1904 Summer Olympics

The 1904 Summer Olympics known as the Games of the III Olympiad, was an international multi-sport event, celebrated in St. Louis, United States from August 29 until September 3, 1904, as part of an extended sports program lasting from July 1 to November 23, 1904, located at what is now known as Francis Field on the campus of Washington University in St. Louis, it was the first time. Tensions caused by the Russo–Japanese War and the difficulty of getting to St. Louis in 1904 may have contributed to the fact that few top ranked athletes from outside the US and Canada took part in these Games. Only 62 of the 651 athletes who competed came from outside North America, only 12–15 nations were represented in all; some events combined the U. S. national championship with the Olympic championship. The current three-medal format was introduced at the 1904 Olympics. Chicago, Illinois won the bid to host the 1904 Summer Olympics, but the organizers of the Louisiana Purchase Exposition in St. Louis would not accept another international event in the same timeframe.

The exposition organization began to plan for its own sports activities, informing the Chicago OCOG that its own international sports events intended to eclipse the Olympic Games unless they were moved to St. Louis. Pierre de Coubertin, the founder of the modern Olympic movement, stepped in and awarded the Games to St. Louis. Boxing, freestyle wrestling and the decathlon made their debuts; the swimming events were held in a temporary pond near Skinker and Wydown Boulevards, where "lifesaving demonstrations" of unsinkable lifeboats for ocean liners took place. The organizers of the World's Fair held "Anthropology Days" on August 12 and 13. One of the most remarkable athletes was the American gymnast George Eyser, who won six medals though his left leg was made of wood, Frank Kugler won four medals in freestyle wrestling and tug of war, making him the only competitor to win a medal in three different sports at the same Olympic Games. Chicago runner James Lightbody won the steeplechase and the 800 m and set a world record in the 1500 m. Harry Hillman won both the 200 m and 400 m hurdles and the flat 400 m.

Sprinter Archie Hahn was champion in 100 m and 200 m. In this last race, he set an Olympic record in a record that stood for 28 years. In the discus, after American Martin Sheridan had thrown the same distance as his compatriot, Ralph Rose, the judges gave them both an extra throw to decide the winner. Sheridan claimed the gold medal. Ray Ewry again won all three standing jumps; the team representing Great Britain was awarded a total of two medals, both won by Irish athletes. The top non-USA athlete was Emil Rausch of Germany. Zoltán Halmay of Hungary and Charles Daniels of the United States each won two swimming gold medals. Galt Football Club from Canada won the gold medal in football. 94 events in 17 disciplines, comprising 16 sports, were part of the Olympic program in 1904. Swimming and diving are considered two disciplines of aquatics; the number of events in each discipline is noted in parentheses. Basketball, American football and baseball were featured as demonstration sports. Gaelic football was an unofficial demonstration sport at the 1904 Olympics.

Water polo is mentioned in the games reports for the 1904 Summer Olympics. However, it was not considered at the time to be a demonstration sport and though it has since been classified as such, it has not been included retrospectively in the IOC's official medal database. Five sports venues were used for the 1904 Summer Olympics; the venues included the first golf course constructed west of the Mississippi River. Three of the sports venues were on the site for the Louisiana Purchase Exposition, being held concurrently with the Olympics. Glen Echo Country Club became the first golf course west of the Mississippi River when it opened in 1901, it is still in use as of 2017. Forest Park was where the Louisiana Purchase Exhibition took place, it hosted the diving and water polo events on the Life Saving Exhibition Lake. During the water polo events, several of the cattle from a World's Fair livestock exhibit were allowed to enter the lake, on the opposite side from the swimming and water polo events.

Within one year, four of those athletes died of typhus. Creve Coeur Lake became the first park of St. Louis County in 1945; the Lake has hosted rowing regattas since 1882 and still hosts them as of 2010. Francis Field and Gymnasium are still in use on the Washington University in St. Louis campus as of 2019. An ornamental gate commemorating the 1904 Games was constructed outside the stadium after the Exposition. A swimming pool was added to the gymnasium in 1985. Forest Park, constructed in 1876, is still in use as of 2018 and attracts over 12 million visitors annually. Glen Echo Country Club remains in use as a golf course today as of 2018. Athletes from twelve nations competed in St. Louis. Numbers in parentheses indicate the number of known competitors for each nation. Due to the difficulty of getting to St. Louis in 1904, European tensions caused by the Russo-Japanese War, only 62 athletes from outside North America came to the Olympics; some sources list athletes from the following nations as having competed at these Games.

Italy Norway Newfoundland. The nationalities of some medalists are disputed, as many American competitors were recent immigrants to the United States who had not yet been granted US citizenship. In 2009, historians from the Internation

Glass-bottom boat

A glass-bottom boat is a boat with one or more sections of glass, or other suitable transparent material, below the waterline allowing passengers to observe the underwater environment from within the boat. When a boat is a glass bottom, the view through is better than looking into the water from above, because one does not have to look through optically erratic surface disturbances; the effect is similar to that achieved by a diving mask, while the passengers are able to stay dry, out of the water. Glass bottom boats are used exclusively for giving tours, as they are designed to allow the maximum number of tourists to view out the glass bottom and are not suitable for other uses. Glass bottom boats are in use in nearly every seaside tourist destination; however many of them are being replaced by semi submarines, which offer a better view of the marine life. Glass bottom boats were first used near Santa Catalina Island off the coast of Southern California, they became popular in Florida at several areas of natural springs that became tourist attractions, for example, Silver Springs, Wakulla Springs, Rainbow Springs, Weeki Wachee Springs.

The oldest glass bottom boat from Silver Springs is still operating on Jug Creek in Bokeelia Florida. The most modern glass bottom boats have ultra-durable bottom window shaped as an optically regular spheroid which size is 2x3 m; these boats have a hydrofoil. This is a contemporary product of Russian boatbuilding company - Paritetboat. Typical tours in these boats include views of underwater flora and fauna, reefs and other underwater sights. Hydrofoil


Deptford is an area of south-east London, England. It is on the south bank of the River Thames, within the London Borough of Lewisham, it is named after a ford of the River Ravensbourne. From the mid 16th century to the late 19th it was home to Deptford Dockyard, the first of the Royal Dockyards; this attracted Peter the Great to come and study shipbuilding. Deptford and the docks are associated with the knighting of Sir Francis Drake by Queen Elizabeth I aboard the Golden Hind, the legend of Sir Walter Raleigh laying down his cape for Elizabeth, Captain James Cook's third voyage aboard Resolution, the mysterious murder of Christopher Marlowe in a house along Deptford Strand. Though Deptford began as two small communities, one at the ford, the other a fishing village on the Thames, Deptford's history and population has been associated with the docks established by Henry VIII; the two communities flourished. The area declined as first the Royal Navy moved out, the commercial docks themselves declined until the last dock, Convoys Wharf, closed in 2000.

A Metropolitan Borough of Deptford existed from 1900 until 1965, when the area became part of the newly-created London Borough of Lewisham. Deptford began life as a ford of the Ravensbourne along the route of the Celtic trackway, paved by the Romans and developed into the medieval Watling Street; the modern name is a corruption of "deep ford". Deptford was part of the pilgrimage route from London to Canterbury used by the pilgrims in Chaucer's Canterbury Tales, is mentioned in the prologue to "The Reeve's Tale"; the ford developed into first a wooden a stone bridge, in 1497 saw the Battle of Deptford Bridge, in which rebels from Cornwall, led by Michael An Gof, marched on London protesting against punitive taxes, but were soundly beaten by the King's forces. A second settlement, Deptford Strand, developed as a modest fishing village on the Thames until Henry VIII used that site for a royal dock repairing and supplying ships, after which it grew in size and importance, shipbuilding remaining in operation until March 1869.

Trinity House, the organisation concerned with the safety of navigation around the British Isles, was formed in Deptford in 1514, with its first Master being Thomas Spert, captain of the Mary Rose. It moved to Stepney in 1618; the name "Trinity House" derives from the church of Holy Trinity and St Clement, which adjoined the dockyard. Separated by market gardens and fields, the two areas merged over the years, with the docks becoming an important part of the Elizabethan exploration. Queen Elizabeth I visited; as well as for exploration, Deptford was important for trade - the Honourable East India Company had a yard in Deptford from 1607 until late in the 17th century taken over by the General Steam Navigation Company. It was connected with the slave trade, John Hawkins using it as a base for his operations, Olaudah Equiano, the slave who became an important part of the abolition of the slave trade, was sold from one ship's captain to another in Deptford around 1760. Diarist John Evelyn lived in Deptford at Sayes Court, the manor house of Deptford, from 1652 after he had married the daughter of the owner of the house, Sir Richard Browne.

After the Restoration, Evelyn obtained a 99-year lease of the house and grounds, laid out meticulously planned gardens in the French style, of hedges and parterres. In its grounds was a cottage at one time rented by master woodcarver Grinling Gibbons. After Evelyn had moved to Surrey in 1694, Peter the Great, the Russian tsar, studied shipbuilding for three months in 1698 while staying at Sayes Court. Evelyn was angered at the antics of the tsar, who got drunk with his friends who, using a wheelbarrow with Peter in it, rammed their way through a "fine holly hedge". Sayes Court was demolished in a workhouse built on its site. Part of the estates around Sayes Court were purchased in 1742 for the building of the Navy Victualling Yard, renamed the Royal Victoria Victualing Yard in 1858 after a visit by Queen Victoria; this massive facility included warehouses, a bakery, a cattleyard/abattoir and sugar stores, closed in 1961. All that remains is the name of Sayes Court Park, accessed from Sayes Court Street off Evelyn Street, not far from Deptford High Street.

The Pepys Estate, opened on 13 July 1966, is on the former grounds of the Victualing Yard. The Docks had been declining from the 18th century; when the Napoleonic Wars ended in 1815 the need for a Docks to build and repair warships declined. From 1871 until the First World War the shipyard site was the City of London Corporation's Foreign Cattle Market, in which girls and women butchered sheep and cattle until the early part of the 20th century. At its peak, around 1907, over 234,000 animals were imported annually through the market, but by 1912 these figures had declined to less than 40,000 a year; the yard was taken over by the War Office in 1914, was an Army Supply Reserve Depot in the First and Second World Wars. The site lay unused until being purchased by Convoys in 1984, came into the ownership of News International