Scotland is a country that is part of the United Kingdom and covers the northern third of the island of Great Britain. It shares a border with England to the south, and is surrounded by the Atlantic Ocean, with the North Sea to the east. In addition to the mainland, the country is made up of more than 790 islands, including the Northern Isles, the Kingdom of Scotland emerged as an independent sovereign state in the Early Middle Ages and continued to exist until 1707. By inheritance in 1603, James VI, King of Scots, became King of England and King of Ireland, Scotland subsequently entered into a political union with the Kingdom of England on 1 May 1707 to create the new Kingdom of Great Britain. The union also created a new Parliament of Great Britain, which succeeded both the Parliament of Scotland and the Parliament of England. Within Scotland, the monarchy of the United Kingdom has continued to use a variety of styles, titles, the legal system within Scotland has also remained separate from those of England and Wales and Northern Ireland, Scotland constitutes a distinct jurisdiction in both public and private law. Glasgow, Scotlands largest city, was one of the worlds leading industrial cities. Other major urban areas are Aberdeen and Dundee, Scottish waters consist of a large sector of the North Atlantic and the North Sea, containing the largest oil reserves in the European Union. This has given Aberdeen, the third-largest city in Scotland, the title of Europes oil capital, following a referendum in 1997, a Scottish Parliament was re-established, in the form of a devolved unicameral legislature comprising 129 members, having authority over many areas of domestic policy. Scotland is represented in the UK Parliament by 59 MPs and in the European Parliament by 6 MEPs, Scotland is also a member nation of the British–Irish Council, and the British–Irish Parliamentary Assembly. Scotland comes from Scoti, the Latin name for the Gaels, the Late Latin word Scotia was initially used to refer to Ireland. By the 11th century at the latest, Scotia was being used to refer to Scotland north of the River Forth, alongside Albania or Albany, the use of the words Scots and Scotland to encompass all of what is now Scotland became common in the Late Middle Ages. Repeated glaciations, which covered the land mass of modern Scotland. It is believed the first post-glacial groups of hunter-gatherers arrived in Scotland around 12,800 years ago, the groups of settlers began building the first known permanent houses on Scottish soil around 9,500 years ago, and the first villages around 6,000 years ago. The well-preserved village of Skara Brae on the mainland of Orkney dates from this period and it contains the remains of an early Bronze Age ruler laid out on white quartz pebbles and birch bark. It was also discovered for the first time that early Bronze Age people placed flowers in their graves, in the winter of 1850, a severe storm hit Scotland, causing widespread damage and over 200 deaths. In the Bay of Skaill, the storm stripped the earth from a large irregular knoll, when the storm cleared, local villagers found the outline of a village, consisting of a number of small houses without roofs. William Watt of Skaill, the laird, began an amateur excavation of the site, but after uncovering four houses
Queen's Park F.C.
Queens Park Football Club is a Scottish football club based in Glasgow. Queens Park is the oldest association football club in Scotland, having founded in 1867. Queens Park is also the only Scottish football club to have played in the FA Cup Final, the clubs home is a Category 4 stadium, the all-seated Hampden Park in South East Glasgow, which is also the home of the Scottish national team. With 10 titles, Queens Park has won the Scottish Cup the third most times of any club, behind Rangers and Celtic, gentlemen from the local YMCA took part in football matches in the local Glasgow area which gave the club its name. During the inaugural meeting, debate raged over the clubs name, proposals included, The Celts, The Northern and Morayshire. Perhaps such choice of names suggest a Highland influence within the new club, after much deliberation, Queens Park was adopted and carried, but only by a majority of one vote. Although Queens was not the first club in Britain, that going to Edinburgh and John Hopes Football Club, formed in 1824. Opposition first came in the form of a now defunct Glaswegian side called Thistle F. C. on 30 November 1872, Scotland faced England at the West of Scotland Cricket Club ground at Hamilton Crescent. For the one and only time all eleven Scots players were from Queens Park and they wore blue jerseys,4,000 spectators watched Scotland play with a 2–2–6 formation and England with a 1–1–8 line-up. Queens Park formed the Scottish Football Association on 13 March 1873, the match against Dumbreck on 25 October was the first match to be played at Hampden Park. It was also the first match which saw Queens Park players wear their black and white hooped jerseys. David Wotherspoon, a Queens Park player and committee member, has credited with the introduction of the black. Most importantly, it was the first Scottish Cup tie and Scottish competitive match for the club, in the final, Queens defeated Clydesdale 2–0 at Hampden. Success in the Scottish Cup followed in the two years with final victories over Renton and Third Lanark. In drawing 2–2 with Clydesdale in the 1875 semi-final, Queens conceded their first ever goals, defeat for the club was first experienced with a 2–1 defeat to Vale of Leven in the 5th round in December 1876. Third Lanark and Rangers eliminated the Spiders before Queens reclaimed the cup in 1880 with a win over Thornliebank, Dumbarton were beaten in the final in successive years. In 1881, Queens had to them twice after Dumbarton successfully appealed that the crowd at Kinning Park had encroached following a 2–1 defeat. Dumbarton got revenge in 1883 but Queens won again in 1884 without even having to play the final after Vale of Leven refused to play on the date stipulated by the SFA, in the early days of Englands FA Cup, Scottish clubs were often invited to compete
The Scottish Football Association Challenge Cup, commonly known as the Scottish Cup, is an annual association football knock-out cup competition for mens football clubs in Scotland. The competition was first held in 1873–74, entry is open to all clubs with full or associate membership of the Scottish Football Association. The competition is called the William Hill Scottish Cup for sponsorship reasons and it was first presented to Queens Park, who won the final match of the inaugural tournament in March 1874. The current holder is Hibernian, who won the tournament for the time by defeating Rangers 3–2 in the 2016 final. The tournament starts at the beginning of the Scottish football season in August or September, the Scottish Cup Final is usually the last game of the season, taking place at the end of May. Participating teams enter the tournament at different stages depending on their league ranking, the lowest ranked clubs enter the tournament at the first round whilst the highest ranked, those that compete in the Scottish Premiership, enter at the fourth round stage. The competition is a knock-out tournament, in each round of games the teams are paired at random, with the first team drawn listed as the home team. Every game lasts 90 minutes plus any additional stoppage time, the winner of each game advances to the next round, whilst the loser is eliminated from the tournament. If a game ends in a draw, the fixture is replayed at the ground of the other team at a later date. If the replay also ends in a draw,30 minutes of time is played followed by a penalty shoot-out if there is still no clear winner. In the semi-final and final rounds, if the ends in a draw there is no replay. The competition has a staggered entry system, Scottish League One and six Scottish Championship clubs started in the third round, while the remaining four Championship clubs and all 12 Scottish Premiership clubs entered in the fourth round. Any club that is a full or associate member of the Scottish Football Association is entitled to compete in the tournament, every team that plays in the Scottish Professional Football League is therefore eligible. Between 1895 and 2007, clubs that were SFA members but not competitors in the professional football leagues could only qualify for the tournament by winning the Scottish Qualifying Cup. Clubs that are not members of the SFA may still qualify for the tournament by winning the Highland League, Lowland League, three junior clubs, Banks O Dee, Girvan and Linlithgow Rose are also SFA members and therefore qualify automatically. From 2015, the winners of the Scottish Amateur Cup are also eligible to qualify, players that are registered with a competing club are eligible to play. However, players are not entitled to play for more than one club during the same tournament, each club names eleven players and up to five substitutes before every match. In order to play in the match, a player must have also been registered to compete in the semi-final round for the same club
Arthurlie is an area of the town of Barrhead, East Renfrewshire, Scotland. The lands of Arthurlie were held in medieval times by the Stewart family, later the lands became the property of Allan Pollock, Esq. and remained in his family for several generations before being inherited by Gavin Ralston of Woodside in Beith. The area has long associated with the legends of King Arthur. Arthurlie was a barony of considerable extent, however it came to be purchased by Henry Dunlop Esq. in 1818 from Gavin Ralston. The Dunlop family ran Gateside Cotton Mill under the name of James Dunlop & Son, the old house was torn down and Arthurlie House was erected with the old gardens extended and remodelled in 1818. The estate remained in the hands of the Dunlop family until about 1938 and it was a Mr. Charles Taylor who discovered the ancient Arthurlee Cross being used as a gatepost on the estate and persuaded Henry Dunlop to rescue it. The cross measures 2. 2m high,0. 5m wide, and 0. 2m thick and is in good condition except that one face is badly worn. One side had an iron ring indented into it, almost flush with the surface, in the 1857 Name Book it was believed that its original site had been at NS49685813 in a field called Cross-stane-park. In 1795 it was acting as a footbridge over a stream in the Colinbar Glen area at the bottom of the Cross-stane-park, sometime prior to 1942 it was moved yet again by Barrhead Council to its present position. The stone is said to be associated with Arthur, King of the Britons, locally it was said to mark Arthurs grave or a conspicuous leader of that name. Video footage of the Arthurlie Cross
Johnstone is a town in the council area of Renfrewshire and larger historic county of the same name in the west central Lowlands of Scotland. The town lies 3 miles west of neighbouring Paisley and 12 miles west of the centre of the city of Glasgow and 12 miles north east of Kilwinning, part of the biggest conurbation in Scotland, Johnstone is at the western edge of the Greater Glasgow Urban Area. In 1782, the Laird, George Houstoun, commissioned designs for a series of residential streets which now form the town centre. At this early stage of development, the population including the local estate. Two mirroring civic squares were constructed in the town, Houstoun Square and Ludovic Square, the latter named for the Lairds son. Johnstone was raised to the status of a burgh with significant local powers. Industrial development brought both prosperity and poverty to the community, coal mining occurred in Johnstone, although its main industry was related to the thread and cotton industries, with mills powered by the Black Cart Water which runs to the north of Johnstone. A six-storey cotton mill, one of the largest in Scotland, was built in 1782, Burns introduced Richard Arkwrights methods for spinning cotton. As the community expanded, slum conditions formed in part of the town, much of Johnstone’s feudal heritage has disappeared. With the death of the last Laird in 1931, Johnstone Castle found some other uses before falling into disrepair, in 1950 St. Davids Primary School was built along with its sister school Cochrane Castle Primary School. In 2007 the two schools were housed in a new shared building just outside Thomas Shanks Public Park, embedded within Cochrane Castle is the Cochrane Castle Golf Club, which once held the world record for the longest hole. Johnstone High School opened on its present site in March 1965, where the old school stood in Ludovic Square there is now a modern health centre. The original St Cuthberts High School was built adjacent to Johnstone High School and shared the same driveway, the school closed in 1972 and moved to a new site in Hallhill Road Spateston that year. The original school was demolished and replaced by a development to the left of the driveway of Johnstone High School. In 1967, St. Cuthberts High School was built and established, the school closed at the end of the summer term 2006 along with St. Brendans High School in Linwood due to falling rolls and the buildings poor state of repair. These were replaced by a new build St. Benedicts High School named in honour of St Benedict of Nursia the patron saint of Europe and of students. The old St. Cuthberts building was used to house several schools while their own premises are being refurbished, Johnstone is served by Glasgow International Airport, which is located 3 1⁄2 miles northeast of the town. Moreover, Prestwick International Airport is a 30-to-40-minute train journey from Johnstone railway station, a dual carriageway, the A737 connects Johnstone to the M8 motorway to provide car transport links to central Scotland
Clarkston, East Renfrewshire
Clarkston is a suburban town in East Renfrewshire, in the Central Lowlands of Scotland. It lies 4.7 miles east of Barrhead,7.2 miles east-southeast of Paisley and 3.9 miles northwest of East Kilbride, on 21 October 1971, the shopping centre was the scene of the Clarkston explosion, which killed 22 people and injured around 100. A plaque on the site commemorates the event, Greenbank Garden, a National Trust for Scotland property, is located on the outskirts of Clarkston. When a new road from Paisley to East Kilbride was built through the area in the 1790s, a man named John Clark built a house at the toll, and the name Clarkston came to be used for the locality. The Maxwell family advertised the creation of a new village there in 1801, Clarkston at this time had no industry of its own, and villagers were mainly employed in the mills at nearby Netherlee. The 1920s also saw the breaking up of the Williamwood Estate. Clarkston expanded rapidly as new housing developments sprang up such as Williamwood, Carolside. Clarkston is in East Renfrewshire, one of the 32 council areas of Scotland for local government purposes, East Renfrewshire Council, the unitary local council, is based in nearby Giffnock and is the body responsible for local governance. The Scottish Parliament is responsible for devolved matters such as education, health and justice, Clarkston forms part of the county constituency of East Renfrewshire, electing one member of parliament to the House of Commons of the Parliament of the United Kingdom. Kirsten Oswald of the SNP was elected as MP for East Renfrewshire in the 2015 General Election, before the constituencys creation in 2005, Clarkston lay in the Eastwood Constituency. For the purposes of the Scottish Parliament, Clarkston forms part of the Eastwood constituency, at 55°47′9″N 4°16′32″W Clarkston is situated in Scotlands Central Lowlands. The community lies 4.7 miles east of Barrhead,3.9 miles northwest of East Kilbride and 5.57 miles south of Glasgow, the territory of Clarkston is contiguous with Glasgow and forms part of Greater Glasgow, the United Kingdoms fifth largest conurbation. Clarkston experiences a maritime climate, like much of the British Isles, with relatively cool summers. Regular but generally light precipitation throughout the year. Clarkston is a district within the post town of Glasgow in the G postcode area. Clarkston consists of postcode district G76, which extends beyond the town boundary to include neighbouring settlements Busby, Carmunnock, Eaglesham. According to the United Kingdom Census 2001, the locality of Clarkston had a total resident population of 19,944. The median age of males and females living in Clarkston was 38 and 41 respectively, fifty nine percent were married,3. 7% were cohabiting couples,7. 0% were lone parent families and 23. 2% of households were made up of individuals
Pollock is the common name used for either of the two species of North Atlantic marine fish in the genus Pollachius. Pollachius pollachius is referred to as pollock in both North America and the United Kingdom, while Pollachius virens today is known as coley in the British Isles. Other names for P. pollachius include the Atlantic pollock, European pollock, lieu jaune, the currently recognized species in this genus are, P. pollachius P. virens Both species can grow to 105 centimetres and can weigh up to 21 kilograms. P. virens has a defined, silvery lateral line running down the sides. Above the lateral line, the color is a greenish black, the belly is white, while P. pollachius has a distinctly crooked lateral line, grayish to golden belly, and a dark brown back. P. pollachius also has a strong underbite and it can be found in water up to 180 metres deep over rocks, and anywhere in the water column. One member of the genus Gadus is also referred to as Pollock. While related to the above pollock species, they are not members of the genus Pollachius, Alaska pollock generally spawn in late winter and early spring in the southeastern Bering Sea. The Alaska pollock is a significant part of the fishery in the Gulf of Alaska. Atlantic pollock is considered to be a whitefish, although it is a fairly strongly flavored one. Traditionally a popular source of food in countries, such as Norway, in the United Kingdom it has previously been largely consumed as a cheaper and versatile alternative to cod. However, in recent years, pollock has become popular due to overfishing of cod. It can now be found in most supermarkets as fresh fillets or prepared freezer items, for example, it is used minced in fish fingers or as an ingredient in imitation crab meat. Because of its gray color, pollock is often prepared, as in Norway, as fried fish balls, or if juvenile sized, breaded with oatmeal and fried. Year-old fish are split, salted, and dried over a peat hearth in Orkney. The fish can also be salted and smoked and achieve a salmon-like orange color, as is the case in Germany, in Korea, pollock may be repeatedly frozen and defrosted to create hwangtae, half-dried to create ko-da-ri, or fully dried and eaten as book-o. In 2009, U. K. supermarket Sainsburys briefly renamed pollock colin in a bid to boost ecofriendly sales of the fish as an alternative to cod. Sainsburys, which said the new name was derived from the French for cooked pollock, launched the product under the banner Colin, froese, Rainer, and Daniel Pauly, eds
St Mirren F.C.
St Mirren Football Club is a Scottish professional football club based in Paisley, Renfrewshire, founded in 1877. The team plays in the Scottish Championship, having been relegated from the Scottish Premiership in 2014–15, the team has two nicknames, the Buddies and the Saints. St Mirren have won the Scottish Cup three times,1926,1959 and 1987, and the Scottish League Cup in 2013, the club has played in European competition four times, UEFA Cup Winners Cup in 1987–88 and the UEFA Cup in 1980–81, 1983–84 and 1985–86. The clubs home ground since 2009 is St Mirren Park, an 8,023 capacity all seater ground on Greenhill Road, the clubs former ground from 1894 until 2009 was also called St Mirren Park, but was more commonly known as Love Street. St Mirren was formed as a club which included, among other sports, cricket. The increasing popularity of football ensured that by 1877 the members had decided to play football and 1877 is the football clubs official foundation date. They are named after Saint Mirin, the founder of a church at the site of Paisley Abbey, there is also a street in Paisley named St Mirren Street. St Mirren played their first match on 6 October 1877, defeating Johnstone Britannia 1–0 at Shortroods, two years later, the club moved to another ground, Thistle Park, Greenhills. St Mirrens first Scottish Cup match came on 4 September 1880, the following year, the Buddies reached their first cup final but were beaten 3–1 by Thornliebank in the Renfrewshire Cup. In 1883 however the scores were reversed with the Saints winning the Renfrewshire Cup and it is in 1883 that move to their third home, that of West March, defeating Queens Park in the first game. In 1885, St Mirren played their first match against Morton, the 1890 season was an historic season for St Mirren, as they became founder members of the Scottish Football League along with fellow Paisley club Abercorn. Of the 11 founder clubs, only 4 survive in the current league system and it was during the match against Morton at Cappielow in this year, that St Mirren played one of the first night games under light from oil lamps. St Mirren moved to Love Street in 1894 and reached their first Scottish Cup final in the 1907–08 season but were defeated 5–1 by Celtic, the Buddies went on to lift the trophy in 1926,1959 and 1987. In 1922, St Mirren were invited to play in the Barcelona Cup invitational tournament to celebrate the inauguration of Les Corts and they won the tournament by beating Notts County in the final. In the 1979–80 season, St Mirren achieved their equal highest-ever finish in the top-flight finishing third behind Aberdeen and that season Saints also became the first and last Scottish club to win the Anglo-Scottish Cup, defeating Bristol City in a two-legged final. The following season, St Mirren competed in European competition for the first time, IF Elfsborg in Sweden, followed by a 0–0 draw in the second leg. The next round saw them play French team Saint-Étienne, although St Mirrens home leg ended up a 0–0 draw, Saint-Étienne pulled off a 2–0 victory in the second leg to put St Mirren out of the cup. In 2001, St Mirren finished bottom of the Premier League despite losing one of their final seven matches
Beith is a small town situated in the Garnock Valley, North Ayrshire, Scotland approximately 20 miles south-west of Glasgow. The town is situated on the crest of a hill and was originally as the Hill o Beith after its Court Hill. Beiths name is thought to emanate from Ogham, which is referred to as the Celtic Tree Alphabet. Beithe in Old Irish means Birch-tree, there is reason to believe that the whole of the district was covered with woods. The town of Beith itself was known as Hill of Beith as this was the name of the feudal barony and was itself derived from the Court Hill near Hill of Beith Castle. Alternatively, Beith may be derived from Cumbric *baɣeδ, boar, the local pronunciation of the name would favour this theory. Beith is said to have been the residence of Saint Inan. Although he is said to have been a hermit, according to tradition Saint Inan often visited Beith, frequenting Cuff Hill with its Rocking Stone and various other prehistoric monuments. A cleft in the west-front of Lochlands Hill is still known as St. Inans Chair, an unsuccessful search for the saints writings which were said to be preserved in the library of Bonci, Archbishop of Pisa, was made by Colonel Mure of Caldwell in the 19th-century. Saint Inan is said to have preached to the people from the chair on the hill. There was not a population in the area at that time and the people were located not in Beith. The first settlements were in the wooded areas around the dams where people were safe from attack and could get food from the land. The Saints of old went where the people were, and they tended to go where there had been worship of heathen Gods. It has been suggested that High Bogside Farm, which used to be called Bellsgrove, was really Baalsgrove, there is an annual civic fete held in the town bearing Saint Inans name. The sixteenth century poet Alexander Montgomerie was probably born in Hazelhead Castle, Montgomerie is regarded as one of the finest of Middle Scots poets, and perhaps the greatest Scottish exponent of the sonnet form. Beith has a connection to smuggling and built a reputation during the 18th century as being a town which harboured those whose intentions were not always lawful. This caused great inconvenience to the citizens on whom the soldiers were billeted. The town was policed in this fashion for some time thereafter, a possible relic of the smuggling days of Beith is the ley tunnel that is said to run from Eglinton Street to Kilbirnie Loch
Irvine, North Ayrshire
Irvine is an ancient settlement, in medieval times a royal burgh, and now a new town on the coast of the Firth of Clyde in North Ayrshire, Scotland. The 2011 Census recorded the population at 33,698 inhabitants. Irvine was the site of Scotlands 12th century Military Capital and former headquarters of the Lord High Constable of Scotland and it also served as the Capital of Cunninghame and was, at the time of David I, Robert II and Robert III one of the earliest capitals of Scotland. The town was once a haunt of Robert Burns, after two streets in the town are named, Burns Street and Burns Crescent. He is known to have worked in a mill on the Glasgow Vennel. Despite being classed as a new town, Irvine has had a history stretching back many centuries and was classed as a Royal Burgh. There are also conflicting rumours that Mary, Queen of Scots stayed briefly at Seagate Castle, to this day there is still a yearly festival, called Marymass, held in the town. Irvine is the birthplace of the present First Minister of Scotland and leader of the Scottish National Party, Nicola Sturgeon as well as the former First Minister of Scotland, the current Cabinet Secretary for Culture, Europe and External Affairs, Fiona Hyslop was also born in Irvine. Its twin town is Saint-Amand-les-Eaux in northern France just outside Lille, part of modern Irvine contains the oldest continually inhabited village in Europe. Dreghorn, formerly a village, appears to contain archaeological remains dating back to the first incursions of humanity into Scotland. Numerous ancient sites pepper the region, iron Age Hill forts are abundant. The Grannie Stane is visible when the water is low, the medieval parish of Irvine was one of the most important regions in Scotland. Originally the site of the Military Headquarters of the Lord High Constable of Scotland and one of the earliest Scottish Capitals, King John I of Scotland inherited the lordship of Irvine sometime in the mid-13th century. Robert the Bruce, in an attempt to seize Johns lands, from Bruce it passed to his grandson Robert the Steward, future King Robert II of Scotland. Bourtreehill, the only major Estate in the parish, was possessed by all three kings and possibly the Constables of Scotland before them. In December 2010, the writer A. J. Morton stated that Irvine was a Lost Medieval Capital and a likely candidate in the debate about the Stone of Destiny and its location before it was moved to Scone. Morton write, We cant be certain that Evonium actually existed, so we cant properly identify the Stones western home, what is certain is that the Irvine district was enormously important in the middle ages. The most intriguing evidence concerns Irvine’s links with early monarchs and officers of post-Norman Scotland, the loch was natural, sitting in a hollow created by glaciation
Dumbarton is a town in West Dunbartonshire, Scotland, on the north bank of the River Clyde where the River Leven flows into the Clyde estuary. In 2006, it had an population of 19,990. Dumbarton was the capital of the ancient Kingdom of Alclud, Dumbarton Castle, on top of Dumbarton Rock, dominates the area. Dumbarton was a Royal burgh between 1222 and 1975, Dumbarton emerged from the 19th century as a centre for shipbuilding, glassmaking, and whisky production. However these industries have declined, and Dumbarton today is increasingly a commuter town for Glasgow 13 miles east-southeast of it. Dumbarton F. C. is the football club. Dumbarton is home to BBC Scotlands drama studios, Dumbarton history goes back at least as far as the Iron Age and probably much earlier. It was the site of a strategically important Roman settlement known as Alcluith of a province named Valentia, the next record of a settlement in Dumbarton is a record in Irish chronicles of the death of Guret, rex Alo Cluathe, in AD658. The loss of the British power base led to the emergence of the new kingdom of Strathclyde, or Cumbria, the title king of the Britons of Srath Clúade was first used in 872. Dumbarton was later the county town of the county of Dunbartonshire, in September 1605 Chancellor Dunfermline reported to King James VI that inundations of the sea were likely to destroy and take away the whole town. It was estimated that the defences would cost 30,000 pounds Scots. During World War II Dumbarton was heavily bombed by the German air force, the Germans were targeting the shipyards, and the area in the vicinity of the yards was consequently hit, with Clyde and Leven Street being severely damaged. The ploy was sometimes successful in diverting the bombers and many bombs fell harmlessly onto the moors, Dumbarton Castle sits on Dumbarton Rock, at the east bank mouth of the River Leven, where it flows into the Clyde estuary. The Castle has a history and many well-known figures from Scottish and British history have visited it. The castle was a royal fortress long before Dumbarton became a Royal Burgh, its ownership went from Scottish to English, the castle was an important place during the Wars of Independence and was used to imprison William Wallace for a short time after his capture by the English. It was from here that Mary, Queen of Scots, was conveyed to France for safety as a child, Mary was trying to reach Dumbarton Castle when she suffered her final defeat at Langside. In later times, Queen Victoria and Queen Elizabeth II visited the castle, today, Dumbarton Rock is a Scheduled Ancient Monument, it has legal protection in order to maintain and conserve the site for the future. As such any sort of work on the rock is strictly regulated by the Scottish Government, from the top of the castle can be seen both the River Clyde and Leven Grove Park
Hearts is an evasion-type trick-taking playing card game for four players, although variations can accommodate 3–6 players. The game of Hearts as currently known originated with a family of related games called Reversis, in this game, a penalty point was awarded for each trick won, plus additional points for capturing the Jack of Hearts or the Queen of Hearts. A similar game called Four Jacks centered around avoiding any trick containing a Jack, which were worth one penalty point, and the Jack of Spades worth two. Over time, additional penalty cards were added to Reversis, and around 1850, the gave way to a simple variant of Hearts. In the 1920s, the Jack of Diamonds variation was introduced, the game has become popular in live play among grade school students in Canada, and has increased in popularity through Internet gaming sites. In many parts of the world it became known through the Microsoft version of the game packaged with most 1990s versions of its Windows operating system, the overall objective is to be the player with the fewest points by the end of the game. Thirteen cards are dealt to each player, when there are only three players, the 2♦ is removed from the deck before play commences, and each player receives 17 cards. In another alternative, a chosen card is set aside face down at the beginning of play, this card goes to whoever takes the first Heart or, alternatively. When there are five players, the 2♣ is removed as well as the 2♦, alternatively, three Jokers can be added, and each player receives 11. In another alternative, two randomly chosen cards are set face down at the beginning of play, these cards go to whoever takes the first heart. When there are six players, two jokers are inserted and each player receives nine cards, when there are more than six players, two decks may be used, with cards removed or jokers added to ensure an even deal. The basic game of Hearts does not include passing. Before each hand begins, each player chooses three cards, and passes them to another player. There are many variations on passing, the most common rotates passing through four deals, on the first deal, players pass to the left, the deal to the right. On the fourth deal no cards are passed, the cycle of four deals is then repeated, other variations on the passing rules include, Subsets of the four-deal passing sequence may occur, such as only passing in one direction, or passing alternately left and right. When playing with an odd number of players, passing across is not possible, with five players, the players may choose only two cards, and pass one each to the two players situated closest to the exact opposite side of the table. This system is called star-passing because the pattern of passing routes forms a five-point star, alternatively, with an odd number of players, players choose three cards and discard them to a central pile. The Dealer then gathers, shuffles, and re-deals these cards and this method is known as a center mixer
3rd Lanarkshire Rifle Volunteers
Third Lanark Athletic Club was a football club that existed for 95 years between 1872 and 1967, in Glasgow, Scotland. Third Lanark was known as Thirds, the Warriors, the Redcoats, the fans invariably started to sing Hi Hi Hi. as a battle cry to encourage the team to victory during the clubs matches. There was a house called The Hi Hi Bar at the southern end of Crown Street in the Gorbals area of Glasgow. One of the successful clubs in early Scottish Football, Third Lanark was not the first major club to be compulsorily liquidated and dissolved. Former Scottish Cup winners Renton and near neighbours Vale of Leven suffered similar fates and it was refounded in 1996 with forming Under-18s were formed by Jim Weir. Finally Third Lanark fielded a team, in 2007, to coincide with the 40th anniversary of Third Lanark’s withdrawal from Senior Scottish football. Third Lanark started as the team of the Third Lanarkshire Rifle Volunteers. The team was founded on 12 December 1872 at a meeting of the Third Lanarkshire Rifle Volunteers in the Regimental Orderly Room in Howard Street. The soldiers, inspired by the first ever international friendly which had taken two weeks previously, decided to form their own team. Several of the Scotland team in match, made up solely of Queens Park players, had been part of the regiment, including Billy Dickson, Billy MacKinnon. A later meeting decided that the kit should be, A cowl – one end blue, the other yellow. Blue trousers or knickerbockers with blue stockings, the players used an old drill field on Victoria Road to train. The club was a member of the Scottish Football League. The name was changed to Third Lanark AC in 1903, when links with the military were severed. The club won the Scottish League championship in 1903–04, as well as the Scottish Cup in 1889 and 1905, the last day of the 1960–61 season saw Third Lanark reach a historic landmark. The club beat Hibernian 6–1 at Cathkin Park to reach 100 goals for the season, the following season saw Thirds take part in European competition for the first and only time when they faced Rouen of France home and away in the Anglo-Franco-Scottish Friendship Cup. Rouen won 4–0 at Cathkin on 7 November 1961 and 2–1 in France on 9 May 1962, only four years after that successful 1960–61 season, the clubs terminal agony began. There followed another two seasons of mediocrity and discontent, Third Lanark recorded their lowest-ever home League attendance of 297 spectators on 15 April 1967 for the visit of Clydebank
Oxford is a city in the South East region of England and the county town of Oxfordshire. With an estimated 2015 population of 168,270, it is the 52nd largest city in the United Kingdom, the city is situated 57 miles from London,69 miles from Bristol,65 miles from both Southampton and Birmingham and 25 miles from Reading. The city is known worldwide as the home of the University of Oxford, buildings in Oxford demonstrate notable examples of every English architectural period since the late Saxon period. Oxford is known as the city of dreaming spires, a term coined by poet Matthew Arnold, Oxford has a broad economic base. Its industries include motor manufacturing, education, publishing and a number of information technology and science-based businesses. Oxford was first settled in Saxon times and was known as Oxenaforda, meaning Ford of the Oxen. It began with the establishment of a crossing for oxen around AD900. In the 10th century, Oxford became an important military frontier town between the kingdoms of Mercia and Wessex and was on several occasions raided by Danes, Oxford was heavily damaged during the Norman Invasion of 1066. Following the conquest, the town was assigned to a governor, Robert DOyly, the castle has never been used for military purposes and its remains survive to this day. DOyly set up a community in the castle consisting of a chapel. The community never grew large but it earned its place in history as one of Britains oldest places of formal education and it was there that in 1139 Geoffrey of Monmouth wrote his History of the Kings of Britain, a compilation of Arthurian legends. Mary at Oseney and to the canons serving God in that place and we have made this concession and confirmation in the Common council of the City and we have confirmed it with our common seal. These are those who have made this concession and confirmation, a grandson of King John established Rewley Abbey for the Cistercian Order, and friars of various orders all had houses of varying importance at Oxford. Parliaments were often held in the city during the 13th century, the Provisions of Oxford were instigated by a group of barons led by Simon de Montfort, these documents are often regarded as Englands first written constitution. Richard I of England and John, King of England the sons of Henry II of England, were born at Beaumont Palace in Oxford, on 8 September 1157 and 24 December 1166 respectively. A plaque in Beaumont Street commemorates these events, the University of Oxford is first mentioned in 12th century records. Of the hundreds of Aularian houses that sprang up across the city, what put an end to the halls was the emergence of colleges. Oxfords earliest colleges were University College, Balliol and Merton and these colleges were established at a time when Europeans were starting to translate the writings of Greek philosophers
Partick is an area of Glasgow on the north bank of the River Clyde, just across from Govan. To the west lies Whiteinch and to the east, Hillhead, Partick was a Police burgh from 1852 until 1912 when it was incorporated into the city. Partick is the area of the city most connected with the Highlands, some ATMs in the area display Gaelic. The modern name derives from the ancient Cumbric Peartoc and this was adopted into Scottish Gaelic as Peartaig, giving modern Gaelic Pearraig or Pàrtaig. Older anglicised forms include Perdyc and Perthick, Partick, of old Perdyec, from the Gaelic aper dhu ec, meaning the place at the confluence or mouth of the dark river. Although Partick remained a village until the middle of the 18th century, the Kings of Strathclyde had a residence there, and in 1136 David I granted the lands of Perdyc to the see of Glasgow. The Bishops of Glasgow had a seat in Partick. It was later the site of Partick Castle, a home of George Hutcheson. It is historically divided into three areas, south of Dumbarton Road, north of Dumbarton Road and the Partick Hill grand villas. Being within the sphere of influence of the University of Glasgow, traditional industries for the area were shipbuilding and the huge Meadowside Granary employed many residents also. The main street in Partick, Dumbarton Road, has a number of services for residents to use, Partick Burgh Hall is a venue located within Partick. It regularly holds community events and is owned and managed by Culture & Sport Glasgow, the hall was originally built in 1872 and has multiple rooms. The hall is staffed in order to accommodate events and to handle security, private events are also held in the hall. Partick Community Council is an organization which exists in the area to deal with issues within the community and it is the oldest community group in Partick and consists of around twenty elected members. The boundary of this runs from Byres Road to Crow Road. The council is funded by Glasgow City Council by way of an annual grant, examples of activities of the Community Council include, Neighbourhood Watch coordination. Partick Thistle Football Club were formed in the area in 1876, Partick railway station is a trunk station serving as an interchange between the local rail, Glasgow Subway and local bus systems. As well as being the fifth busiest train station in Scotland and it replaced the former Partickhill railway station in 1979
Rangers Football Club are a football club in Glasgow, Scotland, which plays in the Scottish Premiership, the first tier of the Scottish Professional Football League. Their home ground, Ibrox Stadium, is in the south-west of the city, Rangers were the first British club to reach a UEFA tournament final and won the European Cup Winners Cup in 1972 after being runner-up twice in 1961 and 1967. A third runners-up finish in Europe came in the UEFA Cup in 2008, Rangers have a long-standing rivalry with Celtic, the two Glasgow clubs being collectively known as the Old Firm. The four founders of Rangers – brothers Moses and Peter McNeil, Peter Campbell, Rangers first match, in May that year, was a goalless friendly draw with Callander on Glasgow Green. David Hill was also a founder member, in 1873, the club held its first annual meeting and staff were elected. By 1876 Rangers had its first international player, with Moses McNeil representing Scotland in a match against Wales. In 1877 Rangers reached a Scottish Cup final, after drawing the first game, Rangers refused to turn up for the replay, Rangers won the Glasgow Merchants Charity Cup the following year against Vale of Leven 2–1, their first major cup. The first-ever Old Firm match took place in 1888, the year of Celtics establishment, Rangers lost 5–2 in a friendly to a team composed largely of guest players from Hibernian. The 1890–91 season saw the inception of the Scottish Football League, the clubs first-ever league match, on 16 August 1890, resulted in a 5–2 victory over Heart of Midlothian. After finishing joint-top with Dumbarton, a play-off held at Cathkin Park finished 2–2, Rangers first-ever Scottish Cup win came in 1894 after a 3–1 final victory over rivals Celtic. By the start of the 20th century, Rangers had won two titles and three Scottish Cups. During William Wiltons time as secretary and then team manager. Taking over as manager from William Wilton in 1920, Bill Struth was Rangers most successful manager, on 2 January 1939 a British league attendance record was broken as 118,567 fans turned out to watch Rangers beat Celtic in the traditional New Years Day Old Firm match. During the wartime regional league setup, Rangers achieved their highest score against old firm rivals Celtic with an 8–1 win in the Southern Football League, Rangers also lost by their biggest Old Firm margin of 7–1. Rangers reached the semi-finals of the European Cup in 1960, losing to German club Eintracht Frankfurt by a record aggregate 12–4 for a Scottish team. In 1961 Rangers became the first British team to reach a European final when they contested the Cup Winners Cup final against Italian side Fiorentina, Rangers lost again in the final of the same competition in 1967, by a single goal after extra time to Bayern Munich. The Ibrox disaster occurred on 2 January 1971 when large-scale crushing on an exit at the culmination of the New Years Day Old Firm game claimed 66 lives. An enquiry concluded that the crush was likely to have happened ten minutes after the final whistle and to have been triggered by someone falling on the stairs
Shotts is a small rural town in North Lanarkshire, Scotland. It is located almost halfway between Glasgow and Edinburgh, at the 2001 census, the population was 8,235. A local story has Shotts being named after the legendary giant Bertram de Shotts, Shotts is the home of the 2015 world champion pipe band, Shotts and Dykehead Caledonia Pipe Band. Shotts was known for its mining and ironworks, in the years leading up to World War II there were 22 coal mines in the area, but the last of these closed in the 1960s. Shotts Golf Club, an 18-hole course founded in 1895, is to the North-East of the town, on the first Saturday in June each year, Shotts hosts its own Highland Games in Hannah Park. Shotts Bon Accord Shotts Vics Shotts YMCA Springhill AFC Dykehead F. C. Torbothie Rose Shotts Albion Shotts Thistle HMP Shotts, the town is served by Shotts railway station, which is connected on the Shotts Line between Glasgow and Edinburgh. St. Patricks Primary Stane Primary Dykehead Primary Calderhead High School Matthew Baillie anatomist Michelle Barr, gavin Hamilton, George MacBeth, writer Andrew Keir, actor Margaret Herbison, Member of Parliament Catriona Shearer, newsreader, journalist and television presenter
Lanark is a small town in the central belt of Scotland. The name is believed to come from the Cumbric Lanerc meaning clear space, Lanark is traditionally the county town of Lanarkshire, though there are several larger towns in the county. Lanark railway station and coach station have frequent services to Glasgow, there is little industry in Lanark and some residents commute to work in Glasgow and Edinburgh. Its shops serve the agricultural community and surrounding villages. There is a modern livestock auction market on the outskirts of the town. Lanark has served as an important market town since medieval times, King David I realised that greater prosperity could result from encouraging trade. He decided to create a chain of new towns across Scotland and these would be centres of Norman civilisation in a largely Celtic country, and would be established in such a way as to encourage the development of trade within their area. These new towns were to be known as Burghs, bastides were established in France for much the same reason. When a site had been selected for a new town the King’s surveyors would lay out an area for the town’s market, each merchant who came to the town was granted a plot of land bordering on the marketplace. These plots were known as feus or rigs, each feu in a burgh was the same size, though the size varied between burghs. In Forres in the north of Scotland each feu was 24 feet 10 inches wide and 429 feet deep, the layout of the feus in Lanark can still be easily seen between the north side of Lanark High Street and North Vennel, a lane which runs behind the feus. A motte and bailey castle was constructed at the bottom of Castlegate. Lanark had four gates, West Port, East port. West Port gate was demolished in the 1770s, the first aviation meeting to be held in Scotland was held at Lanark Racecourse between 6 and 13 August 1910. The aeroplanes were transported to the meeting by rail, as aviation technology at the time was not advanced enough to fly there. The Lanark meeting took place shortly after an event in Bournemouth at which Charles Rolls lost his life. Influenced by this, it was decided that no aircraft would fly closer than 300 yards away from the spectators, for the first time, aeroplanes were accurately timed over a straight measured distance, allowing the first world records to be set, covering flights over 1 mile. The meeting was described by The Aero magazine as the most successful yet held in Britain, a permanent military presence was established in the town with the completion of Winston Barracks in 1930
Points of the compass
The points of the compass, specifically on the compass rose, mark divisions of a compass, such divisions may be referred to as winds or directions. A compass point allows reference to a heading in a general or colloquial fashion. A compass is primarily divided into the four cardinal points—north, south, east and these are often further subdivided by the addition of the four intercardinal directions—northeast between north and east, southeast, southwest, and northwest —to indicate the eight principal winds. In meteorological usage, further intermediate points between cardinal and ordinal points, such as north-northeast between north and northeast, are added to give the sixteen points of a wind compass, for most applications, the fractional points have been superseded by degrees measured clockwise from North. In ancient China 24 points of the compass were used, measuring fifteen degrees between points. The names of the compass directions follow the 32-point wind compass rose follow these rules, The cardinal directions are north, east, south, west, the ordinal directions are northeast, southeast, southwest and northwest, formed by bisecting the angle of the cardinal winds. The name is merely a combination of the cardinals it bisects, the eight principal winds are the cardinals and ordinals considered together, that is N, NE, E, SE, S, SW, W, NW. Each principal wind is 45° from its neighbour, the principal winds form the basic eight-wind compass rose. The eight half-winds are the points obtained by bisecting the angles between the principal winds, the half-winds are north-northeast, east-northeast, east-southeast, south-southeast, south-southwest, west-southwest, west-northwest and north-northwest. Notice that the name is constructed simply by combining the names of the winds to either side, with the cardinal wind coming first. The eight principal winds and the eight half-winds together yield a 16-wind compass rose, all of the above named points plus the sixteen quarter winds listed in the next paragraph define the 32 points of the wind compass rose. The sixteen quarter winds are the points obtained by bisecting the angles between the points on a 16-wind compass rose. The name of a quarter-wind is X by Y, where X is a principal wind, so northeast by east means one quarter from NE towards E, southwest by south means one quarter from SW towards S. The eight principal winds, eight half-winds and sixteen quarter winds together yield a 32-wind compass rose, in the mariners exercise of boxing the compass, all thirty-two points of the compass are named in clockwise order. The title of the Alfred Hitchcock 1959 movie, North by Northwest, is not a direction point on the 32-wind compass. The traditional compass rose of eight winds was invented by seafarers in the Mediterranean Sea during the Middle Ages. This Italianate patois was used to designate the names of the winds on the compass rose found in mariner compasses. Tramutana, Gregale, Grecho, Sirocco, Xaloc, Lebeg, Libezo, Leveche, Mezzodi, Migjorn, Magistro, Mestre, etc
Stranraer is a town in Inch, Wigtownshire, in the west of Dumfries and Galloway, southwest Scotland. It lies on the shores of Loch Ryan, on the side of the isthmus joining the Rhins of Galloway to the mainland. Stranraer is Dumfries and Galloways second-largest town, with a population including the area of nearly 13,000. Stranraer is a centre for the West Galloway Wigtownshire area of Dumfries. It is best known as having been a port, previously connecting Scotland with Belfast and Larne in Northern Ireland. The main industries in the area are the port, with associated industries, tourism and, more traditionally. Some argue that name comes from the Scottish Gaelic An t-Sròn Reamhar meaning The Fat Nose, the most commonly accepted explanation is that it it derives its name from the strand or burn which divides the row, raw, of houses on its banks. In time Strandraw was named and spelled Stranrawer, and afterwards Stranraer, another interpretation would link the second element in the name with Rerigonium, an ancient settlement noted by Ptolemy in this part of Britain. The A77 runs north towards Ayr, Prestwick and Glasgow, the A75 runs east from Stranraer to Gretna, with links to the M6 going to Carlisle. The A75 is part of European route E18, but, like all European routes, the main national coach providers operate services from Stranraer. National Express offer a service to London, and Scottish Citylink operate services to Edinburgh, local transport in and around the town is provided by Stagecoach Western, and three local companies – McCullochs Coaches. Stranraer railway station is the terminus for one of the branch lines of the Glasgow South Western Line. Trains are provided by Abellio ScotRail daily to Ayr, Glasgow Central, from Stranraer connections to the West Coast Main Line, can be made at Glasgow Central, or traveling via Ayr, Kilmarnock, Dumfries to Carlisle. Onward trains from either Glasgow Central or Carlisle connect direct to London Euston and other such as Manchester Piccadilly, Crewe. In November 2011, Stena Line relocated its services to a new port at Old House Point, north of Cairnryan. The existing port in Stranraer may be redeveloped with the departure of Stena Line, both Campbeltown Airport and Glasgow Prestwick Airport, at around 45 miles, are the closest airports in Scotland to Stranraer. Belfast City Airport in Northern Ireland is 39 miles distant, the European Union is partly financing The Stranraer and Loch Ryan Waterfront Project for now and future generations. At an estimated cost of £1, by January 2010, work on the streets around the town centre was complete, with the streets around the Castle of St John re-paved and re-profiled
Abercorn is a village and parish in West Lothian, Scotland. Close to the south coast of the Firth of Forth, the village is around 5 km west of South Queensferry, etymologically, Abercorn is a Cumbric place-name meaning mouth of the river Cornie. The name of the river itself is also Cumbric and seems to derive from *kernan mound, hill, the English monk and historian Bede mentions Abercorn as the site of a monastery and seat of Bishop Trumwine who was the only bishop of the Northumbrian see of the Picts. The monastery is now known to have existed close to the present day church, the Hope mausoleum, designed by William Burn, is located in the kirkyard. Older burial monuments include Norsemen hogback stones, and fragments of 7th century Northumbrian crosses, a castle also existed here from Norman times, although it was demolished in 1455 by James II during a siege against the Black Douglases and their chief James Douglas, 9th Earl of Douglas. The House of the Binns, seat of the Dalyell family, is within the parish, the lands of Abercorn were granted to Claud Hamilton in the 16th century. His son was created the Earl of Abercorn. In the early 17th century, a branch of the Hamilton dynasty moved to Ulster in Ireland, the family would, henceforth, play a major part in Ulster affairs. Thus, the estate was sold to the Hope family, who were created Earls of Hopetoun. Abercorns population was recorded as 1,044 at the time of the 1821 census, for a very short time, Abercorn was a residential bishopric. In 681, during the reign of King Ecgfrith of Northumbria, Theodore of Tarsus, Archbishop of Canterbury, appointed Trumwine Bishop of the Picts, with his seat at Abercorn. This was part of a general division of the Northumbrian church by Theodore. The bishopric of Abercorn thus ceased to be a residential diocese and it is today listed by the Catholic Church as a titular see. The diocese was restored as a Latin Catholic titular bishopric in 1973. It must not be confounded with the former Roman Catholic Diocese of Abercorn in southern Africa, see also www. Abercornucopia. com for more on this extraordinary little hill station in the heart of Africa. Grid reference NT082788 Gazetteer of Scotland Ancient Lothian GigaCatholic with titular incumbent biography links
Airdrieonians Football Club are a Scottish professional football team based in Airdrie who are members of the Scottish Professional Football League and play in the SPFL Scottish League One. They were formed in 2002 as Airdrie United Football Club following the liquidation of the original club, the clubs official name was changed in 2013 with the approval of the SFA to the traditional name of Airdrieonians. As with the team of the same name, this is often colloquially shortened to simply Airdrie. The club have won two trophies in their short history – the Scottish Second Division in 2003–04 and the Challenge Cup in 2008–09, once described as the luckiest team in the Scottish League, the club have benefited in league division placements on three occasions. The club was formed in 2002 as Airdrie United, following the bankruptcy of the original Airdrieonians, Airdrieonians had finished runners-up in the Scottish First Division in the 2001–02 season but went out of business with debts approaching £3 million. The collapse of The Diamonds, as they were due to their distinctive kits. Accountant and Airdrieonians fan Jim Ballantyne attempted, with the help of others and their application however was rejected as the then English Northern Premier League side Gretna were preferred by league members over the new Airdrie United. Their debut season saw the club only narrowly fail to achieve promotion by one point due to a late goal from Brechin City which saw them promoted instead. During the rest of Stewarts tenure the club reached the final of the Challenge Cup in 2003, in November 2006, Stewart was sacked and replaced by former Airdrieonians player and Airdrie United coach Kenny Black, his first management post. Under Kenny Black the club suffered four successive defeats, In the 2006–07 season as relegation play-off finalists. In the 2007–08 season as promotion play-off finalists, in the 2008–09 season as relegation play-off finalists. Unlike the previous two seasons there was no reprieve, the club won the Challenge Cup in 2008, defeating Ross County 3–2 on penalties after a 2–2 draw, and after this success manager Kenny Black signed a long term contract. After big financial cutbacks saw all players released in May 2010, in June manager Kenny Black was relieved of his duties, with Jimmy Boyle appointed interim manager. Boyle was appointed manager on a permanent basis in September 2010, with the running until the end of season 2011–2012. The clubs decision to focus on developing youth was vindicated in January 2011, the first league game between Airdrie United and local rivals Albion Rovers took place at New Broomfield on 10 September 2011, with Airdrie winning 4–0. As Airdrie were runners up in the previous seasons Second Division promotion play-offs, a season in the First Division came to an end in May 2013, with the club finishing bottom of the league and relegated to Division Two. In June 2013, the officially changed its name from Airdrie United Football Club to Airdrieonians Football Club. The name change revived the name of the club it was formed to replace in 2002, the Airdrieonians all red club crest was also revived, with an alternate black and red version used for the away kits
Bellshill is a town in North Lanarkshire, Scotland,10 miles south east of Glasgow city centre and 37 miles west of Edinburgh. Other nearby towns are Motherwell, Hamilton and Coatbridge, since 1996, it has been situated in the Greater Glasgow metropolitan area. The town has a population of 20,705, the earliest record of settlement in the Bellshill area is a village called Belmill, recorded on a map by Timothy Pont published in 1654. The village consisted of a row of workers houses owned by Mr. Bell. After the quarry closed, the disappeared and a settlement developed nearby called Crossgates. About 1810, this new settlement took on the name Bellshill and continued to grow absorbing nearby villages such as Black Moss, Sykehead and Nesnas. According to the first Statistical Account, in the late 1700s the parish of Bothwell, a hundred or so years later, these occupations had changed places in degree of importance to the area economy. With the introduction of new machinery in the mid 19th century, demand for coal to feed British industry meant that by the 1870s 20 deep pits were in operation in the area. The first mine to open was the Thankerton mine, the rise in the migrant Lithuanian population led to the opening of The Scottish Lithuanian Recreation and Social Club within Calder Road in the Mossend area. Iron and Steel production were also central to the development of the town, neilson, developer of the revolutionary hot blast process, opened the first iron works in the area in 1839. During the industrial boom, a number of stations were situated in the area, including Mossend, Fallside. The settlement is now just served by Bellshill railway station, in the 1870s, Bothwell Parochial Board built the two-ward Bellshill Hospital. During World War I, the hospital specialised in infectious diseases, in 1917, the hospital began to change focus to become a maternity hospital, the first in the Lanarkshire area, with new dedicated maternity buildings being opened in 1958 and 1962. The hospital was also the first in the world to have an Obstetric Flying Squad and it was the birthplace of many famous faces including politician Robin Cook, footballer Ally McCoist and singer Sheena Easton. The hospital was closed in 2001 and demolished in 2003 to make way for new housing developments, according to a report by the Halifax Building Society, in the first quarter of 2005 Bellshill was the UKs property hot spot with a 46% rise in house prices. This took the property price to £105,698. In 2006, a new mosque was opened in the Mossend area of Bellshill becoming one of the largest mosques in Scotland, the streetscape project, a plan to regenerate and modernise the town centre, commenced Apr 2007 and was completed nearly three years later. The project, created a one way system on the street with more space for pedestrians
Auchinleck is a village five miles south-east of Mauchline, and two miles north-west of Cumnock in East Ayrshire, Scotland. Surrounding the village is Auchinleck Estate, centred on Auchinleck House, past home of the lawyer, diarist and biographer James Boswell, Auchinleck is situated at the heart of the ancient Kyle district of Scotland. The place-name means field of stones in Scottish Gaelic, from achadh, the small locality of Auchincloich has a comparable meaning. Although record of a community exists from as early as 1239, the barony of Auchinleck had been forfeited to the crown and was granted by James IV to his good and faithful servant Thomas Boswell. The Boswells proved to be assiduous in their estate husbandry and by the early 1700s a viable village community, the New Statistical Account of 1837 documents early mining and quarrying in the area which was to become the impetus for the region to boom. However, within 30 years the fortunes of the area, so tied to coal, lacking an economic source of fuel as mines closed, the power station shut down in 1989, High House pits closed in 1983, and Auchinleck village subsided into post-industrial recession. However, with the recent acquisition and subsequent development of Dumfries House in the area by H. R. H, prince Charles, Duke of Rothesay, and with new building taking place in the area there are signs of green shoots. The village is home to the Junior Football club, Auchinleck Talbot, Auchinleck Talbot share a fierce rivalry with near neighbours Cumnock Juniors in the West of Scotland Super League Premier Division. Auchinleck has two schools and one secondary school, with a catchment area taking in the villages of Auchinleck, Drongan, Catrine, Ochiltree, Mauchline, Muirkirk
Cumnock is a town in East Ayrshire, Scotland. The town sits at the confluence of the Glaisnock Water and the Lugar Water, a new housing development, Knockroon, was granted planning permission on 9 December 2009 by East Ayrshire Council. The name, Cumnock has been debated over the years and several interpretations have been offered, com-cnoc, Com-oich, Cam-cnoc, Cumanag, This part of Ayrshire has seen human settlement for over 5,000 years. There are to be found, many Bronze Age burial sites around the nearby area and it is believed that a place of worship has existed in Cumnocks Square for over 1,100 years, though the earliest records begin in about 1275. The patron saint of Cumnock is Saint Conval, James IV created the Burgh of Cumnock. The father of the Labour Party, James Keir Hardie, lived in the town for a part of his life. A small housing scheme in the town is named after him, the popular left-wing politician Emrys Hughes was local MP for a time in the mid-20th century, and also lived in the town. William Wallace allegedly spent 3 months in the seat of Patrick Dunbar, according to the poem, The Wallace, Cumnock is also in the heart of Robert Burns country and the poet is said to have spent time there. The town has six churches, the Congregational Church, Old Cumnock Old Parish Church, St. Andrews United Free Church, West Church and the Roman Catholic Church of St. John. Cumnock have a team in the West of Scotland Junior football league, Cumnock Juniors, the team is famous for their bitter rivalry with local neighbours, Auchinleck Talbot. The town also boasts a park and Rugby club Cumnock RFC, as well as a modern sports centre containing fitness gym. In 2004 however St Josephs Cumnock Campus was shut down due to falling attendance figures, Cumnock Academys catchment towns include, Cumnock, Drongan, Rankinston, New Cumnock, Ochiltree, Muirkirk, Logan and Lugar. com more information on The Wallace
Ayr Football Club was a Scottish Football League club from Ayr, Scotland. They were formed in 1879 by a merger of the Ayr Thistle and their initial home ground was Springvale Park, which they left in 1884 to play home fixtures at Beresford Park, which they in turn left in 1888 to move to Somerset Park. Ayr won their first ever game at Somerset Park 3–0 against Aston Villa, Ayr had spent 13 seasons in the Scottish Football League Division Two, with a best finish of third place which they managed on three occasions. They never managed to win promotion above this level, Ayr F. C. merged with fellow league members Ayr Parkhouse in 1910 to form Ayr United. This is the first and oldest example in Scottish football of a merger between two clubs from the same town until the Inverness thistle/Caledonian merger in 1994. The merger came about because it was felt that a club would have better prospects of playing in Division One. Ayr United achieved that status three years after the merger
Catrine is a village in East Ayrshire, Scotland which was formerly a centre of cotton manufacture. The village lies on the River Ayr which previously provided water power for local industry and it is in the parish of Sorn,2 miles south east of Mauchline. The A76 road lies south west of Catrine, a railway branch line to Catrine was one of the last to be built in Scotland in the 20th century. The line closed to scheduled services in 1943, although it continued to be used for freight. Catrine was constructed one of the first cotton mills in Scotland in 1787 by Claud Alexander of Ballochmyle in partnership with David Dale. A plan of Catrine at that time shows the hamlet consisted of buildings, including a smithy. In 1801, the factory was purchased by Messrs James Finlay & Co. of Glasgow, in 1802, two artificial lochs, covering between them 120 acres, were constructed above Muirkirk, near the village of Glenbuck, to supply the cotton works. The business was greatly enlarged in 1823 when they added extensive bleaching works, the motive power for the works was supplied by wooden wheels, made from oak grown on Drumlanrig estate. In 1828, the wheels were replaced by two large iron wheels, steam engines of 500 horsepower were later added as auxiliary. When constructed, the wheels were the largest in Britain. The diameter of wheel was 50 feet,157 feet in circumference. There were 120 buckets on each wheel, each bucket contained 11 cubic feet of water. The wheels made three revolutions per minute, and passed 360 buckets per minute,3,960 cubic feet of water per wheel,7,920 for the two, equal to 210 tons of water per minute. These wheels were a tourist attraction in their day and continued in service until the 1940s, a new mill was completed in 1950 but closed some 20 years later. The old mill was destroyed by fire during its demolition in 1963, the new mill was used for several years as a large furniture warehouse, but was eventually demolished in 1980. Iron Age rock art in the form of Cup and ring marks have been found at nearby Ballochmyle. Nether Catrine House was the seat of the philosopher Dugald Stewart. It was here that the poet, Robert Burns, famously dinnerd wi a lord, Catrine today is a village of around 2,500 inhabitants
Cumnock Juniors F.C.
Cumnock Juniors Football Club are a Scottish junior football club based in Cumnock, Ayrshire. Formed in 1912, they have a history of local and national success and their nearest neighbours and rivals are Auchinleck Talbot. Both have shared many a hard fought battle on the field and these matches are often looked upon as Junior footballs equivalent to the Old Firm with passionate supporters from both sides. In the 1970s and 1980s this game would attract a crowd of around 6000, although it has dwindled a bit over the years. A Scottish Junior Cup tie between the two sides in the mid-1970s attracted well over 8000 spectators, Cumnock are based at Townhead Park and compete in the West Region Superleague Premier Division, from where they were relegated in 2009. They immediately regained promotion the season and continue to play in the highest Junior league in the West of Scotland. A senior team based in Cumnock also competed in the 19th century, Cumnock Juniors play in the colours black and white. Their change strip is white and blue, since October 2014, the team are managed by John McKeown
Ayr Thistle F.C.
Ayr Thistle Football Club were a Scottish football team from the town of Ayr. Founded in 1872, Ayr Thistle played at the Low Green, before moving to Thistle Park in 1875, in 1877, Thistle reached the Semi-Final of the Scottish Cup, being defeated 9–0 by Vale of Leven at Kinning Park, then home of Rangers. In 1879, Ayr Thistle merged with Ayr Academicals to form Ayr, who, in 1910, merged with Ayr Parkhouse to form Ayr United
Beith Football Club were a football club based at Bellsdale Park in Beith, Scotland. The club were members of the Scottish Football League from 1923 to 1926, the club was initially formed in 1875 and were founder members of the Ayrshire Football Association in 1877, but went into abeyance in 1883 and did not re-emerge fully until 1888. Nicknamed the cabinet makers, they joined the Ayrshire Football League in 1891 and would play in the Scottish Football Combination. Around this time the club featured goalkeeper Hugh McDonald, who later had success at Woolwich Arsenal. They eventually ended up in the Western League, which was incorporated by the Scottish Football League as its new Third Division for the 1923–24 season, Beith lasted the Divisions three seasons, finishing 7th, 13th and 12th, but were not retained by the League. The club joined the Scottish Football Alliance, playing against Galston, Beith won the Scottish Qualifying Cup in 1928 and won the Scottish Qualifying Cup South in 1932,1933 and 1935. When the First Division clubs decided that only their reserve teams could play in their reserve league, the club decided in 1938 to leave the senior ranks and become Beith Juniors. And join the Western League North Division for 1939–40 season, 1875–1882 Gateside Toll 1882–1883 Marshalland 1888–1894 Knockbuckle 1894–1903 James Meadow 1903–1915 Glebe Park 1919 Kersland Field Glengarnock 1920–1938 Bellsdale Park. Scottish Non League publishing Aitken, John, Scottish Non League publishing Aitken, John. The Scottish Junior Football Association 125 years, Scottish Non League publishing Beith Historical Kits
Greenock Morton Football Club is a Scottish professional football club, which will play in the Scottish Championship in 2016–17. The club was founded as Morton Football Club in 1874, making it one of the oldest senior Scottish clubs, Morton was renamed Greenock Morton in 1994 to celebrate the links with its home town of Greenock. Morton won the Scottish Cup in 1922, and achieved its highest league finish in 1916–17, Morton holds the record for the most promotions to and relegations from the top flight, but has not competed in the top flight of the Scottish football league system since 1988. In 2014–15, Morton won its league title in all divisions by winning the Scottish League One championship on the final day. Morton Football Club was established in 1874, in the early 1870s the popularity of football was growing, with many clubs being established around Scotland. At the clubs inaugural meeting, the first recorded words were that this club be called Morton Football Club. The name would be altered in 1994 to read Greenock Morton Football Club, to celebrate the links with its hometown. Morton was one of the members of the old Second Division, formed in 1893. Morton first gained promotion to the old First Division in 1899–1900, Mortons greatest success came in its 1–0 defeat of Rangers in the 1922 Scottish Cup Final. Jimmy Gourlay scored the goal directly from a free kick in the 11th minute. Right after the match Morton boarded a train for Hartlepool to play the local side in a friendly match. The celebrations were delayed until the following Wednesday when 10,000 locals turned out at Cappielow Park to celebrate, Morton has made two other major cup final appearances. On Saturday 17 April 1948, Morton drew 1–1 with Rangers in the Scottish Cup Final, Mortons goal was a free kick scored by Jimmy White. The match was replayed on Wednesday 21 April and this time Rangers won 1–0 after extra time. The goal was said to be controversial because it was claimed that Morton goalkeeper Jimmy Cowan was blinded by the flash of a camera. These matches were significant because of the crowds they attracted. The first match was played in front of 132,629, the replay, in front of 133,750, was at the time a British record attendance for a midweek match. Mortons third and final major cup final to date was in the League Cup, as in its previous two final appearances, Mortons opponent was once again Glasgow Rangers
A walkover or W. O. is the awarding of a victory to a contestant because there are no other contestants, or because the other contestants have been disqualified or have forfeited. The term can apply in sport but can apply to elections. The word is used generally by extension, particularly in politics. The strict and extended meanings of walkover as a word are both found from 1829. The word originates from horseracing in the United Kingdom, where an entrant in a race run under Jockey Club rules has at least to walk over the course before being awarded victory. This outcome was quite common at a time there was no guaranteed prize money for horses finishing second or third so there was no incentive to run a horse in a race it could not win. The term is used in tennis, in reference to a players unopposed victory as a result of the opponents failing to start the match for any reason. The only Olympic Games walkover for a medal was at the 1908 Summer Olympics. The only time it has happened at the FIFA World Cup was in the 1938 edition, after the England team declined to take Austrias entry, FIFA gave Sweden a walkover. A walkover is usually the sign of a strong mandate or unanimous support. It can, however, be interpreted by critics of the faction the walkover is awarded to as a sign of electoral fraud or gerrymandering to prevent other candidates from participating. The circumstances of such an interpretation are usually controversial, walkovers can thus often be a sign of an illiberal democracy. Many liberal democracies in history, including the United States, have had uncontested elections because support for one candidate was so strong. In the 1820 election, James Monroe also ran unopposed, though New Hampshire elector William Plumer cast a vote for John Quincy Adams as a symbolic measure, walkovers are called acclamation in Canada. Other multi-party systems that have held uncontested presidential elections include Germany, Singapore, Ireland, Algeria, Iceland, running without opponents is not always a guarantee of winning. Many elections require that the winner has not only the most votes of all candidates but a fraction of all votes cast. In this case electors may be able to cast a vote or none of the above vote, spoil their papers. In such cases, the members of the body usually appoint someone to the vacant seat
Girvan Football Club are a Scottish football club based in the town of Girvan, South Ayrshire. Nicknamed the Seasiders, they were formed in 1947, and play at Hamilton Park and they currently play in the Scottish Junior Football Association, West Region. Prior to the 2004–05 season, Girvan played in the South of Scotland Football League and as members of the Scottish Football Association. This situation was unique to Girvan until 2014 when fellow Junior clubs Banks O Dee, the team are managed by former St Mirren player Peter Leonard, who took charge in January 2015. Official website Aggregated Social Media Feeds for Girvan FC
Clyde Football Club are a Scottish professional football club based in Cumbernauld, who play in Scottish League Two. Formed in 1877 at the River Clyde, the play their home games at Broadwood Stadium. The Clyde Football Club was founded and played on the banks of the River Clyde at Barrowfield, documentary evidence from the SFA and indeed match reports in the Glasgow press clearly show it all began in 1877, and the thread continues unbroken to this day. Heres how the SFA recorded Clydes origins, Sitting on the edge of Bridgeton, Barrowfield Park lay in a triangle of land enclosed by Carstairs Street, Colvend Street and the river Clyde. The area was a mix of chemical, engineering and textile works with a high population density to provide the labour. Today this area is dotted with industrial units, but also contains a grassed area. So it may be possible to stand upon a corner of the original Barrowfield pitch, Barrowfield was originally shared with a short-lived team called Albatross. The club founded then has no resemblance to a professional football club. Clyde F. C. were a members club more akin to a present-day golf or bowling club. Clydes Secretary, John Graham, was also a rower and it seems the club had other sporting. Although most fixtures were informal, the Scottish Cup had existed since 1873, soon there would also be the Glasgow Merchants & Charity Cup and the Glasgow Cup that in their time were hotly contested major competitions. Clyde entered the 1st Round of the Scottish Cup on 29 September 1877 along with one hundred, Third Lanark were the visitors once again and they triumphed 1–0. Clyde joined the Scottish Football League in 1891, following acceptance, Vale of Leven provided the opposition for Clydes first League fixture on Saturday,15 August 1891. In a dream introduction to League football Clyde triumphed 10–3, a mid-table finish saw Clyde complete a confident season in League football, with League football an undoubted success, Barrowfield revealed its limitations and simply could not cope with the crowds as many gained illegal entry. Opposition teams complained about the facilities and it was clear that Clyde would have to do something to appease the League, the solution lay directly across the Clyde on some open ground known as Shawfield. Clyde endured a final season at Barrowfield finishing bottom of Division 1. The final action at Barrowfield was a friendly against crack opposition in the form of Sunderland on 30 April 1898 ending in a 3–3 draw, at a stroke Clyde transformed from Brigtonians to Shawfielders. Clyde said farewell to Barrowfield in the spring of 1898, across the river lay an area of undeveloped land known as Shawfield
Stranraer Football Club is a Scottish semi-professional football club based in the town of Stranraer in Dumfries and Galloway. The club was founded in 1870, making it the third oldest football club in Scotland behind Queens Park and Kilmarnock, the club currently competes in the Scottish League One as a member of the Scottish Professional Football League. They also won the Scottish Second Division on two occasions, most recently in 1997–98 as well as coming runners-up in 2004–05 and 2014–15 and their only ever national cup final came in 1996, when the club defeated First Division champions St Johnstone 1–0 in the Scottish Challenge Cup final. Stranraers home ground is Stair Park, which has the capacity to seat around 1,830 spectators and 4,178 including standing, the ground was opened in 1907 and is located in the east of Stranraer. They were founded in 1870 and play their football at Stair Park, however they had taken part in the Scottish Cup since their debut in the national tournament in 1877–78. In 1955 C Division was abolished and the Blues found themselves in B Division and they would remain in the bottom tier until their first-ever promotion eventually arrived under the clubs legendary manager Alex McAnespie in 1993–94. With Campbell Money at the helm Stranraer spent three seasons in the Second Division before winning back to the First Division at the end of the 1997–98 season. Once again, they finished bottom of the league, with the points total as before and 29 defeats. During that season a league win was secured at Easter Road against Hibernian. During Moneys reign the club lifted the Scottish League Challenge Cup, saints Danny Griffin was the unfortunate scorer of an own goal. However, the cup run did not reflect their league form, as they finished ninth in the Second Division. However, the teams fortunes improved from there, as, under Neil Watt, they won the Third Division at the first attempt, in season 2004–05, the team shocked most people, as they stayed in the top two for most of the campaign. The team had an unsuccessful campaign in 2006–07, with heavy defeats by relegation rivals Peterhead. They finished ninth, which resulted in a play-off with Third Division promotion contenders East Fife, a 4–2 aggregate defeat saw them relegated to the Third Division. On 21 January 2009, club chairman Nigel Redhead stated that Stranraer F. C. owed £250,000, and had a 50–50 chance of survival to the end of the season. In response, on 22 January 2009, a small consortium launched the Friends of Stranraer F. C. to try to secure the future through donations from the football community at www. savestranraerfc. com. On 23 January 2009, as part of efforts to reduce costs to a manageable level, on 24 January 2009, Stirling Albion defeated Stranraer 8–2. Shortly after the game, Stranraer and team manager Derek Ferguson parted company by mutual consent and Keith Knox took over the reins
Falkirk Football Club are a Scottish professional association football club based in the town of Falkirk. The club was founded in 1876 and competes in the Scottish Championship as a member of the Scottish Professional Football League, the football club was registered as a Limited Liability Company in April 1905 – Falkirk Football & Athletic Club Ltd. Falkirk won the Scottish Cup for the first time in 1913, after 1945, Falkirk were promoted and demoted between the Premier and First Divisions seven times until 1995–96, and during the 1970s spent three seasons in the Second Division. In 2005, Falkirk were promoted to the Scottish Premier League, Falkirk won the Scottish Cup again in 1957 and were runners-up in the competition in 1997,2009 and 2015. As a result of its performance in the 2009 Scottish Cup, Falkirk have won the second tier of Scottish football a record seven times, an honour shared with St Johnstone. They have also won the Scottish Challenge Cup more than any other club, in their early years, Falkirk played at three venues, Hope Street, Randyford Park and Blinkbonny Park. Between 1885 and 2003, the club was based at Brockville Park, after the creation of the SPL in 1998, its strict stadium criteria – to which Brockville Park did not conform – was enforced, and the club was denied promotion on three occasions. The clubs present home ground since 2003 is the Falkirk Stadium, the clubs date of formation is uncertain. Although some accounts point to the year 1876, others claim it was formed in 1877, however, the former is the date used by the club and its fans. The club reached the round in the first year that it competed. In the first few years after it was formed, Falkirk played mostly friendly games and they played their home matches at three different grounds during this period, Hope Street, Randyford Park and Blinkbonny Park. It left the latter in 1884 and moved to Brockville Park, the Stirlingshire Football Association was founded in 1883, which invited clubs from the Stirlingshire region to join. It resulted in the establishment of a new tournament, the Stirlingshire Cup, a competition open exclusively to the teams from the region, the clubs nickname is The Bairns, a Scots word meaning sons or daughters, which is given to natives of the town of Falkirk. This is reflected in the Falkirk Burgh motto, Better meddle wi the deil than the Bairns o Fakirk, at the time, the league consisted of two tiers, the First and Second Divisions. Falkirk was promoted to the top division with a second-place finish behind Clyde after two seasons, despite the clubs success, several months beforehand a proposal to merge with local rivals East Stirlingshire was raised, which was narrowly rejected in a vote. In 1907–08, Falkirks third season in the top flight, the finished the season in second place, its highest league position to date. On both occasions it finished behind champions Celtic despite being the top scorers in the league. In 1913, the won the Scottish Cup for the first time
Hamilton Academical F.C.
They were established in 1874 from the school football team at Hamilton Academy and remain the only professional club in British football to have originated from a school team. Hamilton have won the Scottish Challenge Cup twice and have finished runners-up in the Scottish Cup twice, the club currently play their home games at New Douglas Park. Hamilton Academical F. C. was formed in late 1874 by the rector, in the 1970s, Hamilton briefly resigned from the league due to mounting debts. In 1994 the club sold its ground, Douglas Park, to Sainsburys supermarket. During this period the club went through hardships and unpaid players went on strike. As a result, Hamilton was unable to fulfil its fixtures during the 1999–2000 season and was docked 15 points, the club moved into its New Douglas Park stadium in 2001. In 2008, for the first time in 20 years, Accies gained promotion to the top division of Scottish football, in the 2009–10 season, a 3–0 victory against Kilmarnock on 17 April 2010 secured a third straight season in Scotlands top flight, with four games remaining. The Accies stay in the SPL ended in the 2010–11 season, after a hard-fought campaign during the 2013–14 Scottish Championship season, Accies finished in second position on the final day of the season following a 10–2 home victory over Morton. Hamilton lost the first leg 2–0 at New Douglas Park, but two goals in the return leg at Easter Road, including an injury time strike, forced the tie to extra time. Hamilton converted all of their spot-kicks and gained back to the top flight. Neil left the club in January 2015, to take up a position at English club Norwich, the club play their fixtures at New Douglas Park, which was opened in 2001. The pitch is a surface, one of two in the Scottish Premiership alongside Kilmarnock. The stadium has a capacity of 6,018 and is composed of two permanent and one temporary stand. The ground replaced Douglas Park, which was the home of Hamilton from 1888 to 1994, the ground was eventually sold to supermarket chain Sainsburys in 1994, with the proceeds going towards the construction of the new stadium, which lies adjacent to the site of Douglas Park. Between 1994 and 2001 the club had no home and they ground-shared at Cliftonhill and Firhill Stadium. Players may hold more than one non-FIFA nationality, note, Flags indicate national team as defined under FIFA eligibility rules. Players may hold more than one non-FIFA nationality, note, Flags indicate national team as defined under FIFA eligibility rules. Players may hold more than one non-FIFA nationality, the following is a list of the officially-appointed captains of the Hamilton Academical first-team
Heart of Midlothian F.C.
Heart of Midlothian Football Club, commonly known as Hearts, is a Scottish professional football club based in Gorgie in the west of Edinburgh. It is currently the only Scottish Premiership club in the city, with Edinburgh derby rivals Hibernian playing in the Scottish Championship and Edinburgh City playing in Scottish League Two. Hearts is the oldest football club in the Scottish capital, having formed in 1874 by a group of friends from the Heart of Midlothian Quadrille Assembly Club. The modern club crest is based on the Heart of Midlothian mosaic on the citys Royal Mile, Hearts play at Tynecastle Stadium, where home matches have been played since 1886. Their current training facilities are at the nearby Heriot Watt University in Edinburgh, the clubs most successful period was under Tommy Walker from the mid 1950s to mid 1960s. They won seven trophies in this period and were runners up for five others, Jimmy Wardhaugh, Willie Bauld and Alfie Conn, Sr. known affectionately as the Terrible Trio were famed forwards at the start of this period with wing half lynch pins Dave Mackay and John Cumming. Wardhaugh was part of another notable Hearts attacking trinity in the 1957–58 league winning side, along with Jimmy Murray and Alex Young they set the record for the number of goals scored in that league winning campaign. In doing so became the only side to finish a season with a goal difference exceeding 100. Hearts have won the Scottish Cup eight times, most recently in 2012 after a 5–1 win over city-rivals Hibernian, Hearts four Scottish League Cup triumphs were all under Walker, most recently a 1–01962 Scottish League Cup Final victory against Kilmarnock. The most recent Scottish League Cup Final appearance was in 2013 when they lost to St Mirren 3–2, in 1958, Heart of Midlothian became the third Scottish and fifth British team to compete in European competition at the time. The club reached the quarter-finals of the 1988–89 UEFA Cup, losing out to Bayern Munich 2–1 on aggregate, the club was formed by a group of friends from the Heart of Midlothian Quadrille Assembly Club. The group of friends bought a ball before playing local rules football at the Tron from where they were directed by a policeman to The Meadows to play. Local rules football was a mix of rugby and football as we know it, in December 1873 a match was held between XIs selected by Mr Thomson from Queens Park and Mr Gardner from Clydesdale at Raimes Park in Bonnington. This was the first time that Association rules had seen in Edinburgh. Members from the dance club viewed the match and in 1874 decided to adopt the association rules, the new side was Heart of Mid-Lothian Football Club. The earliest mention of Heart of Midlothian in a context is a report in The Scotsman newspaper from 20 July 1864 of The Scotsman vs Heart of Mid-Lothian at cricket. It is not known if this was the club who went on to form the football club. The club took its name from the Heart of Midlothian jail, by becoming members of the Scottish Association Hearts were able to play in the Scottish Cup for the first time
It is one of three SPFL clubs in the city, the others being their Edinburgh derby rivals Hearts and Edinburgh City. Hibernian was founded in 1875 by Irish immigrants, but support for the club is now based on rather than ethnicity or religion. The Irish heritage of Hibernian is still reflected, however, in its name, colours, the name of the club is usually shortened to Hibs. The team are also called The Hibees and The Cabbage, a shortening of the slang for Hibs of Cabbage and Ribs, by fans of the club. Home matches are played at the Easter Road stadium, in use since 1893, Hibernian have played in the second tier of the Scottish football league system, known as the Scottish Championship, since being relegated in 2014. Hibernian have won the Scottish league championship four times, most recently in 1952, three of those four championships were won between 1948 and 1952, when the club had the services of The Famous Five, a notable forward line. The club have won the Scottish Cup three times, in 1887,1902 and 2016, Hibs have also won the Scottish League Cup three times, in 1972,1991 and 2007. The club was founded in 1875 by Irishmen from the Cowgate area of Edinburgh, the name is derived from Hibernia, the Roman name for Ireland. James Connolly, the famous Irish Republican leader, was a Hibs fan, there was some sectarian resistance initially to an Irish club participating in Scottish football, but Hibs established themselves as a force in Scottish football in the 1880s. Hibs were the first club from the east coast of Scotland to win a major trophy and they went on to defeat Preston North End, who had won the 1887 FA Cup, in a friendly match described as the Association Football Championship of the World Decider. Mismanagement over the few years led to Hibs becoming homeless. A lease on the Easter Road site was acquired in late 1892, despite this interruption, the club today views the period since 1875 as one continued history and therefore counts the honours won between 1875 and 1891, including the 1887 Scottish Cup. The club were admitted to the Scottish Football League in 1893, a significant change at this time was that players were no longer required to be members of the Catholic Young Mens Society. Hibs are not seen today as being an Irish or Roman Catholic institution, for instance, the Irish harp was only re-introduced to the club badge when it was last re-designed in 2000. This design reflects the three pillars of the identity, Ireland, Edinburgh and Leith. Geography rather than religion is now seen as the reason for supporting Hibs. Hibs had some success after being reformed, winning the 1902 Scottish Cup, after this, however, the club endured a long barren spell. The club lost its placing in the league, and were relegated for the first time in 1931, the notorious Scottish Cup drought began as they reached three cup finals, two in consecutive years, but lost each of them
Dunfermline Athletic F.C.
Dunfermline Athletic Football Club is a Scottish football club based in Dunfermline, Fife, commonly known as just Dunfermline. Founded in 1885, the club play in the Scottish Championship. Dunfermline play at East End Park, are nicknamed The Pars and are managed by Allan Johnston. The Pars most successful period was in the 1960s, when the won the Scottish Cup twice, in 1961 and 1968 under the management of Jock Stein. The club regularly played European football in this period, reaching the semi-finals of the 1968–69 European Cup Winners Cup under Farm. The club have played at East End Park since their formation in 1885, however, after a period of relative success in the 2000s marked by appearances in three major finals, all of which were lost against Celtic, Dunfermline were relegated to the First Division in 2007. Bobby Ancell was offered the managers post in 1950 but with the Pars making headlines for board room disputes, with a new board in place two seasons later, Ancell was offered the position again and this time accepted. Improving year on year Ancell delivered promotion back to the top flight in 1955 before leaving to start a decade at Motherwell, Jock Stein became manager in 1960 and so began the clubs golden decade. The club played regular European football in the UEFA and European Cup Winners Cups throughout the 60s, under Stein Dunfermline won the Scottish Cup in the 1960–61 season. They beat Celtic 2–0 in the final after a replay, in 1962 they reached the Cup-Winners Cup quarter finals, losing 5–3 on aggregate to Újpest Dózsa SC. On the way they beat St Patricks Athletic and FK Vardar, in the 1962–63 season Dunfermline beat Everton in the Fairs Cup and then played Valencia, losing 4–0 away before winning 6–2 at home. The Pars lost the subsequent play-off, Stein left in 1964 to join Hibernian. New manager Willie Cunningham took the club to the Scottish Cup final in the 1964–65 season and they lost the final 3–2 to a Celtic team that was at the beginning of new manager Jock Steins era. The Pars finished 3rd in the league, one point behind top two Kilmarnock and Hearts, the following year Cunningham took Dunfermline to the Inter-Cities Fairs Cup quarter-finals. Alex Ferguson was a player in the Dunfermline squad between 1964 and 1967, George Farm was manager from 1967 until 1970. He matched Stein by winning the Scottish Cup in 1968 with a 3–1 win in the final against Hearts, on the way to the semi-final Dunfermline beat APOEL, Olympiacos and West Bromwich Albion. Dunfermline, managed by Pat Stanton started the 1980s in poor form, the core of the team were Pars stalwarts, Dr Hugh Whyte in goal, John Salton, Kenny Thomson and Dr Bobby Robertson in defence and Sandy McNaughton up front. Of this quintet only Salton was not an ever-present in the league campaign, the team developed a habit of losing streaks,2 of five games and 2 of three games and this caused relegation nerves