History of Newfoundland and Labrador
The first brief European contact with Newfoundland and Labrador came about 1000 AD when the Vikings briefly settled in LAnse aux Meadows. Around 1500 AD, European explorers and fishermen from England, France, fishing expeditions came seasonally, the first small permanent settlements appeared around 1630 AD. Catholic-Protestant religious tensions were high but mellowed after 1860, the British colony voted against joining Canada in 1869 and became an independent dominion in the early 20th century. Fishing was always the dominant industry, but the collapsed in the Great Depression of the 1930s. Prosperity and self-confidence returned during the Second World War, and after intense debate the people voted to join Canada in 1949, poverty and emigration have remained significant themes in Newfoundland history, despite efforts to modernize after 1949. Most efforts failed, and the collapse of the cod fishing industry was a terrific blow in the 1990s. The oil boom in the 00s has revived the economy, human habitation in Newfoundland and Labrador can be traced back about 9000 years to the people of the Maritime Archaic Tradition.
They were gradually displaced by people of the Dorset Culture the Lnu, or Mikmaq and finally by the Innu and Inuit in Labrador, the first European contact with North America was that of the medieval Norse sailing from Greenland. For several years after 1000 AD they lived in a village on the tip of the Great Northern Peninsula and artifacts of the occupation can still be seen at LAnse aux Meadows, now a UNESCO World Heritage Site. The island was inhabited by the Beothuks and the Mikmaq, from the late 15th Century, European explorers like John Cabot, João Fernandes Lavrador, Gaspar Corte-Real, Jacques Cartier and others began exploration. John Cabot, commissioned by King Henry VII of England, landed on the North East coast of North America in 1497, the exact location of his landing is unknown but the 500th anniversary of his landing was commemorated in Bonavista, Newfoundland. The 1497 voyage has generated debate among historians, with various points in Newfoundland. Fishing vessels with Basque, Portuguese and Spanish crews started to make seasonal expeditions, Basque vessels had been fishing cod shoals off Newfoundlands coasts since the beginning of the 16th century, and their crews used the natural harbour at Placentia.
French fishers began to use the area, a settlement was founded at Placentia at some point during the early 16th Century. From 1616, English Proprietary Governors were appointed, to establish settlements on the island. John Guy was governor of the first settlement at Cupers Cove, other settlements were Bristols Hope, New Cambriol, South Falkland and Avalon which became a province in 1623. The first governor given jurisdiction over all of Newfoundland was Sir David Kirke in 1638, explorers soon realized that the waters around Newfoundland had the best fishing in the North Atlantic. By 1620,300 fishing boats worked the Grand Bank, employing some 10,000 sailors and they dried and salted the cod on the coast and sold it to Spain and Portugal
History of British Columbia
British Columbia is the western most province of Canada. Originally politically constituted as a pair of British colonies, British Columbia joined the Canadian Confederation on July 20,1871, perhaps the most influential historian of British Columbia has been Margaret Ormsby. In British Columbia, A History she presented a model that has been adopted by numerous historians. Chad Reimer says, in many aspects, it still has not been surpassed, Human history in what has come to be known as British Columbia dates back thousands of years. Archaeology has identified dates in British Columbia as early as 13,500 years ago, BC is divided by anthropological theory into three cultural areas - the Northwest Coast, The Plateau and the North. First Nations in each area developed customs and approaches to living that fit the resources in the region, through much of British Columbia salmon are available and formed a substantial part of the diet where available. The term pre-contact is used to describe the period prior to contact between First Nations and European explorers.
The precise time of contact varied according to circumstance but took place on the coast between the 1770s and 1800, in places in the Interior it occurred later. There was frequent contact between bands and voyages across the Strait of Georgia and the Strait of Juan de Fuca were common, the abundance of natural resources, such as salmon and cedar, enabled the development of a complex hierarchical society within coastal communities. With so much food being available, the peoples of the regions could focus their time on other pursuits such as art, politics. The first visitors to present-day British Columbia were Spanish sailors and other European sailors who sailed for the Spanish crown, there is not much evidence to suggest that European traders and explorers regularly came to present-day British Columbia in the 17th century. The arrival of Europeans began to intensify in the mid-18th century, Hernández reached 55° north latitude, becoming the first European to sight the Queen Charlotte Islands and Vancouver Island.
He traded with the natives near Estevan Point, although apparently without landing, the expedition was forced to return to Nueva Galicia, due to the lack of provisions. Since Pérez Hernándezs first expedition failed to achieve its objective, the Spanish organized an expedition in 1775 with the same goal. This expedition was commanded by Bruno de Heceta on board the Santiago, piloted by Pérez Hernández, during this expedition, the Spanish made sure to land several times and formally claim the lands for the Spanish Crown, while verifying the absence of Russian settlements along the coast. In the following years, several other Spanish expeditions would set sail from Nueva Galicia bound for the Pacific Northwest, upon trading his goods for sea otter pelts, his crew in turn traded them for an enormous profit in Macau on their way back to Britain. This led to an influx of traders to the British Columbian coast, in 1788, John Meares, an English navigator and explorer, sailed from China and explored Nootka Sound and the neighbouring coasts.
He bought some land from a chief named Maquinna and built a trading post there
History of the Northwest Territories
When Europeans settlers began to divide the continent, the Northwest Territories included much of the sparsely populated regions of what is now western Canada. Over time, the provinces of Alberta and Manitoba were formed out of the territories, in 1898, the Yukon territory became a separate entity and in 1999 Nunavut was formed from the eastern section. Long before the Europeans arrived and First Nations peoples inhabited the area which became the Northwest Territories. Native Inuit included the Mackenzie, Copper and Central nations, there were many nations when the Europeans first arrived, among them the Yellow-Knife, Sekani, Nahanni and Slavey. Martin Frobishers expeditions in the 1570s were the first recorded visits to the Northwest Territories by a European, in 1610, Henry Hudson, while looking for the Northwest Passage, landed briefly on the western shore of the bay that bears his name. His discovery opened the interior of the continent to further exploration, other early explorers include Luke Foxe, John Davis, Robert Bylot, Thomas Button, George Weymouth, Thomas James and William Baffin.
In 1670, King Charles II granted a charter to the Governor and Company of Adventurers of England Trading into Hudsons Bay and it included the Hudsons Bay watershed. By the 1700s, European trade in the Northwest Territories was dominated by two fur-trading companies, the Hudsons Bay Company, based in London and the North West Company based in Montréal. Fur trade explorer Peter Pond lead the way through the Methye Portage into the vast territory of the Northwest where the rivers flowed North rather than East. In 1771, Samuel Hearne was the first European to reach the shore of the Arctic Ocean by a route via the Coppermine River. Further west and eighteen years later, in 1789, Alexander Mackenzie reached the Arctic Ocean, the river he navigated to get there now bears his name. York Factory served as the Hudsons Bay Companys headquarters, the HBC depended on the furs coming to York Factory. The North West Company competed with the HBC by traveling throughout the territory obtaining furs as they did so, some of these trader explorers kept journals and had them published.
Public interest developed as a result, as the Europeans increased their presence, they involved the First Nations as guides and suppliers of furs. They brought to York Factory the furs of the western tribes, the Cree, Chipewyan and Yellowknives obtained firearms. With this new advantage, they dominated their Athapaskan neighbors, i. e. the Slavey, Sekani, in the early 1800s, perhaps 1810, the Northwest Company established a post at Tulita at the junction of the Mackenzie and Great Bear Rivers. Sir John Franklin used the fort as a base for his expeditions, the site changed several times but the community of Tulita is located on the original site today. Franklins Coppermine Expedition of 1819–1822 had as its goal the exploration of the northern coast of Canada, the British expedition was organised by the Royal Navy as part of its attempt to discover and map the Northwest Passage
Indigenous peoples in Canada
Aboriginal peoples in Canada, are the indigenous peoples within the boundaries of present-day Canada. They comprise the First Nations, Inuit and Métis, although Indian is a term still commonly used in legal documents, the descriptors Indian and Eskimo have somewhat fallen into disuse in Canada and are pejorative. Old Crow Flats and Bluefish Caves are some of the earliest known sites of habitation in Canada. The Paleo-Indian Clovis and Pre-Dorset cultures pre-date current indigenous peoples of the Americas, projectile point tools, pottery, bangles and scrapers mark archaeological sites, thus distinguishing cultural periods and lithic reduction styles. The characteristics of Canadian Aboriginal culture included permanent settlements, agriculture and ceremonial architecture, complex societal hierarchies, the Métis culture of mixed blood originated in the mid-17th century when First Nation and Inuit people married Europeans. The Inuit had more limited interaction with European settlers during early period.
Various laws and legislation have been enacted between European immigrants and First Nations across Canada, Aboriginal Right to Self-Government provides opportunity to manage historical, political, health care and economic control aspects within first peoples communities. National Aboriginal Day recognizes the cultures and contributions of Aboriginal peoples to the history of Canada, First Nations, Inuit and Métis peoples of all backgrounds have become prominent figures and have served as role models in the Aboriginal community and help to shape the Canadian cultural identity. The terms First Peoples and First Nations are both used to refer to peoples of Canada. The terms First Peoples or Aboriginal peoples in Canada are normally broader terms than First Nations, as they include Inuit, Métis, First Nations has come into general use for the indigenous peoples of North America in Canada, and their descendants, who are neither Inuit nor Métis. On reserves, First Nations is being supplanted by members of various nations referring to themselves by their group or ethnical identity, in conversation this would be I am Haida, or we are Kwantlens, in recognition of their First Nations ethnicities.
In this Act, Aboriginal peoples of Canada includes the Indian, Indian remains in place as the legal term used in the Canadian Constitution. Its usage outside such situations can be considered offensive, Aboriginal peoples is more commonly used to describe all indigenous peoples of Canada. It refers to self-identification of Aboriginal people who live within Canada claiming rights of sovereignty or Aboriginal title to lands, the term Eskimo has pejorative connotations in Canada and Greenland. Indigenous peoples in those areas have replaced the term Eskimo with Inuit, the Yupik of Alaska and Siberia do not consider themselves Inuit, and ethnographers agree they are a distinct people. They prefer the terminology Yupik, Yupiit, or Eskimo, the Yupik languages are linguistically distinct from the Inuit languages. Linguistic groups of Arctic people have no universal replacement term for Eskimo, inclusive of all Inuit and Yupik people across the area inhabited by the Inuit. Besides these ethnic descriptors, Aboriginal peoples are divided into legal categories based on their relationship with the Crown
History of Alberta
What is today the province of Alberta, Canada has a history and prehistory stretching back thousands of years. Recorded or written history begins with the arrival of Europeans, the rich soil was ideal for growing wheat, and the coming of the railroads in the late 19th century led a to large-scale migration of farmers from Eastern Canada, the United States, and Europe. Wheat remains important, but the farms are larger and the rural population much smaller. Alberta has urbanized and its base has expanded from the export of wheat. The ancestors of todays First Nations in Alberta arrived in the area at least 8,000 years BC, more northerly tribes, like the Woodland Cree and the Chipewyan hunted and fished for other types of game in the aspen parkland and boreal forest regions. Later, the mixture of native peoples with French fur traders created a new cultural group. The Métis established themselves to the east of Alberta, but after being displaced by white settlement, following the arrival of outside European observers it is possible to reconstruct a rough narrative history of the nations of what became Alberta.
Using later-recorded oral histories as well as archaeological and linguistic evidence, in both cases the evidentiary base is thin, however. It is believed that at least some parts of the Great Plains were depopulated by a period of the drought during the Medieval Warm Period. The area was repopulated once the drought subsided, by peoples from a number of language families. The Numic languages are from the Uto-Aztecan language family and came to the Plains from the southwest, algonquian speakers are originally from the northeast. The Siouxan peoples speak a family of different from both of the above, and are from southeast. There are small offshoots of the Na-Dene languages from the far northwest found on the Plains, the smallest unit of organization for both Plains and Subarctic people was what the European-Canadian explorers called a lodge. A lodge was a family or other close-knit group who slept together in the same teepee or other dwelling. Lodges travelled together in groups which anthropologists call bands, in the case of the Blackfoot during the historic era this would include 10 to 30 lodges, or roughly 80 to 240 persons.
The band was the unit of organization on the Plains for both hunting and warfare. Bands were loose associations that could be formed and dissolved depending on circumstances, which gave their member lodges much freedom, but less certainty. Therefore, people would be bound to others in variety of other groups, such as common descent, common language and religion
The Death of General Wolfe
It is an oil on canvas of the Enlightenment period. West made an additional and nearly identical painting of the scene for King George III in 1771. The Death of General Wolfe depicts the Battle of Quebec, known as the Battle of the Plains of Abraham and this was a pivotal event in the Seven Years War and decided the fate of Frances colonies in North America. The battle was fought between the British Navy and Army and the French Army lasting only fifteen minutes, the British Army was commanded by General Wolfe. Though successful in holding the British line against the French and winning the battle, in death, General Wolfe gained fame as a national hero and became an icon of the Seven Years War and British dominance in late eighteenth century North America. West depicts General Wolfe as a Christ-like figure and this painting has a triangular composition, made by the top of the flag and the positions of the men. It resembles Christian Lamentation scenes, where Christ is held in the embrace of the Virgin Mary, captain Hervey Smythe is pictured holding Wolfes right arm.
The depiction of the Indigenous warrior in the painting—kneeling with his chin on his fist, in art, the touching of ones face with ones hand is a sign of deep thought and intelligence. Some consider it an inspired by the noble savage concept. Original items of clothing that were used as a model for portraying the warrior in the painting can be found in the British Museums collection, on the ground in front of Wolfe are his musket, cartridge box, and bayonet. Wolfe went into battle armed as his men were, although his musket was of higher quality and his dress is of note. He is wearing a red coat, a red waistcoat, red breeches, such dress was rather simple, especially for a commanding officer. Next to Wolfe, in the jacket, is Dr Thomas Hinde. The general died in the doctors hands, in the background, and to the left of the men surrounding Wolfe, an approaching runner is depicted. In the painting, Fraser wears the Fraser tartan, which was worn by officers in that regiment. All in all four of the fourteen men depicted were actually at the battleground.
The clothing West depicted in this scene was controversial at the time. Although the event was relatively recent—only eleven years prior—its subject matter made it an example of the genre of history painting
The phrase, The Gay Nineties, was not coined until the 1920s. This decade was part of the Gilded Age, a phrase coined by Mark Twain, alluding to the seemingly profitable era that was riddled with crime and poverty. In the United States, the 1890s were marked by an economic depression sparked by the Panic of 1893. As of January 23,2017, there is only 1 verified living person who was born in the 1890s. On December 29,1890,365 troops of the US 7th Cavalry, supported by four Hotchkiss guns, surrounded an encampment of Miniconjou and Hunkpapa Sioux near Wounded Knee Creek, the Army had orders to escort the Sioux to the railroad for transport to Omaha, Nebraska. One day earlier, the Sioux had been cornered and agreed to themselves in at the Pine Ridge Agency in South Dakota. They were the very last of the Sioux to do. the process of disarming the Sioux, the 7th Cavalry quickly suppressed the Sioux fire, and the surviving Sioux fled, but US cavalrymen pursued and killed many who were unarmed. By the time it was over, about 146 men, twenty-five troopers died, some believed to have been the victims of friendly fire as the shooting took place at point-blank range in chaotic conditions.
Around 150 Lakota are believed to have fled the chaos, with a number dying from hypothermia. The incident is noteworthy as the engagement in history in which the most Medals of Honor have been awarded in the military history of the United States. This was the last tribe to be invaded which broke the backbone of the American Indian Wars,1891, Chilean Civil War fought from January to September. José Manuel Balmaceda, President of Chile, and the Chilean Army loyal to him face Jorge Montts Junta, the latter was formed by an alliance between the National Congress of Chile and the Chilean Navy. 1891, Tobacco Protest in Qajar dynasty Persia, on March 20,1890, Naser al-Din Shah Qajar, Shah of Iran granted a concession to Major G. F. Talbot for a full monopoly over the production and export of tobacco for fifty years. In exchange, Talbot paid the shah an annual sum of £15,000 in addition to a quarter of the profits after the payment of all expenses. Now they were forced to seek permits from the Tobacco Régie as well as required to inform the concessionaires of the amount of tobacco produced, during the spring of 1891 mass protests against the Régie began to emerge in major Iranian cities.
Initially it was the bazaaris who led the opposition under the conviction that it was their income, the reference to the Hidden Imam, a critical person in Shia Islam, meant that Shirazi was using the strongest possible language to oppose the Régie. Initially there was skepticism over the legitimacy of the fatwa, however Shirazi would confirm the declaration,1892, The Johnson County War in Wyoming. Actually this range war took place in April 1892 in Johnson County, Natrona County, the combatants were the Wyoming Stock Growers Association and the Northern Wyoming Farmers and Stock Growers Association
Culture of Canada
The culture of Canada is a term that embodies the artistic, literary, musical and social elements that are representative of Canada and Canadians. Throughout Canadas history, its culture has influenced by European culture and traditions, especially British and French. Over time, elements of the cultures of Canadas immigrant populations have incorporated into mainstream Canadian culture. The population has influenced by American culture because of a shared language, proximity. Canada is often characterized as being progressive, diverse. Canadas federal government has often described as the instigator of multicultural ideology because of its public emphasis on the social importance of immigration. Canadas culture draws from its range of constituent nationalities. Canadians identify with the institutions of health care, military peacekeeping, the National park system. The Canadian government has influenced culture with programs and institutions and it has tried to protect Canadian culture by setting legal minimums on Canadian content in many media using bodies like the Canadian Radio-television and Telecommunications Commission.
For tens of thousands of years, Canada was inhabited by Aboriginal peoples from a variety of different cultures, although not without conflict and bloodshed, early European interactions with First Nations and Inuit populations in what is now Canada were arguably peaceful. Combined with late economic development in many regions, this comparably nonbelligerent early history allowed Aboriginal Canadians to have an influence on the national culture. Over the course of three centuries, countless North American Indigenous words, inventions and games have become an part of Canadian language. Many places in Canada, both features and human habitations, use indigenous names. The name Canada itself derives from the St. Lawrence Iroquoian word meaning village or settlement, the name of Canadas capital city Ottawa comes from the Algonquin language term adawe meaning to trade. The French originally settled New France along the shores of the Atlantic Ocean and symbols of pioneers and traders played an important part in the early development of French Canadian culture.
The British conquest of New France during the century brought 70,000 Francophones under British rule, creating a need for compromise. The migration of 40,000 to 50,000 United Empire Loyalists from the Thirteen Colonies during the American Revolution brought American colonial influences, following the War of 1812 a large wave of Irish and English settlers arrived in Upper Canada and Lower Canada. As a result of the First and Second World Wars, the Government of Canada became more assertive, Canada until the 1940s saw itself in terms of English and French cultural and political identities, and to some extent aboriginal
The territory was divided into five colonies, each with its own administration, Hudsons Bay, Acadia and Louisiana. Acadia had a history, with the Great Upheaval, remembered on July 28 each year since 2003. The descendants are dispersed in the Maritime Provinces of Canada, in Maine and Louisiana in the United States, with populations in Chéticamp, Nova Scotia. In the sixteenth century, the lands were used primarily to draw from the wealth of natural resources, in the seventeenth century, successful settlements began in Acadia, and in Quebec by the efforts of Champlain. By 1765, the population of the new Province of Quebec reached approximately 70,000 settlers. In 1763 France had ceded the rest of New France, except the islands of Saint Pierre and Miquelon, to Great Britain and Spain at the Treaty of Paris, in 1800, Spain returned its portion of Louisiana to France under the secret Treaty of San Ildefonso. However, French leader Napoleon Bonaparte in turn sold it to the United States in the Louisiana Purchase of 1803, New France eventually became part of the United States and Canada, with the only vestige remaining under French rule being the tiny islands Saint Pierre and Miquelon.
In the United States, the legacy of New France includes numerous placenames as well as pockets of French-speaking communities. In Canada, institutional bilingualism and strong Francophone identities are arguably the most enduring legacy of New France, the Conquest is viewed differently among Francophone Canadians, and between Anglophone and Francophone Canadians. Around 1523, the Florentine navigator Giovanni da Verrazzano convinced King Francis I, late that year, Verrazzano set sail in Dieppe, crossing the Atlantic on a small caravel with 50 men. After exploring the coast of the present-day Carolinas early the year, he headed north along the coast. The first European to discover the site of present-day New York, he named it Nouvelle-Angoulême in honour of the king, verrazzanos voyage convinced the king to seek to establish a colony in the newly discovered land. Verrazzano gave the names Francesca and Nova Gallia to that land between New Spain and English Newfoundland, in 1534, Jacques Cartier planted a cross in the Gaspé Peninsula and claimed the land in the name of King Francis I.
It was the first province of New France, initial French attempts at settling the region met with failure. French fishing fleets continued to sail to the Atlantic coast and into the St. Lawrence River, French merchants soon realized the St. Lawrence region was full of valuable fur-bearing animals, especially the beaver, which were becoming rare in Europe. Eventually, the French crown decided to colonize the territory to secure, another early French attempt at settlement in North America took place in 1564 at Fort Caroline, now Jacksonville, Florida. Intended as a haven for Huguenots, Caroline was founded under the leadership of René Goulaine de Laudonnière and it was sacked by the Spanish led by Pedro Menéndez de Avilés who established the settlement of St. Augustine on 20 September 1565. Acadia and Canada were inhabited by indigenous nomadic Algonquian peoples and sedentary Iroquoian peoples and these lands were full of unexploited and valuable natural riches, which attracted all of Europe
History of immigration to Canada
The history of immigration to Canada extends back thousands of years. Anthropologists continue to argue over various possible models of migration to modern-day Canada, the Inuit are believed to have arrived entirely separately from other indigenous peoples around 1200 CE. Indigenous peoples contributed significantly to the culture and economy of the early European colonies, statistics Canada has tabulated the effect of immigration on population growth in Canada from 1851 to 2001. On average, censuses are taken every 10 years, which is how Canadian censuses were first incremented between 1871 and 1901, beginning in 1901, the Dominion Government changed its policy so that census-taking occurred every 5 years subsequently. This was to document the effects of the campaign initiated by Clifford Sifton. In 2006, Canada received 236,756 immigrants. The top ten sending countries, by state of origin, were Peoples Republic of China, Philippines, United States, United Kingdom, South Korea, Colombia 5,382, and Sri Lanka.
The top ten source countries were followed closely by France, and Morocco, with Romania, Russia, in 1828, during the Great Migration of Canada, Britain passed the first legislative recognition that it was responsible for the safety and well-being of immigrants leaving the British Isles. It was called An Act to Regulate the Carrying of Passengers in Merchant Vessels, the 1828 Act is now recognized as the foundation of British colonial emigration legislation. Canadian citizenship was created under the Immigration Act,1910. All other British subjects required permission to land, after the passage of the Statute of Westminster in 1931, the monarchy thus ceased to be an exclusively British institution. Because of this, Canadians—and others living in countries that became known as Commonwealth realms—were known as subjects of the Crown, however, in legal documents, the term British subject continued to be used. Canada was the nation in the British Commonwealth to establish its own nationality law in 1946.
This took effect on January 1,1947, a British subject at that time was anyone from the UK or its colonies, or a Commonwealth country. Acquisition and loss of British subject status before 1947 was determined by United Kingdom law, on February 15,1977, Canada removed restrictions on dual citizenship. Many of the provisions to acquire or lose Canadian citizenship that existed under the 1946 legislation were repealed, Canadian citizens are in general no longer subject to involuntary loss of citizenship, barring revocation on the grounds of immigration fraud. There are a number of reports of contact made before Columbus between the first peoples and those from other continents. The presence of Basque cod fishermen and whalers, just a few years after Columbus, has cited, with at least nine fishing outposts having been established on Labrador
Population of Canada
The historical growth of Canadas population is complex and has been influenced in many different ways, such as indigenous populations, expansion of territory, and human migration. Being a new country, Canada has been predisposed to be a very open society with regards to immigration. Canadians comprise about 0. 5% of the total population. The 2016 Canadian census counted a population of 35,151,728. Between 1990 and 2008, the population increased by 5.6 million, despite the fact that Canadas population density is low, many regions in the south such as Southern Ontario, have population densities higher than several European countries. The large size of Canadas north which is not arable, and thus cannot support large human populations, the population density of the habitable land in Canada can be modest to high depending on the region. Scholars vary on the size of the aboriginal population in what is now Canada prior to colonization and on the effects of European contact. During the late 15th century is estimated to have been between 200,000 and two million, with a figure of 500,000 currently accepted by Canadas Royal Commission on Aboriginal Health.
Although not without conflict, European Canadians early interactions with First Nations, roland G Robertson suggests that during the late 1630s, smallpox killed over half of the Wyandot, who controlled most of the early North American fur trade in the area of New France. In 1871 there was an enumeration of the population within the limits of Canada at the time. According to the 2011 Canadian Census, Aboriginal peoples numbered at 1,400,685, the European population grew slowly under French rule, thus remained relatively low as growth was largely achieved through natural births, rather than by immigration. Most of the French were farmers, and the rate of natural increase among the settlers themselves was very high, the women had about 30 per cent more children than comparable women who remained in France. Yves Landry says, Canadians had a diet for their time. The 1666 census of New France was the first census conducted in North America and it was organized by Jean Talon, the first Intendant of New France, between 1665 and 1666.
According to Talons census there were 3,215 people in New France, the census showed a great difference in the number of men at 2,034 versus 1,181 women. By the early 1700s the New France settlers were established along the Saint Lawrence River. Mainly due to increase and modest immigration from Northwest France the population of New France increased to 55,000 according to the last French census of 1754. This was an increase from 42,701 in 1730, during the late 18th and early 19th century Canada under British rule experienced strong population growth