New York Yacht Club
The New York Yacht Club is a private social club and yacht club based in New York City and Newport, Rhode Island. It was founded in 1844 by nine prominent sportsmen; the members have contributed to the sport of yacht design. As of 2001, the organization was reported to have about 3,000 members. Membership in the club is by invitation only, its officers include a Commodore, vice-commodore, rear-commodore and treasurer. The America's Cup trophy was won by members in 1851 and held by the NYYC until 1983; the NYYC defended the trophy twenty-four times in a row before being defeated by the Royal Perth Yacht Club, represented by the yacht Australia II. The NYYC's reign was the longest winning streak in the history of all sports; the NYYC has entered 2021 America's Cup under the syndicate name American Magic, In 1845, the club's first clubhouse was established — a modest, Gothic-revival building in Hoboken, New Jersey, on land donated by Commodore John Cox Stevens. After outgrowing its cramped quarters, the club moved to several other locations, including Staten Island, Glen Cove, New York and Mystic, Connecticut.
Its primary clubhouse is a six-storied Beaux-Arts landmark with a nautical-themed limestone facade, located at 37 West 44th Street in midtown Manhattan. Opened in 1901, the clubhouse was designed by Warren and Wetmore, architects of the exterior of Grand Central Terminal; the centerpiece of the clubhouse is the "Model Room", which contains a notable collection of full and half hull models including a scale model history of all New York Yacht Club America's Cup challenges. It was designated a National Historic Landmark in 1987. In addition to its Manhattan headquarters, located inland, the club maintains "Harbour Court", a clubhouse opened in 1988 on the water in Newport; the New York Yacht Club was founded on July 1844, by nine gentlemen. John Cox Stevens, the leader of this group, a prominent citizen of New York with a passion for sports, was elected commodore. John Clarkson Jay of Rye, one of the nine founders, was a grandson of Founding Father John Jay and served as the first Secretary of the board.
George L. Schuyler and Hamilton Wilkes were NYYC founders who, together with Stevens and two others, created the syndicate that built and raced the great schooner-yacht, America. Wilkes served as the club's first vice-commodore. Schuyler played a key role in the founding of the America's Cup regatta, served as its unofficial consultant until his death in 1890. In 1845, the club's burgee was designed; the waters off Newport have been a key sailing venue for the NYYC since the beginning of its history. Indeed, the day the club was founded in 1844, its members resolved to sail from the Battery to Newport. Two days they did, with several stops on the way, trials of speed. During the first decades of the club's history, racing for prize money was the objective among most members. In 1851, a syndicate of NYYC enthusiasts built and raced America, capturing the "One Hundred Sovereign Cup" at the annual regatta of the Royal Yacht Squadron. On July 8, 1857, the coveted trophy was donated to the NYYC, to serve as a challenge cup for sportsmanlike competition between nations.
The "America's Cup Race", named for its first winner, played a central role in the history of the club until this day. In 1865, the Club was incorporated, adopting the Latin motto: "Nos agimur tumidis velis" -- "We go with swelling sails". During this time, membership transitioned from the "old guard" to a new generation of yachtsmen, who built large schooner yachts captained by professionals. Marking this evolution was the 1866 resignation of Commodore Edwin Augustus Stevens, brother of founder John Cox Stevens and member of the America syndicate; the year 1866 is remembered in club annals for the legendary "Transatlantic Race". In December, the NYYC schooners Henrietta and Vesta raced from Sandy Hook to The Needles, Isle of Wight for a $90,000 winner-take-all prize; the Henrietta, owned by 21-year-old James Gordon Bennett, Jr. and skippered by Captain Samuel S. Samuels, a professional, won the race in 13 days, 21 hours and 55 minutes. Bennett would be elected commodore in 1871. In 1876, the Mohawk, a large centerboard schooner, capsized due to its sheets being "made fast" when a freak squall struck.
Vice-Commodore William T. Garner, his wife and crew died in the accident, it is believed. The Mohawk was sold to the U. S. Navy and recommissioned as the U. S. Eagre. By 1894, the New York Yacht Club had a number of Clubhouses: Station 1 in Bay Ridge. In 1868, the club bought a big mansion used as Station 2 at Staten Island; this building still is known as the Macfarlane Bredt House. In 1895, Richard H. Barker composed'The yacht club march: march and two-step: for piano' in honour of the New York Yacht Club. In 1994, as part of the Club's 150th celebrations, Melissa H. Harrington wrote'The New York Yacht Club, 1844-1994,' Following the disastrous Bay of Quinte America's Cup challenge in 1881, the Club's committee voted a new rule to govern its races: Rating = 2 ⋅ Load Waterline Length + Sail Area 3 The America's Cup challenges of 1885, 1886 and 1887 used this rule
The America's Cup, affectionately known as the Auld Mug, is a trophy awarded to the winner of the America's Cup match races between two sailing yachts. One yacht, known as the defender, represents the yacht club that holds the America's Cup and the second yacht, known as the challenger, represents the yacht club, challenging for the cup; the timing of each match is determined by an agreement between the challenger. The America's Cup is the oldest international sporting trophy, it will next be raced for in the southern summer, in the early part of 2021. The cup was awarded in 1851 by the Royal Yacht Squadron for a race around the Isle of Wight in the United Kingdom, won by the schooner America. Known as the'R. Y. S. £100 Cup', the trophy was renamed the'America's Cup' after the yacht and was donated to the New York Yacht Club under the terms of the Deed of Gift, which made the cup available for perpetual international competition. Any yacht club that meets the requirements specified in the deed of gift has the right to challenge the yacht club that holds the cup.
If the challenging club wins the match, it gains stewardship of the cup. The history and prestige associated with the America's Cup attracts not only the world's top sailors and yacht designers but the involvement of wealthy entrepreneurs and sponsors, it is a test not only of sailing skill and boat and sail design, but of fundraising and management skills. The trophy was held by the NYYC from 1857 until 1983; the NYYC defended the trophy twenty-four times in a row before being defeated by the Royal Perth Yacht Club, represented by the yacht Australia II. The NYYC's reign was the longest winning streak in the history of all sports. From the first defence of the cup in 1870 through the twentieth defence in 1967, there was always only one challenger. In 1970, for the first time, there were multiple challengers, so the NYYC agreed that the challengers could run a selection series with the winner becoming the official challenger and competing against the defender in the America's Cup match. Since 1983, Louis Vuitton has sponsored the Louis Vuitton Cup as a prize for the winner of the challenger selection series.
Early matches for the cup were raced between yachts 65–90 ft on the waterline owned by wealthy sportsmen. This culminated with the J-Class regattas of the 1930s. After World War II and twenty years without a challenge, the NYYC made changes to the deed of gift to allow smaller, less expensive 12-metre class yachts to compete, it was replaced in 1990 by the International America’s Cup Class, used until 2007. After a long legal battle, the 2010 America's Cup was raced in 90 ft waterline multihull yachts in a best of three "deed of gift" match in Valencia, Spain; the victorious Golden Gate Yacht Club elected to race the 2013 America's Cup in AC72 foiling, wing-sail catamarans. Golden Gate Yacht Club defended the cup; the 35th America's Cup match was announced to be sailed in 50 ft foiling catamarans. The history of the America's Cup has included legal battles and disputes over rule changes including most over the rule changes for the 2017 America's Cup; the America's Cup is held by the Royal New Zealand Yacht Squadron, who will stage the 36th defence of the Cup in 2021.
The Cup is an ornate sterling silver bottomless ewer crafted in 1848 by Garrard & Co. Henry William Paget, 1st Marquess of Anglesey bought one and donated it for the Royal Yacht Squadron's 1851 Annual Regatta around the Isle of Wight, it was known as the "R. Y. S. £100 Cup", standing for a cup of a hundred GB Pounds or "sovereigns" in value. The cup was subsequently mistakenly engraved as the "100 Guinea Cup" by the America syndicate, but was referred to as the "Queen's Cup". Today, the trophy is known as the "America's Cup" after the 1851 winning yacht, is affectionately called the "Auld Mug" by the sailing community, it is inscribed with names of the yachts that competed for it, has been modified twice by adding matching bases to accommodate more names. In 1851 Commodore John Cox Stevens, a charter member of the fledgling New York Yacht Club, formed a six-person syndicate to build a yacht with intention of taking her to England and making some money competing in yachting regattas and match races.
The syndicate contracted with pilot boat designer George Steers for a 101 ft schooner, christened America and launched on 3 May 1851. On 22 August 1851, America raced against 15 yachts of the Royal Yacht Squadron in the Club's annual 53-nautical-mile regatta around the Isle of Wight. America won. Apocryphally, Queen Victoria, watching at the finish line, was reported to have asked, second, the famous answer being: "Ah, Your Majesty, there is no second."The surviving members of the America syndicate donated the cup via the Deed of Gift of the America's Cup to the NYYC on 8 July 1857, specifying that it be held in trust as a perpetual challenge trophy to promote friendly competition among nations. No challenge to race for the Cup was issued until British railway tycoon James Lloyd Ashbury's topsail schooner Cambria beat the Yankee schooner Sappho in the Solent in 1868; this success encouraged the Royal Thames Yacht Club in believing that the cup could be brought back home, placed the first challenge in 1870.
Ashbury entered Cambria in the NYYC Queen's Cup race in New York City on 8 August against a fleet of seventeen
1870 America's Cup
The 1870 America's Cup was the first America's Cup to be hosted in the United States, the first "America's Cup" due to the trophy being renamed from the 100 Guineas Cup of 1851. It was the first competition after the founding of the "America's Cup" event with the deed of gift in 1857. James Lloyd Ashbury's yacht Cambria sailed to New York on behalf of the Royal Thames Yacht Club; the New York Yacht Club entered 17 schooners, the race was won by Franklin Osgood's Magic
1851 America's Cup
The 100 Guineas Cup or Hundred Guinea Cup regatta of 1851 was the first competition for the America's Cup trophy. Cup of One Hundred Sovereigns, the value of the trophy was 100 pounds-sterling, hence its names, variations on 100 Pound Cup; the race was won by the yacht America, leading to the trophy being renamed "America's Cup". The 1851 competition was the first to compete for the trophy now called the America's Cup, hence the 1851 America's Cup or 0th America's Cup being zeroth, sequentially preceding the first America's Cup of 1870; the event "The America's Cup" would not be founded until 1857, when the deed of gift established the America's Cup racing regattas. The 1851 edition was a fleet race, unlike modern America's Cups finals, which are match races; the race originated with an invitation for the Great Exhibition of 1851 by the Earl of Winton Commodore of the Royal Yacht Squadron, inviting the formed New York Yacht Club to enjoy the facilities of the clubhouse of the RYS. John Cox Stevens, Commodore of the NYYC responded positively, anticipated racing.
Due to the RYS rules of the time, other races in the 1851 RYS Regatta were restricted to RYS members and their self-owned yachts, so the R. Y. S. £100 Cup was established, open to anyone to enter. At a RYS meeting on 9 May 1851, the race was scheduled for 22 August 1851; this race was to be the first of a series of challenge races for successive £100 Cups. At the time, it was normal practise for the winners to own the cups that were won, not to return them for the next race to be won by others; the trophy, worth 100 sovereigns in 1851, latterly affectionately known as the Auld Mug, distinguishing it from the racing regatta of the same name. The trophy, a bottomless ewer, is made out of 134 oz of silver, is 27 in tall; the ewer was a stock item obtained from jeweler Robert Garrard in 1848. After the race it was engraved with the names of the yachts that raced against America, save the runner-up, Aurora; the regatta, held on 22 August 1851, raced clockwise around the Isle of Wight in a fleet race.
The course was called "The Queen's Course". The course was near Cowes Castle on the Isle of Wight, where the Royal Yacht Squadron headquarters are located; the race took place as part of the 1851 Royal Yacht Squadron Regatta. The signal gun for sailing was fired at 10am, the winner saluted by a gun from the flag-ship at 8:34pm. 18 yachts were entered for the race. The yacht Fernande did not make the start, while Strella and Titania both got to the starting line, though did not start the race; those yachts that raced were America, Arrow, Bacchante, Brilliant, Eclipse, Gipsy Queen, Mona and Wyvern. DSQ/DNF – competitor did not finish under the time limit DSQ/DNS – competitor did not make it to the starting line DNS – did not start – competitor did not make it off the starting line DNF – did not finish DSQ – disqualified The trophy would be renamed "America's Cup" after the yacht America, that won the trophy. In 1857, the competition for "America's Cup" was declared, with the creation of the deed of gift.
The first challenge would take place in 1870 under the deed of gift. This would initiate the oldest championship in sport
Sir Thomas Johnstone Lipton, 1st Baronet, was a Scotsman of Irish parentage, a self-made man and yachtsman. He engaged in extensive advertising for his brand of Lipton teas, he boasted that his secret for success was selling the best goods at the cheapest prices, harnessing the power of advertising, always being optimistic. He was the most persistent challenger in the history of the America's Cup. Lipton was born into a Scots Irish family in a tenement in Crown Street in the Gorbals, Glasgow, on 10 May 1848, his Ulster-Scots parents, Thomas Lipton senior and Frances Lipton, were from the townland of either Shannock Green or Shankillk, both near Roslea, in the south-east corner of County Fermanagh in Ulster, not far from Clones in County Monaghan. His parents were married in St. Mark's Church of Ireland Church near Roslea; the Liptons had been smallholders in County Fermanagh for generations but, by the late 1840s, Thomas Lipton's parents had been forced to leave Ireland due to the potato famine of 1845.
Moving to Scotland in search of a better living for their young family, the Liptons had settled in Glasgow by 1847. Lipton's father would hold a number of occupations throughout the 1840s and 1850s, including working as a labourer and as a printer. Although Sir Thomas Lipton would state that he was born at his family's home in Crown Street in the Gorbals in 1850, there is no record of this in the parish register for that period. In the 1851 census, the family were recorded as living in the north of Glasgow, with young Thomas being listed as being aged 3 years old, it would appear that he was therefore born in 1848. Thomas' siblings, three brothers and one sister, all died in infancy, but Thomas, despite being the youngest, survived.'Tommy' Lipton was educated at St. Andrew's Parish School close to Glasgow Green between 1853 and 1863. By the early 1860s his parents were the proprietors of a shop at 11 Crown Street in the Gorbals where they sold ham and eggs, it was with the aim of supplementing his parents' limited income that Thomas Lipton left school at the age of thirteen and found employment as a printer's errand boy, as a shirtcutter.
He enrolled at a night school, the Gorbals Youth's School, during this period. In 1864 Lipton signed up as a cabin boy on a steamer running between Glasgow and Belfast and was captivated by life aboard the ship and the stories told by sailors who had traveled to the United States. After being let go by the steamer company, Lipton used the wages he had saved to purchase passage on a ship bound for the U. S. where he would spend five years traveling all over the country. Lipton had a number of jobs during this time: at a tobacco plantation in Virginia, as an accountant and bookkeeper at a rice plantation in South Carolina, as a door-to-door salesman in New Orleans, a farmhand in New Jersey, as a grocery assistant in New York, he returned to Glasgow in 1870 helping his parents run their small shop in the Gorbals. The following year he opened his first provision shop—Lipton's Market—at 101 Stobcross Street in the Anderston area of Glasgow; this enterprise proved to be successful and Lipton soon established a chain of groceries, first across Glasgow, the rest of Scotland, until he had stores throughout Britain.
While Lipton was expanding his empire, tea prices were falling and demand was growing among his middle class customers. In 1880, Lipton invested in the young stockyards of Omaha, founding a large packing plant in South Omaha which he sold to American interests in 1887. In 1888, when his empire had grown to 300 stores, he entered the tea trade and opened his tea-tasting office, he started bypassing traditional trading and wholesale distribution channels in order to sell teas at unprecedented prices to the untapped poor working class market. In order to provide his shops with goods Lipton bought tea gardens and in doing so, he established the Lipton tea brand, which remains in business as a subsidiary of Unilever. Lipton visited Sri Lanka in 1890 and made business deals with James Taylor, who introduced tea gardens to Sri Lanka with indentured Tamil workers from India. Lipton's company purchased Ceylon tea, distributing it through Europe and the USA beginning in 1890. King Edward VII and King George V both shared their interest in yachting with Lipton and enjoyed his company.
Between 1899 and 1930 he challenged the American holders of the America's Cup through the Royal Ulster Yacht Club five times with his yachts called Shamrock through Shamrock V. His well-publicised efforts to win the cup, which earned him a specially designed cup for "the best of all losers", made his tea famous in the United States. Lipton, a self-made man, was no natural member of the British upper class and the Royal Yacht Squadron only admitted him shortly before his death. Lipton was inducted into the America's Cup Hall of Fame in 1993. Before the first Football World Cup was held in 1930, Thomas Lipton donated the Sir Thomas Lipton Trophy, contested in two international tournaments in Turin in 1909 and 1911. In 1914 he presented the silver Sir Thomas Lipton Cup to his friend Con Riley of Winnipeg as a means of promoting the sport of rowing in the central portions of Canada and the United States. Since the rowing clubs of the North West International Rowing Association have fiercely battled each year for the honor of having their names engraved upon the Lipton Cup.
He donated the Copa Lipton trophy, contested between Argentina and Uruguay since 1905. Lipton was sometimes described in the press as'the world's most eligible bachelor', ca
2017 America's Cup
The 2017 America's Cup was the 35th staging of the America's Cup yacht race. The challenger, Emirates Team New Zealand, won by a score of 7 to 1 over the defender, Oracle Team USA, it was held on the Great Sound in Bermuda from June 17 to June 26. The races were conducted using hydrofoiling AC50 America's Cup Class yachts, which are larger than the AC45F yachts used in the 2015–16 America's Cup World Series, it was Oracle's second defence of the America's Cup, four years after its first successful defence. Emirates Team New Zealand will now hope to defend the cup in the 36th America's Cup; the 2017 America's Cup course was on the Great Sound in Bermuda, the venue at the Royal Naval Dockyard. In June 2014, media reported the venue of the 34th America's Cup, San Francisco, was no longer in consideration to host the 35th edition. San Diego and Bermuda were listed as being still in the running. In July 2014, americascup.com reported that Chicago was dropped from the running, on 2 December 2014, Bermuda was announced as the host of the 2017 America's Cup.
The Premier of Bermuda, Michael Dunkley, welcomed the teams and spectators at a press conference in New York. The financial package included in the bid by Bermuda was worth US$77 million, including a $15 million sponsorship fee, $25 million for infrastructure improvements, $12 million operating costs and a $25 million guarantee against commercial sponsorships. Dr. Grant Gibbons, Bermuda's Minister for Economic Development, stated that the America's Cup had a possibility of generating revenue of up to US$250 million in Bermuda. Security arrangements at the Dockyard were assumed by HM's Royal Bermuda Regiment after termination of contract between the local security provider and the AC35. On 1 October 2013, Australia's Hamilton Island Yacht Club was confirmed as the "Challenger of Record" for the 35th America's Cup, after submitting their paperwork only moments after the win by Oracle Team USA; the HIYC challenge was accepted by the Golden Gate Yacht Club, the Defender and Trustee of the America's Cup.
Australian businessman Bob Oatley, founder of Rosemount and owner of famed super maxi yacht Wild Oats XI, was confirmed to be the main financial backer of the Hamilton Island Yacht Club challenge. On 19 July 2014 Russell Coutts, Director of the America's Cup Event Authority, announced that the Hamilton Island Yacht club had withdrawn Team Australia from the 35th America's Cup. Team Australia claimed that the entry fee rules agreed to in the official protocol created too much risk due to the uncertainty of the unknown venue and schedule of the event; the Challenger of Record Committee represents all of the challengers' interests and negotiates with Oracle over mutual concerns. Luna Rossa replaced HIYC as the challenger of record. In April 2015, Luna Rossa withdrew its challenge bid, pulling out of the 2017 America's Cup in protest at rule changes reducing the size of the boats. On 5 June 2014, it was announced that the regatta would be sailed in 62-foot-long foiling catamarans, the AC62; the entry fee was $3 million.
Each challenging team could build only one boat. A nationality rule was agreed; this nationality rule had been lifted prior to the 2003 America's Cup. The rules specified; the neutral International adjudicating yachting panel was dropped in favour of a three-man panel appointed by the defender. In March 2015, the teams voted to reduce the size of the boats to the 45- to 50-foot range, leading to the withdrawal in protest of Luna Rossa; this in turn led to a joint statement from four teams attacking Team New Zealand which had supported Luna Rossa. The America's Cup was contested by its defender Oracle Team USA, who represent the Golden Gate Yacht Club; the challenger was Emirates Team New Zealand, for Royal New Zealand Yacht Squadron, who had defeated the other four challengers to win the Louis Vuitton America’s Cup Challenger Playoffs trophy. Teams were allowed to take onedesign AC45s out of measurement by modifying crossbeams and rudders, adding hydraulic systems, as well as produce a maximum of six custom daggerboards to test on the existing platform ahead of building their race boat.
All teams took advantage of this opportunity: Oracle Racing modified three AC45s, selling their first development boat to SoftBank Team Japan as part of their technology-sharing agreement and subsequently conducted a two-boat testing program with their last two boats. Groupama Team France, Luna Rossa and Emirates Team New Zealand modified one AC45 each. Luna Rossa gifted their boat to Team New Zealand. Emirates Team New Zealand modified SL33 foiling wingsail catamarans to try new ideas for its race boat, in which they produced a number of distinct features absent from other boats in the fleet: The two four-handed grinding pedestals on their development AC45 were replaced by four cycling stations; the rise in foiling catamarans encouraged competing teams to enter into technical partnerships with companies specializing in aerospace technologies. Land Rover BAR allied with Red Bull Advanced Technologies, headed by ten-time Formula 1 World Constructor's
Nathanael Greene Herreshoff
Nathanael Greene Herreshoff was an American naval architect, mechanical engineer, yacht design innovator. He produced a succession of undefeated America's Cup defenders between 1893-1920. Herreshoff was born on March 18, 1848 in Bristol, Rhode Island and was named after General Nathanael Greene, he was one of seven brothers, behind Lewis and John B. and the elder of John B. F. and Julian L. He graduated from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology in 1870 with a three-year degree in mechanical engineering. After graduation, he took a position with the Corliss Steam Engine Company in Providence, Rhode Island. At the 1876 Centennial Exposition in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, he oversaw operation of the Corliss Stationary Engine, a 40-foot-tall, 1,400-horsepower dynamo that powered the exhibition's machinery. In 1878 Herreshoff returned to Bristol where he and his older brother John B. formed the Herreshoff Manufacturing Company. Herreshoff provided the engineering expertise and his brother provided the business expertise, managing the firm's personnel and interacting with clients.
Together, they grew the business from about 20 employees to over 400. In 1888, a serious accident occurred while Herreshoff was supervising speed trials of a 138-foot, 875-horsepower steamboat named Say When. After a safety valve opened to release over-pressure, Herreshoff closed it so the boat could achieve its anticipated maximum speed, but a boiler exploded. Herreshoff lost his steam engineer's license. Herreshoff was an accomplished sailor. Two of Herreshoff's sons would become yacht designers: Sidney Dewolf Herreshoff and Lewis Francis Herreshoff, he died on June 1938 in Bristol, Rhode Island. While the firm's early work centered on steam-powered vessels, by the 1890s the Herreshoffs turned to the design and construction of yachts for wealthy American clients, including Jay Gould, William Randolph Hearst, John Pierpont Morgan, Cornelius Vanderbilt III, Harold Stirling Vanderbilt, William Kissam Vanderbilt II, Harry Payne Whitney and Alexander Smith Cochran. Herreshoff boat production incorporated power tools that increased productivity at a high level of quality, using craftsmen that received the highest boat-builder wages in the state of Rhode Island.
Herreshoff was noted as an innovative sailboat designer of his time. His designs ranged from the 12½, a 16-foot sailboat for training the children of yachtsmen, to the 144-foot America's Cup Reliance, with a sail area of 16,000 square feet, he received the first US patent for a sailing catamaran. The firm built the America's Cup winning Cup yachts Enterprise - 1930, Rainbow - 1934; every winning America's Cup Yacht from 1893 to 1934 was built by the Herreshoff yard. The 123-foot Defender featured steel-framing, bronze plating up to the waterline and aluminum topsides to achieve a lighter and faster boat; this combination of materials had been pioneered in the French fresh-water racing yacht Vendenesse, described in a New York Times article and caught the attention of the Vanderbilt Americacup syndicate. In salt water, Defender was subject to galvanic corrosion. Defender won the America's Cup in 1895 over Lord Dunraven's Valkyrie III, she was used as an effective trial-horse for Herreshoff's new Cup defender Columbia in 1899.
She was broken up in 1901. Those of the 2,000-plus designs by Herreshoff that survive are sought by connoisseurs of classic yachts. Herreshoff S-Class sailboats, designed in 1919 and built until 1941, are still raced in Narragansett Bay, Buzzards Bay and Western Long Island Sound, his 12 1/2 design of 1914 raced in New England as well. The New York 30 is well regarded as a one-design racer/cruiser; the Herreshoff Marine Museum preserves Herreshoff's legacy at the former site of the Herreshoff Manufacturing Co. Lightning—the US Navy's first purpose-built torpedo boat—a speed record breaking steam launch with a spar torpedo, 1876. In the last quarter of the 19th century, Herreshoff constructed a double-hulled sailing boat of his own design; the craft, raced at her maiden regatta on June 22, 1876 and performed exceedingly well. Her debut demonstrated the distinct performance advantages afforded by catamarans over the standard monohulls, it was as a result of this event, the Centennial Regatta of the New York Yacht Club, that catamarans were barred from regular sailing classes, this remained the case until the 1970s.
Amaryllis—Herreshoff sailing catamaran, 1876 Duplex catamaran, 1877 Helianthus III, 1924 Herreshoff designed and built the following America's Cup contenders. All won the series against their challengers. Herreshoff was the helmsman of Vigilant. Vigilant, 1893 Defender, 1895 Columbia, 1899 & 1901 Reliance, 1903 Resolute, 1920 According to his son's biography of Herreshoff's career of 72 years, Herreshoff achieved the following: Designed and built five winning America's Cup yachts. Designed well over 2000 craft and produced more than 18,000 drawings. Between 1890 and 1938, the number of yachts he designed that won the Astor Cup, Puritan Cup and Kings Cup outnumbered the winning yachts of all rival yacht designers combined. Built the first torpedo boats for the U. S. Navy. Developed the first handicapping formula to allow yachts of different sizes and types to race together. Developed yacht scantlings based on scientific load calculations. Invented streamlined bulb and fin keels. Invented the sail track and slide in it