Scotland is a country that is part of the United Kingdom and covers the northern third of the island of Great Britain. It shares a border with England to the south, and is surrounded by the Atlantic Ocean, with the North Sea to the east. In addition to the mainland, the country is made up of more than 790 islands, including the Northern Isles, the Kingdom of Scotland emerged as an independent sovereign state in the Early Middle Ages and continued to exist until 1707. By inheritance in 1603, James VI, King of Scots, became King of England and King of Ireland, Scotland subsequently entered into a political union with the Kingdom of England on 1 May 1707 to create the new Kingdom of Great Britain. The union also created a new Parliament of Great Britain, which succeeded both the Parliament of Scotland and the Parliament of England. Within Scotland, the monarchy of the United Kingdom has continued to use a variety of styles, titles, the legal system within Scotland has also remained separate from those of England and Wales and Northern Ireland, Scotland constitutes a distinct jurisdiction in both public and private law. Glasgow, Scotlands largest city, was one of the worlds leading industrial cities. Other major urban areas are Aberdeen and Dundee, Scottish waters consist of a large sector of the North Atlantic and the North Sea, containing the largest oil reserves in the European Union. This has given Aberdeen, the third-largest city in Scotland, the title of Europes oil capital, following a referendum in 1997, a Scottish Parliament was re-established, in the form of a devolved unicameral legislature comprising 129 members, having authority over many areas of domestic policy. Scotland is represented in the UK Parliament by 59 MPs and in the European Parliament by 6 MEPs, Scotland is also a member nation of the British–Irish Council, and the British–Irish Parliamentary Assembly. Scotland comes from Scoti, the Latin name for the Gaels, the Late Latin word Scotia was initially used to refer to Ireland. By the 11th century at the latest, Scotia was being used to refer to Scotland north of the River Forth, alongside Albania or Albany, the use of the words Scots and Scotland to encompass all of what is now Scotland became common in the Late Middle Ages. Repeated glaciations, which covered the land mass of modern Scotland. It is believed the first post-glacial groups of hunter-gatherers arrived in Scotland around 12,800 years ago, the groups of settlers began building the first known permanent houses on Scottish soil around 9,500 years ago, and the first villages around 6,000 years ago. The well-preserved village of Skara Brae on the mainland of Orkney dates from this period and it contains the remains of an early Bronze Age ruler laid out on white quartz pebbles and birch bark. It was also discovered for the first time that early Bronze Age people placed flowers in their graves, in the winter of 1850, a severe storm hit Scotland, causing widespread damage and over 200 deaths. In the Bay of Skaill, the storm stripped the earth from a large irregular knoll, when the storm cleared, local villagers found the outline of a village, consisting of a number of small houses without roofs. William Watt of Skaill, the laird, began an amateur excavation of the site, but after uncovering four houses
Queen's Park F.C.
Queens Park Football Club is a Scottish football club based in Glasgow. Queens Park is the oldest association football club in Scotland, having founded in 1867. Queens Park is also the only Scottish football club to have played in the FA Cup Final, the clubs home is a Category 4 stadium, the all-seated Hampden Park in South East Glasgow, which is also the home of the Scottish national team. With 10 titles, Queens Park has won the Scottish Cup the third most times of any club, behind Rangers and Celtic, gentlemen from the local YMCA took part in football matches in the local Glasgow area which gave the club its name. During the inaugural meeting, debate raged over the clubs name, proposals included, The Celts, The Northern and Morayshire. Perhaps such choice of names suggest a Highland influence within the new club, after much deliberation, Queens Park was adopted and carried, but only by a majority of one vote. Although Queens was not the first club in Britain, that going to Edinburgh and John Hopes Football Club, formed in 1824. Opposition first came in the form of a now defunct Glaswegian side called Thistle F. C. on 30 November 1872, Scotland faced England at the West of Scotland Cricket Club ground at Hamilton Crescent. For the one and only time all eleven Scots players were from Queens Park and they wore blue jerseys,4,000 spectators watched Scotland play with a 2–2–6 formation and England with a 1–1–8 line-up. Queens Park formed the Scottish Football Association on 13 March 1873, the match against Dumbreck on 25 October was the first match to be played at Hampden Park. It was also the first match which saw Queens Park players wear their black and white hooped jerseys. David Wotherspoon, a Queens Park player and committee member, has credited with the introduction of the black. Most importantly, it was the first Scottish Cup tie and Scottish competitive match for the club, in the final, Queens defeated Clydesdale 2–0 at Hampden. Success in the Scottish Cup followed in the two years with final victories over Renton and Third Lanark. In drawing 2–2 with Clydesdale in the 1875 semi-final, Queens conceded their first ever goals, defeat for the club was first experienced with a 2–1 defeat to Vale of Leven in the 5th round in December 1876. Third Lanark and Rangers eliminated the Spiders before Queens reclaimed the cup in 1880 with a win over Thornliebank, Dumbarton were beaten in the final in successive years. In 1881, Queens had to them twice after Dumbarton successfully appealed that the crowd at Kinning Park had encroached following a 2–1 defeat. Dumbarton got revenge in 1883 but Queens won again in 1884 without even having to play the final after Vale of Leven refused to play on the date stipulated by the SFA, in the early days of Englands FA Cup, Scottish clubs were often invited to compete
Arthurlie is an area of the town of Barrhead, East Renfrewshire, Scotland. The lands of Arthurlie were held in medieval times by the Stewart family, later the lands became the property of Allan Pollock, Esq. and remained in his family for several generations before being inherited by Gavin Ralston of Woodside in Beith. The area has long associated with the legends of King Arthur. Arthurlie was a barony of considerable extent, however it came to be purchased by Henry Dunlop Esq. in 1818 from Gavin Ralston. The Dunlop family ran Gateside Cotton Mill under the name of James Dunlop & Son, the old house was torn down and Arthurlie House was erected with the old gardens extended and remodelled in 1818. The estate remained in the hands of the Dunlop family until about 1938 and it was a Mr. Charles Taylor who discovered the ancient Arthurlee Cross being used as a gatepost on the estate and persuaded Henry Dunlop to rescue it. The cross measures 2. 2m high,0. 5m wide, and 0. 2m thick and is in good condition except that one face is badly worn. One side had an iron ring indented into it, almost flush with the surface, in the 1857 Name Book it was believed that its original site had been at NS49685813 in a field called Cross-stane-park. In 1795 it was acting as a footbridge over a stream in the Colinbar Glen area at the bottom of the Cross-stane-park, sometime prior to 1942 it was moved yet again by Barrhead Council to its present position. The stone is said to be associated with Arthur, King of the Britons, locally it was said to mark Arthurs grave or a conspicuous leader of that name. Video footage of the Arthurlie Cross
Beith is a small town situated in the Garnock Valley, North Ayrshire, Scotland approximately 20 miles south-west of Glasgow. The town is situated on the crest of a hill and was originally as the Hill o Beith after its Court Hill. Beiths name is thought to emanate from Ogham, which is referred to as the Celtic Tree Alphabet. Beithe in Old Irish means Birch-tree, there is reason to believe that the whole of the district was covered with woods. The town of Beith itself was known as Hill of Beith as this was the name of the feudal barony and was itself derived from the Court Hill near Hill of Beith Castle. Alternatively, Beith may be derived from Cumbric *baɣeδ, boar, the local pronunciation of the name would favour this theory. Beith is said to have been the residence of Saint Inan. Although he is said to have been a hermit, according to tradition Saint Inan often visited Beith, frequenting Cuff Hill with its Rocking Stone and various other prehistoric monuments. A cleft in the west-front of Lochlands Hill is still known as St. Inans Chair, an unsuccessful search for the saints writings which were said to be preserved in the library of Bonci, Archbishop of Pisa, was made by Colonel Mure of Caldwell in the 19th-century. Saint Inan is said to have preached to the people from the chair on the hill. There was not a population in the area at that time and the people were located not in Beith. The first settlements were in the wooded areas around the dams where people were safe from attack and could get food from the land. The Saints of old went where the people were, and they tended to go where there had been worship of heathen Gods. It has been suggested that High Bogside Farm, which used to be called Bellsgrove, was really Baalsgrove, there is an annual civic fete held in the town bearing Saint Inans name. The sixteenth century poet Alexander Montgomerie was probably born in Hazelhead Castle, Montgomerie is regarded as one of the finest of Middle Scots poets, and perhaps the greatest Scottish exponent of the sonnet form. Beith has a connection to smuggling and built a reputation during the 18th century as being a town which harboured those whose intentions were not always lawful. This caused great inconvenience to the citizens on whom the soldiers were billeted. The town was policed in this fashion for some time thereafter, a possible relic of the smuggling days of Beith is the ley tunnel that is said to run from Eglinton Street to Kilbirnie Loch
Dumbarton is a town in West Dunbartonshire, Scotland, on the north bank of the River Clyde where the River Leven flows into the Clyde estuary. In 2006, it had an population of 19,990. Dumbarton was the capital of the ancient Kingdom of Alclud, Dumbarton Castle, on top of Dumbarton Rock, dominates the area. Dumbarton was a Royal burgh between 1222 and 1975, Dumbarton emerged from the 19th century as a centre for shipbuilding, glassmaking, and whisky production. However these industries have declined, and Dumbarton today is increasingly a commuter town for Glasgow 13 miles east-southeast of it. Dumbarton F. C. is the football club. Dumbarton is home to BBC Scotlands drama studios, Dumbarton history goes back at least as far as the Iron Age and probably much earlier. It was the site of a strategically important Roman settlement known as Alcluith of a province named Valentia, the next record of a settlement in Dumbarton is a record in Irish chronicles of the death of Guret, rex Alo Cluathe, in AD658. The loss of the British power base led to the emergence of the new kingdom of Strathclyde, or Cumbria, the title king of the Britons of Srath Clúade was first used in 872. Dumbarton was later the county town of the county of Dunbartonshire, in September 1605 Chancellor Dunfermline reported to King James VI that inundations of the sea were likely to destroy and take away the whole town. It was estimated that the defences would cost 30,000 pounds Scots. During World War II Dumbarton was heavily bombed by the German air force, the Germans were targeting the shipyards, and the area in the vicinity of the yards was consequently hit, with Clyde and Leven Street being severely damaged. The ploy was sometimes successful in diverting the bombers and many bombs fell harmlessly onto the moors, Dumbarton Castle sits on Dumbarton Rock, at the east bank mouth of the River Leven, where it flows into the Clyde estuary. The Castle has a history and many well-known figures from Scottish and British history have visited it. The castle was a royal fortress long before Dumbarton became a Royal Burgh, its ownership went from Scottish to English, the castle was an important place during the Wars of Independence and was used to imprison William Wallace for a short time after his capture by the English. It was from here that Mary, Queen of Scots, was conveyed to France for safety as a child, Mary was trying to reach Dumbarton Castle when she suffered her final defeat at Langside. In later times, Queen Victoria and Queen Elizabeth II visited the castle, today, Dumbarton Rock is a Scheduled Ancient Monument, it has legal protection in order to maintain and conserve the site for the future. As such any sort of work on the rock is strictly regulated by the Scottish Government, from the top of the castle can be seen both the River Clyde and Leven Grove Park
Rangers Football Club are a football club in Glasgow, Scotland, which plays in the Scottish Premiership, the first tier of the Scottish Professional Football League. Their home ground, Ibrox Stadium, is in the south-west of the city, Rangers were the first British club to reach a UEFA tournament final and won the European Cup Winners Cup in 1972 after being runner-up twice in 1961 and 1967. A third runners-up finish in Europe came in the UEFA Cup in 2008, Rangers have a long-standing rivalry with Celtic, the two Glasgow clubs being collectively known as the Old Firm. The four founders of Rangers – brothers Moses and Peter McNeil, Peter Campbell, Rangers first match, in May that year, was a goalless friendly draw with Callander on Glasgow Green. David Hill was also a founder member, in 1873, the club held its first annual meeting and staff were elected. By 1876 Rangers had its first international player, with Moses McNeil representing Scotland in a match against Wales. In 1877 Rangers reached a Scottish Cup final, after drawing the first game, Rangers refused to turn up for the replay, Rangers won the Glasgow Merchants Charity Cup the following year against Vale of Leven 2–1, their first major cup. The first-ever Old Firm match took place in 1888, the year of Celtics establishment, Rangers lost 5–2 in a friendly to a team composed largely of guest players from Hibernian. The 1890–91 season saw the inception of the Scottish Football League, the clubs first-ever league match, on 16 August 1890, resulted in a 5–2 victory over Heart of Midlothian. After finishing joint-top with Dumbarton, a play-off held at Cathkin Park finished 2–2, Rangers first-ever Scottish Cup win came in 1894 after a 3–1 final victory over rivals Celtic. By the start of the 20th century, Rangers had won two titles and three Scottish Cups. During William Wiltons time as secretary and then team manager. Taking over as manager from William Wilton in 1920, Bill Struth was Rangers most successful manager, on 2 January 1939 a British league attendance record was broken as 118,567 fans turned out to watch Rangers beat Celtic in the traditional New Years Day Old Firm match. During the wartime regional league setup, Rangers achieved their highest score against old firm rivals Celtic with an 8–1 win in the Southern Football League, Rangers also lost by their biggest Old Firm margin of 7–1. Rangers reached the semi-finals of the European Cup in 1960, losing to German club Eintracht Frankfurt by a record aggregate 12–4 for a Scottish team. In 1961 Rangers became the first British team to reach a European final when they contested the Cup Winners Cup final against Italian side Fiorentina, Rangers lost again in the final of the same competition in 1967, by a single goal after extra time to Bayern Munich. The Ibrox disaster occurred on 2 January 1971 when large-scale crushing on an exit at the culmination of the New Years Day Old Firm game claimed 66 lives. An enquiry concluded that the crush was likely to have happened ten minutes after the final whistle and to have been triggered by someone falling on the stairs
Lanark is a small town in the central belt of Scotland. The name is believed to come from the Cumbric Lanerc meaning clear space, Lanark is traditionally the county town of Lanarkshire, though there are several larger towns in the county. Lanark railway station and coach station have frequent services to Glasgow, there is little industry in Lanark and some residents commute to work in Glasgow and Edinburgh. Its shops serve the agricultural community and surrounding villages. There is a modern livestock auction market on the outskirts of the town. Lanark has served as an important market town since medieval times, King David I realised that greater prosperity could result from encouraging trade. He decided to create a chain of new towns across Scotland and these would be centres of Norman civilisation in a largely Celtic country, and would be established in such a way as to encourage the development of trade within their area. These new towns were to be known as Burghs, bastides were established in France for much the same reason. When a site had been selected for a new town the King’s surveyors would lay out an area for the town’s market, each merchant who came to the town was granted a plot of land bordering on the marketplace. These plots were known as feus or rigs, each feu in a burgh was the same size, though the size varied between burghs. In Forres in the north of Scotland each feu was 24 feet 10 inches wide and 429 feet deep, the layout of the feus in Lanark can still be easily seen between the north side of Lanark High Street and North Vennel, a lane which runs behind the feus. A motte and bailey castle was constructed at the bottom of Castlegate. Lanark had four gates, West Port, East port. West Port gate was demolished in the 1770s, the first aviation meeting to be held in Scotland was held at Lanark Racecourse between 6 and 13 August 1910. The aeroplanes were transported to the meeting by rail, as aviation technology at the time was not advanced enough to fly there. The Lanark meeting took place shortly after an event in Bournemouth at which Charles Rolls lost his life. Influenced by this, it was decided that no aircraft would fly closer than 300 yards away from the spectators, for the first time, aeroplanes were accurately timed over a straight measured distance, allowing the first world records to be set, covering flights over 1 mile. The meeting was described by The Aero magazine as the most successful yet held in Britain, a permanent military presence was established in the town with the completion of Winston Barracks in 1930
Stranraer is a town in Inch, Wigtownshire, in the west of Dumfries and Galloway, southwest Scotland. It lies on the shores of Loch Ryan, on the side of the isthmus joining the Rhins of Galloway to the mainland. Stranraer is Dumfries and Galloways second-largest town, with a population including the area of nearly 13,000. Stranraer is a centre for the West Galloway Wigtownshire area of Dumfries. It is best known as having been a port, previously connecting Scotland with Belfast and Larne in Northern Ireland. The main industries in the area are the port, with associated industries, tourism and, more traditionally. Some argue that name comes from the Scottish Gaelic An t-Sròn Reamhar meaning The Fat Nose, the most commonly accepted explanation is that it it derives its name from the strand or burn which divides the row, raw, of houses on its banks. In time Strandraw was named and spelled Stranrawer, and afterwards Stranraer, another interpretation would link the second element in the name with Rerigonium, an ancient settlement noted by Ptolemy in this part of Britain. The A77 runs north towards Ayr, Prestwick and Glasgow, the A75 runs east from Stranraer to Gretna, with links to the M6 going to Carlisle. The A75 is part of European route E18, but, like all European routes, the main national coach providers operate services from Stranraer. National Express offer a service to London, and Scottish Citylink operate services to Edinburgh, local transport in and around the town is provided by Stagecoach Western, and three local companies – McCullochs Coaches. Stranraer railway station is the terminus for one of the branch lines of the Glasgow South Western Line. Trains are provided by Abellio ScotRail daily to Ayr, Glasgow Central, from Stranraer connections to the West Coast Main Line, can be made at Glasgow Central, or traveling via Ayr, Kilmarnock, Dumfries to Carlisle. Onward trains from either Glasgow Central or Carlisle connect direct to London Euston and other such as Manchester Piccadilly, Crewe. In November 2011, Stena Line relocated its services to a new port at Old House Point, north of Cairnryan. The existing port in Stranraer may be redeveloped with the departure of Stena Line, both Campbeltown Airport and Glasgow Prestwick Airport, at around 45 miles, are the closest airports in Scotland to Stranraer. Belfast City Airport in Northern Ireland is 39 miles distant, the European Union is partly financing The Stranraer and Loch Ryan Waterfront Project for now and future generations. At an estimated cost of £1, by January 2010, work on the streets around the town centre was complete, with the streets around the Castle of St John re-paved and re-profiled
Abercorn is a village and parish in West Lothian, Scotland. Close to the south coast of the Firth of Forth, the village is around 5 km west of South Queensferry, etymologically, Abercorn is a Cumbric place-name meaning mouth of the river Cornie. The name of the river itself is also Cumbric and seems to derive from *kernan mound, hill, the English monk and historian Bede mentions Abercorn as the site of a monastery and seat of Bishop Trumwine who was the only bishop of the Northumbrian see of the Picts. The monastery is now known to have existed close to the present day church, the Hope mausoleum, designed by William Burn, is located in the kirkyard. Older burial monuments include Norsemen hogback stones, and fragments of 7th century Northumbrian crosses, a castle also existed here from Norman times, although it was demolished in 1455 by James II during a siege against the Black Douglases and their chief James Douglas, 9th Earl of Douglas. The House of the Binns, seat of the Dalyell family, is within the parish, the lands of Abercorn were granted to Claud Hamilton in the 16th century. His son was created the Earl of Abercorn. In the early 17th century, a branch of the Hamilton dynasty moved to Ulster in Ireland, the family would, henceforth, play a major part in Ulster affairs. Thus, the estate was sold to the Hope family, who were created Earls of Hopetoun. Abercorns population was recorded as 1,044 at the time of the 1821 census, for a very short time, Abercorn was a residential bishopric. In 681, during the reign of King Ecgfrith of Northumbria, Theodore of Tarsus, Archbishop of Canterbury, appointed Trumwine Bishop of the Picts, with his seat at Abercorn. This was part of a general division of the Northumbrian church by Theodore. The bishopric of Abercorn thus ceased to be a residential diocese and it is today listed by the Catholic Church as a titular see. The diocese was restored as a Latin Catholic titular bishopric in 1973. It must not be confounded with the former Roman Catholic Diocese of Abercorn in southern Africa, see also www. Abercornucopia. com for more on this extraordinary little hill station in the heart of Africa. Grid reference NT082788 Gazetteer of Scotland Ancient Lothian GigaCatholic with titular incumbent biography links
Clyde Football Club are a Scottish professional football club based in Cumbernauld, who play in Scottish League Two. Formed in 1877 at the River Clyde, the play their home games at Broadwood Stadium. The Clyde Football Club was founded and played on the banks of the River Clyde at Barrowfield, documentary evidence from the SFA and indeed match reports in the Glasgow press clearly show it all began in 1877, and the thread continues unbroken to this day. Heres how the SFA recorded Clydes origins, Sitting on the edge of Bridgeton, Barrowfield Park lay in a triangle of land enclosed by Carstairs Street, Colvend Street and the river Clyde. The area was a mix of chemical, engineering and textile works with a high population density to provide the labour. Today this area is dotted with industrial units, but also contains a grassed area. So it may be possible to stand upon a corner of the original Barrowfield pitch, Barrowfield was originally shared with a short-lived team called Albatross. The club founded then has no resemblance to a professional football club. Clyde F. C. were a members club more akin to a present-day golf or bowling club. Clydes Secretary, John Graham, was also a rower and it seems the club had other sporting. Although most fixtures were informal, the Scottish Cup had existed since 1873, soon there would also be the Glasgow Merchants & Charity Cup and the Glasgow Cup that in their time were hotly contested major competitions. Clyde entered the 1st Round of the Scottish Cup on 29 September 1877 along with one hundred, Third Lanark were the visitors once again and they triumphed 1–0. Clyde joined the Scottish Football League in 1891, following acceptance, Vale of Leven provided the opposition for Clydes first League fixture on Saturday,15 August 1891. In a dream introduction to League football Clyde triumphed 10–3, a mid-table finish saw Clyde complete a confident season in League football, with League football an undoubted success, Barrowfield revealed its limitations and simply could not cope with the crowds as many gained illegal entry. Opposition teams complained about the facilities and it was clear that Clyde would have to do something to appease the League, the solution lay directly across the Clyde on some open ground known as Shawfield. Clyde endured a final season at Barrowfield finishing bottom of Division 1. The final action at Barrowfield was a friendly against crack opposition in the form of Sunderland on 30 April 1898 ending in a 3–3 draw, at a stroke Clyde transformed from Brigtonians to Shawfielders. Clyde said farewell to Barrowfield in the spring of 1898, across the river lay an area of undeveloped land known as Shawfield
Heart of Midlothian F.C.
Heart of Midlothian Football Club, commonly known as Hearts, is a Scottish professional football club based in Gorgie in the west of Edinburgh. It is currently the only Scottish Premiership club in the city, with Edinburgh derby rivals Hibernian playing in the Scottish Championship and Edinburgh City playing in Scottish League Two. Hearts is the oldest football club in the Scottish capital, having formed in 1874 by a group of friends from the Heart of Midlothian Quadrille Assembly Club. The modern club crest is based on the Heart of Midlothian mosaic on the citys Royal Mile, Hearts play at Tynecastle Stadium, where home matches have been played since 1886. Their current training facilities are at the nearby Heriot Watt University in Edinburgh, the clubs most successful period was under Tommy Walker from the mid 1950s to mid 1960s. They won seven trophies in this period and were runners up for five others, Jimmy Wardhaugh, Willie Bauld and Alfie Conn, Sr. known affectionately as the Terrible Trio were famed forwards at the start of this period with wing half lynch pins Dave Mackay and John Cumming. Wardhaugh was part of another notable Hearts attacking trinity in the 1957–58 league winning side, along with Jimmy Murray and Alex Young they set the record for the number of goals scored in that league winning campaign. In doing so became the only side to finish a season with a goal difference exceeding 100. Hearts have won the Scottish Cup eight times, most recently in 2012 after a 5–1 win over city-rivals Hibernian, Hearts four Scottish League Cup triumphs were all under Walker, most recently a 1–01962 Scottish League Cup Final victory against Kilmarnock. The most recent Scottish League Cup Final appearance was in 2013 when they lost to St Mirren 3–2, in 1958, Heart of Midlothian became the third Scottish and fifth British team to compete in European competition at the time. The club reached the quarter-finals of the 1988–89 UEFA Cup, losing out to Bayern Munich 2–1 on aggregate, the club was formed by a group of friends from the Heart of Midlothian Quadrille Assembly Club. The group of friends bought a ball before playing local rules football at the Tron from where they were directed by a policeman to The Meadows to play. Local rules football was a mix of rugby and football as we know it, in December 1873 a match was held between XIs selected by Mr Thomson from Queens Park and Mr Gardner from Clydesdale at Raimes Park in Bonnington. This was the first time that Association rules had seen in Edinburgh. Members from the dance club viewed the match and in 1874 decided to adopt the association rules, the new side was Heart of Mid-Lothian Football Club. The earliest mention of Heart of Midlothian in a context is a report in The Scotsman newspaper from 20 July 1864 of The Scotsman vs Heart of Mid-Lothian at cricket. It is not known if this was the club who went on to form the football club. The club took its name from the Heart of Midlothian jail, by becoming members of the Scottish Association Hearts were able to play in the Scottish Cup for the first time