Lenape now reside in the US state of Oklahoma, with communities living in Wisconsin, Ontario. The Dutch considered the entire Delaware River valley to be part of their New Netherland colony, in 1638, Swedish settlers led by renegade Dutch established the colony of New Sweden at Fort Christina and quickly spread out in the valley. In 1644, New Sweden supported the Susquehannocks in their defeat of the English colony of Maryland
1868 in architecture
The year 1868 in architecture involved some significant events. July 15 – Foundation stone laid for St Colmans Cathedral, Ireland, designed by E. W. Pugin, Alfred Waterhouse wins the competition for the design of Manchester Town Hall in England. Henry Hobson Richardson is commissioned to build the Alexander Dallas Bache Monument in Washington, january 9 – Pikes Opera House, New York City, USA. January 20 – Neues Theater, Germany, August 15 – Teatro Giuseppe Verdi, Italy. September 1 – Vienna Künstlerhaus, designed by August Weber, october 1 – In London, England, St Pancras railway station train shed, designed by W. H. Barlow. Bayswater, Gloucester Road and Notting Hill Gate Underground stations, october 10 – Runcorn Railway Bridge, England. November 30 – St Andrews Cathedral, Australia, completed by Edmund Blacket, gilseys Apollo Hall, New York City, USA. Chamberlin Iron Front Building, Pennsylvania, USA, halle Saint-Pierre, France Royal Hampshire County Hospital, England, designed by George Butterfield, advised by Florence Nightingale.
Abbey Mills Pumping Stations, England, designed by engineer Joseph Bazalgette, Edmund Cooper, ilkeston Town Hall, England, designed by Richard Charles Sutton. Spanish Synagogue, designed by Vojtěch Ignátz Ullmann, grønland Church, Norway, designed by Wilhelm von Hanno. Sedgwick House, England, designed by Paley and Austin, vinegar warehouse for Hill & Evans, 33–35 Eastcheap in the City of London, designed by Robert Lewis Roumieu. Royal Gold Medal – Austen Henry Layard, grand Prix de Rome, Alfred Leclerc
Government House, Melbourne
Government House, Melbourne is the office and official residence of the Governor of Victoria. The current Governor of Victoria is Her Excellency The Honourable Linda Dessau AM, the House is set next to the Royal Botanic Gardens and surrounded by Kings Domain in Melbourne. It was the residence of the Governor-General of Australia from 1901 to 1930. It is the largest Government House in the former British Empire and is almost double the size of the Viceregal Lodge, the land for Government House was set aside by Lieutenant-Governor of Victoria, Charles La Trobe, in 1841. In 1857, Ferdinand von Mueller, Director of the Royal Botanic Gardens, landscaped the area, including Government House reserve. Construction of the building did not start until 1871 and was completed in 1876, while La Trobe was Lieutenant-Governor he lived in La Trobes Cottage. Between 1854 and 1874, Governors lived at Toorak House, lived in Bishopscourt in East Melbourne until the present Government House was occupied in 1876.
Between the formation of the Commonwealth of Australia in 1901 and 1927, during this period Governors of Victoria lived at Stonington mansion. The House has been in use by the Governors of Victoria since 1934. The building reflects the extravagant style of the period with a booming economy due to the Victorian gold rush, rising from the building is a 145-foot belvedere tower. The mews - a paved area surrounded on three sides by stables, coach houses and staff living quarters is nearby, the garden was designed by John Sayce in 1873 and is thought to be the most intact 19th century mansion garden remaining in Melbourne by the Victorian Heritage Register. Government House Governors of Victoria Governor-General of Australia Government Houses of Australia Government Houses in the Commonwealth Official website Government House Victoria - Virtual Tour
The Bayreuth Festspielhaus or Bayreuth Festival Theatre is an opera house north of Bayreuth, dedicated solely to the performance of operas by the 19th-century German composer Richard Wagner. It is the venue for the annual Bayreuth Festival, for which it was specifically conceived, Wagner adapted the design of the Festspielhaus from an unrealised project by Gottfried Semper for an opera house in Munich, without the architects permission, and supervised its construction. Ludwig II of Bavaria provided the funding for the construction. The foundation stone was laid on 22 May 1872, Wagners 59th birthday, the building was first opened for the premiere of the complete four-opera cycle of Der Ring des Nibelungen, from 13 to 17 August 1876. Only the entry façade exhibits the typical late-19th-century ornamentation, while the remainder of the exterior is modest, the interior is mainly wood and has a reverberation time of 1.55 seconds. The Festspielhaus is a building, in fact, it is the largest free standing timber structure ever erected.
This is known as continental seating, many contemporary movie theaters have adopted this style of seating, which gives every seat an equal and uninterrupted view of the stage. The capacity of the Festspielhaus is 1,925 and has a volume of 10,000 cubic metres, the Festspielhaus features a double proscenium, which gives the audience the illusion that the stage is further away than it actually is. The double proscenium and the orchestra pit create – in Wagners term – a mystic gulf between the audience and the stage. This gives a character to performances, and provides a physical reinforcement of the mythic content of most of Wagners operas. The architecture of Festpielhaus accomplished many of Wagners goals and ideals for the performances of his operas including an improvement on the sound and overall look of the production. The Festpielhaus was originally planned to open in 1873, but by that time Wagner had barely raised enough money to put up the walls of his theatre and he began to raise money by traveling and putting on concerts in various cities and countries throughout Europe.
There are, some documents concerning the donation and aid to Wagner for that matter by the Sultan Abdülaziz of the Ottoman Empire, even after Ludwig began funding the project, Wagner had to continue putting on concerts to keep the building project financially afloat. The tours were very taxing on Wagners health and would eventually be a key element to his death on in 1883, a significant feature of the Festspielhaus is its unusual orchestra pit. It is recessed under the stage and covered by a hood and this feature was a central preoccupation for Wagner, since it made the audience concentrate on the drama onstage, rather than the distracting motion of the conductor and musicians. The design corrected the balance of volume between singers and orchestra, creating ideal acoustics for Wagners operas, which are the operas performed at the Festspielhaus. However, this arrangement has made it the most challenging to conduct in. Not only is the crowded pit enveloped in darkness, but the acoustic reverberation makes it difficult to synchronise the orchestra with the singers, conductors must therefore retrain themselves to ignore cues from singers
Richard Norman Shaw
Richard Norman Shaw RA, occasionally styled as Norman Shaw, was a Scottish architect who worked from the 1870s to the 1900s, known for his country houses and for commercial buildings. Shaw was born in Edinburgh, and trained in the London office of William Burn with George Edmund Street, Shaw attended the Royal Academy classes and received a grounding in classicism. There, he met William Eden Nesfield, with whom he partnered in some architectural designs. In 1854–1856 Shaw travelled with a Royal Academy scholarship, collecting sketches that were published as Architectural Sketches from the Continent,1858, in 1863, after sixteen years of training, Shaw opened a practice for a short time with Nesfield. In 1872, he was elected an Associate of the Royal Academy, Shaw worked, among others, for the artists John Callcott Horsley and George Henry Boughton, and the industrialist Lord Armstrong. He designed large houses such as Cragside, Grims Dyke, and Chigwell Hall, Shaw was elected to the Royal Academy in 1877, and co-edited the 1892 collection of essays, Architecture, a profession or an Art.
He firmly believed it was an art, in years, Shaw moved to a heavier classical style which influenced the emerging Edwardian Classicism of the early 20th century. Shaw died in London, where he had designed buildings in areas such as Pont Street. Shaws houses soon attracted the misnomer the Queen Anne style, 1–2 St. Leonards Sussex, 1877–79, private house, now nursing home Bedford Park, the first garden city suburban development, including St. Originally built as the new headquarters of the Metropolitan Police, the two buildings are now used as Parliamentary offices. Andrew Saint, Richard Norman Shaw, revised edition,2010, great Buildings on-line, Richard Norman Shaw Illustrations of Adcote Flickr photoset Archiseek, Richard Norman Shaw