The National League of Professional Baseball Clubs, known as the National League, is the older of two leagues constituting Major League Baseball in the United States and Canada, the world's oldest current professional team sports league. Founded on February 2, 1876, to replace the National Association of Professional Base Ball Players of 1871–1875, the NL is sometimes called the Senior Circuit, in contrast to MLB's other league, the American League, founded 25 years later. Both leagues have 15 teams. After two years of conflict in a "baseball war" of 1901–1902, the two leagues of 8 team franchises each, agreed in a "peace pact" to recognize each other as "major leagues", draft rules regarding player contracts, prohibiting "raiding", regulating relationships with minor leagues and lower level clubs, with each establishing a team in the nation's largest metropolis of New York City, the league champions of 1903 arranged to compete against each other in the new professional baseball championship tournament with the inaugural "World Series" that Fall of 1903, succeeding earlier similar national series in previous decades since the 1880s.
After the 1904 champions failed to reach a similar agreement, the two leagues formalized the new World Series tournament beginning in 1905 as an arrangement between the leagues themselves. National League teams have won 48 of the 114 World Series championships contested from 1903 to 2018. Due to its length, the National League's full name is used. Up until about the 1970's, the term National League was considered an informal term to be used for any North American major sports league that included those two words in its name the National Football League and National Hockey League. By the 21st century, that practice had fallen out of favor in North America, with the terms National League and NL reserved for the baseball league and similarly-named leagues in other sports being referred to by their full names or initials. By 1875, the National Association of Professional Base Ball Players, founded four years earlier, was suffering from a lack of strong authority over clubs, unsupervised scheduling, unstable membership of cities, dominance by one team, an low entry fee that gave clubs no incentive to abide by league rules when it was inconvenient to them.
William A. Hulbert, a Chicago businessman and an officer of the Chicago White Stockings of 1870–1889, approached several NA clubs with the plans for a professional league for the sport of base ball with a stronger central authority and exclusive territories in larger cities only. Additionally, Hulbert had a problem: five of his star players were threatened with expulsion from the NAPBBP because Hulbert had signed them to his club using what were considered questionable means. Hulbert had a great vested interest in creating his own league, after recruiting St. Louis four western clubs met in Louisville, Kentucky, in January 1876. With Hulbert speaking for the four in New York City on February 2, 1876, the National League of Professional Base Ball Clubs was established with eight charter members, as follows: Chicago White Stockings from the NA Philadelphia Athletics from the NA Boston Red Stockings, the dominant team in the NA Hartford Dark Blues from the NA Mutual of New York from the NA St. Louis Brown Stockings from the NA Cincinnati Red Stockings, a new franchise Louisville Grays, a new franchise The National League's formation meant the end of the old National Association after only five seasons, as its remaining clubs shut down or reverted to amateur or minor league status.
The only strong club from 1875 excluded in 1876 was a second one in Philadelphia called the White Stockings or Phillies. The first game in National League history was played on April 22, 1876, at Philadelphia's Jefferson Street Grounds, at 25th & Jefferson Streets, between the Philadelphia Athletics and the Boston baseball club. Boston won the game 6–5; the new league's authority was soon tested after the first season. The Athletic and Mutual clubs fell behind in the standings and refused to make western road trips late in the season, preferring to play games against local non-league competition to recoup some of their financial losses rather than travel extensively incurring more costs. Hulbert reacted to the clubs' defiance by expelling them, an act which not only shocked baseball followers and the sports world, but made it clear to clubs that league schedule commitments, a cornerstone of competition integrity, were not to be ignored; the National League operated with only six clubs during 1877 and 1878.
Over the next several years, various teams left the struggling league. By 1880, six of the eight charter members had folded; the two remaining original NL franchises and Chicago, remain still in operation today as the Atlanta Braves and the Chicago Cubs. When all eight participants for 1881 returned for 1882—the first off-season without turnover in membership—the "circuit" consist
1895 in music
Events in the year 1895 in music. 1895 in Norwegian music March 4 – Gustav Mahler conducts the premiere of his Symphony No. 2, "Resurrection" in – the first three movement only. May 18 – Australian contralto Ada Crossley makes her London début at the Queen's Hall. August 10 – The first indoor promenade concert, origin of The Proms, is held at the Queen's Hall in London, opening a series promoted by impresario Robert Newman with 26-year-old Henry Wood as sole conductor; the first concert opens with the overture to Wagner's Rienzi. The orchestra tunes to the "French A" or diapason normal concert pitch. December 13 – The first complete performance of Gustav Mahler's Symphony No. 2, in Berlin with the composer conducting the Berlin Philharmonic orchestra. Composer Sidney Homer marries contralto Louise Dilworth Beatty. Composer Zdeněk Fibich separates from his wife, the contralto Betty Fibichová, goes to live with his former student and lover Anežka Schulzová. Venezuelan pianist and composer Teresa Carreño divorces her husband, pianist Eugen d'Albert.
It marks the end of her third marriage and his second. "America the Beautiful" w. Katherine Lee Bates m. Samuel A. Ward "The Band Played On" w. John F. Palmer m. Charles B. Ward "The Belle Of Avenoo A" w.m. Safford Waters "Down In Poverty Row" w. Gussie L. Davis m. Arthur Trevelyan "A Dream" w. Charles B. Cory m. J. C. Bartlett "The Hand That Rocks The Cradle" w. Charles W. Berkeley m. William H. Holmes "He's Not Dead Yet!" w. T. W. Connor "It's A Great Big Shame" w. Edgar Bateman m. George Le Brunn "Just Tell Them That You Saw Me" w.m. Paul Dresser "King Cotton March" m. John Philip Sousa "La Pas Ma La" w.m. Ernest Hogan "My Angeline" w. Harry B. Smith m. Victor Herbert "My Best Girl's A New Yorker" w.m. John Stromberg "Put Me Off at Buffalo" w. Harry Dillon m. John Dillon "Rastus On Parade" w. George Marion m. Kerry Mills "She Was One Of The Early Birds" w.m. T. W. Connor "Sleep Little Rosebud" w. Alfred Bryant, m. Louis Campbell Tipton "The Soldiers Of The Queen" w.m. Leslie Stuart "The Streets Of Cairo" w.m.
James Thornton "The Sunshine Of Paradise Alley" w. Walter H. Ford m. John Walter Bratton "Girl Wanted" – Dan W. Quinn, Berliner Records "The Band Played On" – Dan W. Quinn, Columbia Records "The Sidewalks of New York" – Dan W. Quinn, Berliner Records Béla Bartók Capriccio in B minor, for piano, Op. 4 Fantasia in A minor, for piano, Op. 2 Fantasia, for violin, Op. 9 Pieces, for violin, Op. 7 Sonata No. 2 in F major, for piano, Op. 3 Sonata in C minor, for violin and piano, Op. 5 Sonata No. 3 in C major, for piano, Op. 6 Léon Boëllmann – Suite Gothique for Organ Antonín Dvořák – Cello Concerto in B minor and fourteenth string quartets Edward Elgar – From the Bavarian Highlands, for chorus and orchestra, Op. 27 George Enescu – "Study" Symphony No. 1 in D minor Gabriel Fauré Allegro symphonique, for piano four-hands, Op. 68 Barcarolle No. 6 in E-flat major, for piano, Op. 70 Theme and Variations, for piano, Op. 73 Anatoly Lyadov Etude in F major, for piano, Op. 37 Mazurka in F major, for piano, Op. 38 Preludes, for piano, Op. 36 Preludes, for piano, Op. 39 Henrique Oswald – Piano Quintet in C major, Op. 18 Camille Saint-Saëns Fantasy No. 2 in D♭ major, for organ, Op. 101 La Mort de Thaïs, Paraphrase de concert sur l'opéra de J. Massenet, for piano Souvenir d'Ismaïlia, for piano, Op. 100 Richard Strauss Songs, for high voice and piano, Op. 29 Till Eulenspiegel's Merry Pranks, for orchestra, Op. 28 Alexander von Zemlinsky – Serenade, for violin and piano Isaac Albéniz – Henry Clifford Enrique Fernández Arbós – El Centro de la Tierra Nikolai Rimsky-Korsakov – Christmas Eve, 10 December, in St. Petersburg.
An Artist's Model London production opened at Daly's Theatre on February 2 and ran for 392 performances Dandy Dick Whittington London production The Shop Girl Broadway production opened at Palmer's Theatre on October 28 and ran for 72 performances The Tyrolean London production January 7 – Clara Haskil, pianist January 27 – Buddy De Sylva, songwriter February 7 – Irving Aaronson, jazz pianist and big band leader February 28 – Guiomar Novaes, Brazilian pianist March 4 – Bjarne Brustad, Norwegian composer and violinist March 23 – Dane Rudhyar, composer March 31 – Lizzie Miles, singer April 1 – Alberta Hunter, singer April 3 Mario Castelnuovo-Tedesco, composer Zez Confrey and composer April 9 – Mance Lipscomb, popular singer April 23 – Jimmie Noone, jazz musician April 29 – Sir Malcolm Sargent, conductor May 1 – Leo Sowerby, composer May 2 – Lorenz Hart, US lyricist May 6 – Rudolph Valentino and actor May 11 – William Grant Still, composer June 10 – Hattie McDaniel and actress June 16 – Lew Pollack, US composer July 4 – Irving Caesar, US lyricist and librettist July 5 – Gordon Jacob, English composer July 10 – Carl Orff, German composer July 12 – Oscar Hammerstein II, lyricist July 13 – Bradley Kincaid, folk singer July 25 – Yvonne Printemps and actress August 6 – Ernesto Lecuona, Cuban composer August 10 – Harry Richman, US singer and composer August 13 – Bert Lahr, vaudeville performer September 9 – Harry Tobias, US lyric writer September 16 – Karol Rathaus, Austrian composer September 22 – Herbert Janssen, German baritone September 26 – George Raft, Hollywood actor and Broadway entertainer October 11 – Jakov Gotovac, Croatian c
1895 in art
The year 1895 in art involved some significant events. January 1 – Alphonse Mucha's lithographed poster for the play Gismonda starring Sarah Bernhardt is posted in Paris. Bernhardt is so satisfied with its success. April 13 – The Russian Museum is established in Saint Petersburg by Nicholas II. April 30 – First Venice Biennale opens. July 3 – Paul Gauguin leaves France to settle permanently in Polynesia. October – Edvard Munch exhibits an extended series of his Love paintings in Christiania. November – Paul Cézanne has his first solo exhibition, at the Paris gallery of Ambroise Vollard. Bernard Berenson publishes Lorenzo Lotto: An Essay in Constructive Art Criticism. P. H. Emerson publishes Marsh Leaves. M. H. de Young Memorial Museum opened in San Francisco. Lawrence Alma-Tadema – A Coign of Vantage Aubrey Beardsley – Venus Between Terminal Gods Paul Cézanne The Boy in the Red Vest Still Life with Cherub Edgar Degas After the Bath, Woman drying herself Photographic self-portrait Thomas Eakins – Portrait of Maud Cook Paul Gauguin – Oviri Countess Feodora von Gleichen – Statue of Queen Victoria surrounded by children, Royal Victoria Hospital, Montreal J. W. Godward Mischief And Repose The Muse Erato At Her Lyre Winslow Homer Cannon Rock Northeaster George W. Joy The Bayswater Omnibus Joan of Arc Sir Frederic Leighton Candida Flaming June Lachrymae Listener The Maid with the Golden Hair A Study'Twixt hope and fear Juan Luna La Bulaqueña Tampuhan Henry Arthur McArdle – Battle of San Jacinto Louis Maurer – The Great Royal Buffalo Hunt Gustave Moreau – Jupiter and Semele Edvard Munch After the Fall of Man Jealousy Madonna Self-portrait with a cigarette Self-portrait with skeleton arm Roderic O'Conor – La Jeune Bretonne Pierre-Auguste Renoir – Gabrielle et Jean Tom Roberts – Bailed Up John Singer Sargent – Frederick Law Olmsted Carlos Schwabe – La mort du fossoyeur Valentin Serov – Portrait of Countess Varvara Musina-Pushkina Marianne Stokes – St. Elizabeth of Hungary Spinning for the Poor Théophile Steinlen – Les Chanteurs des Rues Vardges Sureniants – Desecrated Shrine Dorothy Tennant – L'Amour Blessé James Tissot – La femme préhistorique Henri de Toulouse-Lautrec – Portrait of Oscar Wilde Louis Tuaillon – Amazone zu Pferde Laurits Tuxen – The Wedding of Tsar Nicholas II John Henry Twachtman – The White Bridge Félix Vallotton – Clair de lune J. Alden Weir – The Ice Cutters W. L. Wyllie – The Opening of Tower Bridge January 21 – Cristóbal Balenciaga, Spanish fashion designer March 1 – Ogura Yuki, Japanese nihonga painter March 4 – Mikuláš Galanda, Slovak modernist painter and illustrator March 29 – Anne Redpath, Scottish still life painter April 7 Jim Ede, English art collector John Bernard Flannagan, American sculptor May 8 – Georg Muche, German painter June 3 – Frank McKelvey, Irish painter June 5 – William Roberts, British painter July 2 – Gen Paul, French painter and engraver July 19 – Xu Beihong, Chinese painter August 7 – Alain Saint-Ogan, French comics author and artist August 13 – Gluck, born Hannah Gluckstein, English painter August 17 – Talbert Abrams, American "father of aerial photography" November 1 – David Jones, British poet and painter December 26 – Jefto Perić, Serbian painter date unknown Ilija Bašičević, Serbian painter and father of painter-sculptor Dimitrije Bašičević Marguerite Huré, French stained glass artist January 5 – Władysław Podkowiński and illustrator February 1 – Mary Thornycroft, sculptor February 8 – Jean-François Portaels, painter March 2 – Berthe Morisot, Impressionist painter March 6 – Edwin Forbes, landscape painter and etcher April 19 – Sir George Scharf, art critic April 21 – Arthur Gilbert, painter May 24 – Joseph Quinaux, landscape painter September 21 – Silvestro Lega, painter November 23 – Mauritz de Haas, painter date unknown – Gaetano Milanesi, art historian
1904 in baseball
The following are the baseball events of the year 1904 throughout the world. American League: Boston Americans National League: New York GiantsWorld Series: New York declined challenge by Boston May 5 – Cy Young pitches a perfect game, as the Boston Americans defeat the Philadelphia Athletics, 3–0; this is considered the first perfect game in the modern era. May 27 - Giants catcher Dan McGann steals five bases in a game June 11 – Chicago Cubs pitcher Bob Wicker pitches nine innings without allowing a hit, he surrenders a hit in the 10th inning. The Cubs would go on the beat 1 -- 0, in 12 innings. June 20 - Duff Cooley of the Boston Beaneaters hits for the cycle in the second game of a doubleheader against the Philadelphia Phillies in a 9-0 Boston victory. June 23 – Kip Selbach of the Washington Senators ties a record by committing 3 errors from the outfield in one inning. July 16 - "Happy" Jack Chesbro steals home in the bottom of the 10th inning, winning his own game by a score of 9-8. August 17 – Boston Americans pitcher Jesse Tannehill tosses a no-hitter against the Chicago White Sox in a 6–0 Boston win.
October 4 – New York Giants outfielder Sam Mertes hits for the cycle in a 7-3 loss to the St. Louis Cardinals; the World Series was cancelled when John T. Brush, refused to play Boston. Highlanders P Jack Chesbro throws a pennant-losing wild pitch at home against Boston. January 1 – Ethan Allen January 3 – Bill Cissell January 7 – Clay Roe January 10 - Lou Dials January 13 – Bunny Hearn January 16 – Jo-Jo Morrissey January 18 – Len Koenecke January 19 – Jimmy Boyle January 20 – Denny Sothern January 22 – John Milligan January 24 – Neal Finn January 26 – George Blaeholder January 28 – Dutch Hoffman January 29 – Ray Hayworth February 7 – Andy Reese February 9 – Roy Mahaffey February 10 – Hal Anderson February 13 – Cecil Bolton February 13 – Charlie Fitzberger February 15 – Oscar Estrada February 27 – Chick Fullis February 27 – Bud Teachout February 29 – Pepper Martin March 5 – Lou Rosenberg March 16 – Buddy Myer March 21 – Frank Sigafoos March 21 – Red Rollings March 22 – Bob Elson March 30 – Ripper Collins March 31 – Sam Dailey March 31 – Red Rollings April 1 – Jack Cummings April 9 – Guy Cantrell April 9 – Fred Frankhouse April 11 – Dutch Ussat April 30 – Neal Baker April 30 – Tony Murray May 9 – Paul Hinson May 9 – Brad Springer May 16 – Abe White May 18 – Red Smith May 20 – Pete Appleton May 22 – Ed Morgan May 25 – Buz Phillips May 26 – Frank Ragland May 26 – Bill Shores June 4 – Lefty Atkinson June 7 – Dusty Boggess June 12 – Bill Foster June 13 – John O'Connell June 15 – Ed Pipgras June 15 – Pid Purdy June 15 – Hank Winston June 24 – Bobby Reeves July 2 – Pete Susko July 3 – Luke Hamlin July 4 – Ed Cotter July 4 – Mel Ingram July 5 – Bump Hadley July 9 – Art Daney July 14 – Max West July 15 – Ray Wolf July 18 – Marty Karow July 19 – Mark Koenig July 26 – Bill Dreesen August 5 – Vic Frazier August 6 – Herb Cobb August 14 – Les Cox August 17 – Augie Walsh September 4 – Bud Morse September 6 – Willie Underhill September 10 – Arlie Tarbert September 16 – Edgar Barnhart September 25 – Paul Hopkins September 26 – Jess Cortazzo September 30 – Johnny Allen October 2 – Tom Angley October 5 – Sam West October 7 – Chuck Klein October 9 – Gordon Slade October 13 – Howie Carter October 15 – Bill Lewis October 16 – Boom-Boom Beck October 24 – Harry Smythe October 25 – Andy Cohen October 26 – Monk Sherlock October 27 – Frank Bennett October 28 – Liz Funk October 28 – Joe O'Rourke October 31 – Allyn Stout November 1 – Johnny Burnett November 4 – Earl Mattingly November 5 – Ollie Sax November 15 – George Cox November 16 – Mike Smith November 19 – Elmer Tutwiler November 24 – Billy Rogell December 5 – Ray Fitzgerald December 12 – Ray Boggs December 13 – Bill Windle December 16 – Joe Berry December 20 – Spud Davis December 23 – Howie Williamson December 25 – Bill Akers December 25 – Lloyd Brown December 27 – John Shea December 29 – Bill Sweeney January 1 – George Radbourn, 47, pitcher who played for the 1883 Detroit Wolverines.
January 31 – Dan Mahoney, 39, catcher and first baseman for the 1892 Cincinnati Reds and 1894 Washington Senators. March 22 – Art McCoy, 39, second baseman who played in two games with the 1889 Washington Nationals. March 25 – Harry Arundel, 49, pitcher who played with the Brooklyn Atlantics, Pittsburgh Alleghenys and Providence Grays. March 28 – George Seward, 53, outfielder who played in part of three seasons for the St. Louis Brown Stockings and New York Mutuals. April 11 – Shorty Fuller, 36, shortstop for the Washington Nationals, St. Louis Brown Stockings and New York Giants from 1888 to 1896, who scored more than 100 runs in the 1890 and 1891 seasons. April 18 – Charlie Ziegler, 29, infielder for the 1889 Cleveland Spiders and 1900 Philadelphia Phillies. April 20 – John Galvin, 61, second baseman for the 1872 Brooklyn Atlantics. April 20 – Gus McGinnis, 33, pitcher and outfielder who played with the Chicago Colts and Philadelphia Phillies in 1he 1893 season. April 27 – Bobby Cargo, 33, shortstop for the 1892 Pittsburgh Pirates.
May 4 – Frank Quinlan, 35, catcher and outfielder who appeared in two games for the 1891 Boston Reds. May 25 – John Hayes, 49, outfielder who hit.143 in five games for the 1876 New York Mutuals. June 3 – Bill Pfann, 41, pitcher for the 1884 Cincinnati Reds. June 6 – Chippy McGarr, 41, third baseman who hit.269 in 827 games for several teams over the course of 10 seasons from 1884 to 1896. June 19 – Marshall Quinton, 52, catcher who played from 1884 to 1885 for the Richmond Virginians and Philadelphia Athletics teams of the American Association. July 24 – Ernie Mason, 34, pitcher and outfielder for the 1894 St. Louis Browns of the National League. August 22 – Charlie Dewald, 36, p
1893 in baseball
The following are the baseball events of the year 1893 throughout the world. National League: Boston Beaneaters June 19 – Baltimore Orioles outfielder Piggy Ward reached base a record 17 times in 17 consecutive plate appearances, a streak he started on June 16; the record would be matched 69 years when catcher Earl Averill, Jr. tied that mark in 1962. August 16 – Bill Hawke of the Baltimore Orioles pitches a no-hitter against the Washington Senators in a 5–0 win, it is the first no-hitter thrown from the modern-day pitching distance of 60'6". August 18 – The Boston Beaneaters set a Major League record which still stands for the most batters hit by a pitch in an inning. Four batters are hit in the 2nd inning in the game with the Pittsburgh Pirates. November 21 – Ban Johnson is named president and treasurer of the reorganized Western League. Under Johnson's leadership the WL will prosper. January 1 – Frank Fuller January 2 – Jesse Altenburg January 3 – George Shively January 10 – Joe Gingras January 10 – Marty Herrmann January 12 – Lefty Lorenzen January 12 – Charlie Young January 14 – Billy Meyer January 17 – Luke Glavenich January 20 – Al Gould January 20 – Red Hill January 25 – Abe Bowman January 28 – Guy Cooper January 30 – Red Smyth January 31 – George Burns February 2 – Cy Warmoth February 7 – Charlie Jamieson February 10 – Bill Evans February 12 – Earl Sheely February 13 – Ben Dyer February 17 – Eddie Onslow February 17 – Wally Pipp February 21 – Norman Plitt February 21 – Marsh Williams February 23 – Jim O'Neill February 25 – Phil Slattery February 28 – Sam Mayer March 8 – Ray Francis March 9 – Billy Southworth March 9 – Lefty Williams March 12 – Joe Engel March 12 – Alex Gaston March 18 – Russ Wrightstone March 20 – Johnny Butler March 23 – Ray Kremer March 24 – George Sisler March 26 – Frank Brower March 27 – Charlie Boardman April 4 – Pete Kilduff April 7 – Desmond Beatty April 7 – Fletcher Low April 9 – Bill Morrell April 9 – Tiny Osborne April 10 – Walter Ancker April 11 – Hal Deviney April 11 – Spencer Pumpelly April 13 – Roy Walker April 14 – Ben Tincup April 15 – Vern Hughes April 15 – Jack Sheehan April 24 – Walt Smallwood April 27 – Allen Sothoron April 29 – Shag Thompson May 6 – Pat Griffin May 7 – Bill Hobbs May 8 – Ed Hemingway May 8 – Edd Roush May 8 – Roy Wilkinson May 9 – Bill Bolden May 12 – Hob Hiller May 12 – George Kaiserling May 15 – Sam Fishburn May 20 – Walter Bernhardt May 20 – Fritz Von Kolnitz May 21 – Herold Juul May 22 – Pat Parker May 23 – Elmer Leifer May 25 – Bill Bankston June 1 – Guy Morton June 1 – Eddie Palmer June 5 – Herb Hall June 9 – Irish Meusel June 9 – Mack Wheat June 18 – Ben Shaw June 22 – Larry Pezold June 26 – Elmer Ponder June 27 – Charlie Wheatley July 1 – Howie Camp July 3 – Dickey Kerr July 6 – Shovel Hodge July 7 – Dutch Wetzel July 8 – Bill Brown July 8 – Dan Woodman July 9 – Turner Barber July 9 – Harry Eccles July 9 – Tony Faeth July 11 – Clarence Blethen July 11 – Milt Stock July 13 – Luther Farrell July 14 – John Peters July 15 – Red Oldham July 16 – Doc Prothro July 21 – Ray Keating July 22 – Jesse Haines July 24 – Joe Schultz July 31 – Allen Russell August 5 – Jack Harper August 8 – Jack Smith August 11 – Red Causey August 12 – John Michaelson August 16 – Cy Wright August 18 – Bernie Duffy August 18 – Burleigh Grimes August 18 – William Marriott August 19 – Jim Shaw August 22 – Lyle Bigbee August 22 – Oscar Fuhr August 23 – Sam White August 24 – Paul Des Jardien August 24 – Bartolo Portuondo August 25 – Bob Gandy August 27 – Howie Haworth August 27 – Dizzy Nutter August 30 – Ralph Head August 31 – Murphy Currie September 5 – Don Rader September 6 – Bill Murray September 9 – Walt Kinney September 11 – Ray Grimes September 11 – Roy Grimes September 13 – John Kelleher September 13 – Mike McNally September 13 – Dutch Ruether September 15 – Speed Martin September 17 – Whitey Glazner September 20 – Jack Bradley September 20 – Doc Wallace September 22 – Ira Flagstead September 22 – Pat French September 25 – Ed Chaplin September 28 – Mike Massey September 28 – Cy Rheam September 30 – Duke Kelleher October 5 – Paul Speraw October 6 – Pat Duncan October 6 – Johnny Tillman October 12 – Hank Ritter October 13 – Pickles Dillhoefer October 13 – Dick Spalding October 15 – John Karst October 15 – Gil Whitehouse October 19 – Lloyd Christenbury October 25 – Vic Aldridge October 31 – Bill Herring November 1 – Tom Burr November 1 – Otis Lawry November 4 – Bill Leinhauser November 5 – Spencer Heath November 6 – Dana Fillingim November 15 – Joe Leonard November 16 – Cristóbal Torriente November 21 – Ziggy Hasbrook November 25 – Gene Bailey November 28 – Benn Karr November 28 – Frank O'Rourke November 29 – Carter Elliott November 29 – Charlie Snell November 30 – Tex Hoffman December 2 – Tommy Vereker December 4 – Luke Nelson December 5 – Joe Gedeon December 6 – Hack Eibel December 12 – Les Hennessy December 17 – Bert Yeabsley December 18 – Dominic Mulrenan December 18 – Rinaldo Williams December 19 – Paul Strand December 22 – Marty Becker December 22 – Jesse Winters December 29 – Joe Smith January 4 – Jim Halpin, 29, shortstop in 1882, 1884–1885.
March – Joseph Quinn,??, catcher for two teams in 1881. April 18 – Fred Siefke, 23, third baseman for the 1890 Brooklyn Gladiators. October 10 – Lip Pike, 48, outfielder for several teams from 1871 to 1881 who batted.300 four times in the National Association and twice in the NL, winning four home run titles. December 2 – Bill Gleason, 25, pitcher for the 1890 Cleveland Infants
1903 in baseball
The following are the baseball events of the year 1903 throughout the world. American LeagueBoston AmericansNational LeaguePittsburgh PiratesWorld SeriesWorld Series: Boston Americans over Pittsburgh Pirates, in the first modern World Series American AssociationSt. Paul SaintsCentral LeagueFort Wayne RailroadersConnecticut LeagueHolyoke PaperweightsCotton States LeagueBaton Rouge Red SticksEastern LeagueJersey City SkeetersHudson River LeagueHudson MarinesIllinois–Indiana–Iowa LeagueBloomington BloomersKentucky–Illinois–Tennessee LeagueCairo EgyptiansMissouri Valley LeagueSedalia GoldbugsNew England LeagueLowell TigersNew York State LeagueSchenectady Frog AlleysNorthern LeagueWinnipeg MaroonsPacific Coast LeagueLos Angeles AngelsPacific National LeagueButte MinersSouthern AssociationMemphis EgyptiansSouthwest Washington LeagueAberdeen PippinsTexas LeagueDallas GiantsWestern LeagueMilwaukee Creams National titlePrinceton TigersWestern ConferenceIllinois Fighting Illini May 6 – The Chicago White Stockings committed twelve errors, the Detroit Tigers answered back with six of their own.
The combined "18-E debacle" set a modern Major League record for the most errors in a single game. May 7 – Pittsburgh Pirates outfielder Fred Clarke hits for the cycle for the second time in his career; the Pirates lose to the Cincinnati Reds, however, 11-8. June 21 – Boston Americans outfielder Buck Freeman hits for the cycle in a 12–7 Boston win over the Cleveland Blues. June 25 – Wiley Piatt of the Boston Beaneaters became the only pitcher in the 20th century to lose two complete games in one day. Piatt allowed fourteen hits, while striking out twelve, en route to 1–0 and 5-3 St. Louis Cardinals victories. June 29 – Patsy Dougherty, outfielder for the Boston Americans, hits for the cycle against the Chicago White Stockings leading Boston to a 7–2 win. September 3 – Cleveland Blues rookie Jesse Stovall tosses an 11-inning shutout, 1-0, over the Detroit Tigers; the feat still remains as the longest shutout for a major league pitching debut. September 18 – Chick Fraser pitches a no-hitter for the Philadelphia Phillies in the second game of a doubleheader against the Chicago Cubs.
The Phillies win, 10–0. September 24 – Cleveland Blues third baseman Bill Bradley hits for the cycle against the Washington Senators in a 12–2 Cleveland win. October 1 – In Game 1 of the first modern World Series in Major League Baseball, Pittsburgh Pirates outfielder Jimmy Sebring becomes the first player to hit a home run in the World Series when he connects for a solo shot off of Boston's Cy Young in the seventh inning; the Pirates beat the Americans, 7-3. October 2 – Boston Americans outfielder Patsy Dougherty becomes the first player to hit multiple home runs in a World Series game when he hits solo home runs in the first and sixth inning of Game 2 in Boston's 3–0 win over the Pittsburgh Pirates. October 13 – The Boston Americans defeat the Pittsburgh Pirates, 3-0, in Game 8 of the first World Series. Boston wins five games to three. January 3 – Herb Bradley January 4 – Alex Metzler January 6 – Ike Eichrodt January 6 – George Grant January 6 – Mul Holland January 14 – Phil Piton January 14 – Russ Scarritt January 15 – Tom Oliver January 18 – Nolen Richardson January 19 – Fred Lucas January 19 – Merle Settlemire January 23 – Jack Saltzgaver January 24 – Clay Touchstone January 27 – Art Reinholz January 27 – Earl Williams January 31 – Abie Hood February 1 – Carl Reynolds February 3 – Joe Stripp February 10 – Walt Lerian February 10 – Johnny Lucas February 10 – George Quellich February 12 – Chick Hafey February 12 – Andy Harrington February 14 – Uel Eubanks February 21 – Tom Yawkey February 23 – Roy Johnson March 2 – Art Mills March 5 – Chick Autry March 11 – Buster Ross March 11 – Art Ruble March 27 – Joe Dwyer April 4 – Les Bartholomew April 6 – Mickey Cochrane April 8 – Frank Mulroney April 13 – Ken Jones April 16 – Paul Waner April 17 – Elmer Miller April 17 – Bob Osborn April 24 – Jimmy Moore April 25 – John Wilson April 26 – Dale Alexander April 28 – Fred Schemanske May 1 – Fritz Knothe May 11 – Charlie Gehringer May 14 – Doc Land May 17 – Cool Papa Bell May 22 – Mel Kerr May 23 – Charlie Sullivan May 24 – Jack Berly June 3 – Chappie Geygan June 5 – Billy Urbanski June 9 – Mike Ryba June 13 – Carroll Yerkes June 17 – Ben Shields June 19 – Lou Gehrig June 22 – Carl Hubbell June 26 – Babe Herman June 26 – George Milstead July 8 – Clint Brown July 10 – Johnny Niggeling July 12 – George Darrow July 18 – Hod Kibbie July 20 – Howard Maple July 28 – George Gerken August 6 – Jim Turner August 6 – Hal Wiltse August 8 – Clise Dudley August 13 – Steve Swetonic August 19 – Estel Crabtree August 27 – Charlie Engle August 27 – Marv Gudat August 29 – Jack Warner September 1 – Foster Edwards September 1 – Freddie Moncewicz September 6 – Tommy Thevenow September 7 – Curt Davis September 7 – Nap Kloza September 7 – Al Van Camp September 12 – Len Dondero September 13 – Rabbit Warstler September 19 – Carl Lind September 22 – Chuck Hostetler September 28 – Jim Brillheart September 28 – Hank Grampp October 4 – Lefty Thomas October 7 – Bill Walker October 9 – Walter O'Malley October 9 – Jack Tising October 10 – Fay Thomas October 12 – Jack Crouch October 12 – Dutch Holland October 15 – Mule Haas October 18 – Yats Wuestling October 20 – Archie Campbell October 28 – Hank Boney October 30 – Mickey Heath November 2 – Chief Hogsett November 2 – Travis Jackson November 13 – Si Rosenthal November 18 – George Blackerby November 23 – Joe Muich November 25 – Jim Weaver November 27 – Bill Hohman December 2 – Don Brennan December 6 – Tony Lazzeri December 11 – Ray Phelps December 13 – Al Smith December 14 – Jim Moore December 17 – Ted Trent December 25 – Red Barnes January 12 – Win Mercer, 28, pitcher for four teams from 1894 to 1902, who posted two 20-win seasons and led the National League in games started, shuto
Denton True "Cy" Young was an American Major League Baseball pitcher. During his 22-season baseball career, he pitched for five different teams. Young established numerous pitching records. Young compiled 511 wins, most in Major League history and 94 ahead of Walter Johnson, second on the list. Young was elected to the National Baseball Hall of Fame in 1937. One year after Young's death, the Cy Young Award was created to honor each previous season's best pitcher. In addition to wins, Young still holds the major league records for most career innings pitched, most career games started, most complete games, he retired with 315 losses, the most in MLB history. Young's 76 career shutouts are fourth all-time, he won at least 30 games in a season five times, with ten other seasons of 20 or more wins. In addition, Young pitched three no-hitters, including the third perfect game in baseball history, first in baseball's "modern era". In 1999, 88 years after his final major league appearance and 44 years after his death, editors at The Sporting News ranked Young 14th on their list of "Baseball's 100 Greatest Players".
That same year, baseball fans named him to the Major League Baseball All-Century Team. Young's career started in 1890 with the Cleveland Spiders. After eight years with the Spiders, Young was moved to St. Louis in 1899. After two years there, Young jumped to the newly created American League, joining the Boston franchise, he was traded back to Cleveland in 1909, before spending the final two months of his career with the Boston Rustlers. After his retirement, Young went back to his farm in Ohio, where he stayed until his death at age 88 in 1955. Cy Young was the oldest child born to Jr. and German American Nancy Mottmiller. He was christened Denton True Young; the couple had four more children: Jesse Carlton, Alonzo and Anthony. When the couple married, McKinzie's father gave him the 54 acres of farm land. Young was born in Gilmore, a tiny farming community located in Washington Township, Tuscarawas County, Ohio, he was went by the name Dent Young in his early years. Young was known as "Farmer Young" and "Farmboy Young".
Young stopped his formal education after he completed the sixth grade so he could help out on the family's farm. In 1885, Young moved with his father to Nebraska, in the summer of 1887, they returned to Gilmore. Young played for many amateur baseball leagues during his youth, including a "semi-pro" Carrollton team in 1888. Young played second base; the first box score known containing the name Young came from that season. In that game, Young had three hits in three at-bats. After the season, Young received an offer to play for the minor league Canton team, which started Young's professional career. Young began his professional career in 1889 with the Canton, team of the Tri-State League, a professional minor league. During his tryout, Young impressed the scouts, recalling years "I tore the boards off the grandstand with my fast ball." Cy Young's nickname came from the fences. The fences looked. Reporters shortened the name to "Cy", which became the nickname Young used for the rest of his life. During Young's one year with the Canton team, he won 15 games and lost 15.
Franchises in the National League, the major professional baseball league at the time, wanted the best players available to them. Therefore, in 1890, Young signed with the Cleveland Spiders, a team which had moved from the American Association to the National League the previous year. On August 6, 1890, Young's major league debut, he pitched a three-hit 8–1 victory over the Chicago Colts. While Young was on the Spiders, Chief Zimmer was his catcher more than any other player. Bill James, a baseball statistician, estimated that Zimmer caught Young in more games than any other battery in baseball history. Early on, Young established himself as one of the harder-throwing pitchers in the game. Bill James wrote that Zimmer put a piece of beefsteak inside his baseball glove to protect his catching hand from Young's fastball. In the absence of radar guns, however, it is impossible to say just how hard Young threw. Young continued to perform at a high level during the 1890 season. On the last day of the season, Young won both games of a doubleheader.
In the first weeks of Young's career, Cap Anson, the player-manager of the Chicago Colts spotted Young's ability. Anson told Spiders' manager Gus Schmelz, "He's too green to do your club much good, but I believe if I taught him what I know, I might make a pitcher out of him in a couple of years. He's not worth it now, but I'm willing to give you $1,000 for him." Schmelz replied, "Cap, you can keep your thousand and we'll keep the rube." Two years after Young's debut, the National League moved the pitcher's position back by 5 feet. Since 1881, pitchers had pitched within a "box" whose front line was 50 feet from home base, since 1887 they had been compelled to toe the back line of the box when delivering the ball; the back line was 55 feet 6 inches away from home. In 1893, 5 feet was added to the back line, yielding the modern pitching distance of 60 feet 6 inches. In the book The Neyer/James Guide to Pitchers, sports journalist Rob Neyer wrote that the speed with which pitchers like Cy Young, Amos Rusie, Jouett Meekin threw was the impetus that caused the move.
The 1892 regular season was a success for Young, who led the National League in wins, ERA, shutouts. Just as many contemporary Minor League Baseball leag