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1906 Intercalated Games

The 1906 Intercalated Games or 1906 Olympic Games was an international multi-sport event, celebrated in Athens, Greece. They were at the time considered to be Olympic Games and were referred to as the "Second International Olympic Games in Athens" by the International Olympic Committee. Whilst medals were distributed to the participants during these games, the medals are not recognized by the IOC today and are not displayed with the collection of Olympic medals at the Olympic Museum in Lausanne, Switzerland; the first Intercalated Games had been scheduled by the International Olympic Committee in 1901 as part of a new schedule, where every four years, in between the internationally organized games, there would be intermediate games held in Athens. This was a compromise: after the successful games of Athens 1896, the Greeks suggested they could organize the games every four years. Since they had the accommodation and had proven they could hold well-organized games, they received some support.

However, Pierre de Coubertin, the founder of the International Olympic Committee, opposed this. Coubertin had intended the first games to be in Paris in 1900. After Paris lost the premiere Olympics, Coubertin did not want the games to be permanently hosted elsewhere; when the 1900 Olympic Games failed to meet expectations and were overshadowed by the Exposition Universelle, the IOC supported the Greek idea by granting them a second series of quadrennial games in between the first series. All of the games would be International Olympic Games; this was a departure from the ancient schedule, but it was expected that, if the ancient Greeks could keep a four-year schedule, the modern Olympic Movement could keep a two-year schedule. As 1902 was now too close, Greece experienced internal difficulties, the 2nd Olympic Games in Athens were scheduled for 1906; the IOC as a whole gave the Greek NOC full support for the organization. The 1906 games were quite successful. Unlike the 1900, 1904 or 1908 games, they were neither stretched out over months nor overshadowed by an international exhibition.

Their crisp format was most instrumental in the continued existence of the games. These Games were the first games to have all athlete registration go through the NOCs, they were the first to have the Opening of the Games as a separate event: an event at which for the first time the athletes marched into the stadium in national teams, each following its national flag. They were the first with an Olympic Village, at the Zappeion, they introduced the closing ceremony, the raising of national flags for the victors, several less visible changes now accepted as tradition. The Games were held from 22 April to 2 May 1906, in Greece, they took place in the Panathenaic Stadium, which had hosted the 1896 Games and the earlier Zappas Olympics of 1870 and 1875. The games excluded several disciplines. Added to the program were the javelin throw and the pentathlon; the games included a real opening ceremony, watched by a large crowd. The athletes, for the first time, entered the stadium as national teams, marching behind their flags.

The official opening of the games was done by King George I. There were only two standing jump events in Athens, but Ray Ewry defended his titles in both of them, bringing his total up to 8 gold medals. In 1908 he would defend them one last time for a total of 10 Olympic titles, a feat unparalleled until 2008 when Michael Phelps pushed his Olympic gold medal total to 14. Paul Pilgrim won both the 400 and 800 metres, a feat, first repeated during Montreal 1976 by Alberto Juantorena. Canadian Billy Sherring lived in Greece for two months, his efforts paid off. Prince George accompanied him on the final lap. Finland made its Olympic debut, won a gold medal, as Verner Järvinen won the Discus event. Peter O'Connor of Ireland won gold in the hop and jump and silver in the long jump. In protest at being put on the British team, O'Connor scaled the flagpole and hoisted the Irish flag, while the pole was guarded by Irish and American athletes and supporters. Martin Sheridan of the Irish American Athletic Club, competing for the U.

S. team, won gold in the 16-pound Shot put and the Freestyle Discus throw and silver in the Standing high jump, Standing long jump and Stone throw. He scored the greatest number of points of any athlete at the Games. For his accomplishments he was presented with a ceremonial javelin by King Georgios I; this javelin is still on display in a local pub near Sheridan's hometown in Bohola, County Mayo, Ireland. Six thousand schoolchildren took part in the first Olympic closing ceremony. 854 athletes, 848 men and 6 women, from 20 countries, competed at the 1906 Intercalated Games. 78 events in 14 disciplines, comprising 12 sports, were part of the 1906 Games. These medals are no longer recognized by the International Olympic Committee. * Host nation The mixed team medal is for Belgian/Greek athletes in the Coxed Pairs 1 mile rowing event. In the football event, the silver medal for the team from Smyrna was won by footballers from various nationalities, while the bronze medal for the team from Thessalonica was won by ethnic Greeks competing for Greece, despite both cities being Ottoman possessions at the time.

The only country that did not win medals—Egypt. IOC co

Triumph T140W TSS

The T140W TSS was the last motorcycle model made by Triumph Engineering at their Meriden factory. Designed to appeal to the US market, the TSS had an eight valve Weslake Engineering cylinder head developed by Triumph's Brian Jones from a 1978/9 design commissioned from Nourish Racing of Rutland following 1960s designs for the 650cc twins by the Rickman Brothers; the crank was a machined single forging with increased big end diameter making it much stiffer and better-balanced and producing one of the smoothest running motorcycles in the Triumph range. The head had smaller valves set at a steeper angle. Recesses in the pistons allowed a 10:1 compression ratio. UK models had a pair of 34 mm Amal MkII carburetors while the export models had Bing constant velocity carburetors. Other changes from the standard T140E included offset connecting rods, steel-linered alloy barrels, a strengthened swinging arm, a high output three-phase alternator. A modified TSS raced by Jon Minonno for Texan Jack Wilson's Big D Triumph dealership achieved outstanding results in the Battle Of The Twins races for 1981–1982.

According to the Triumph build books, held by the Vintage Motor Cycle Club, the first TSS was built on 27 October 1981 for the North American market. Launched in 1982 with an electric starter as standard, the all-new top end of the engine featured Cooper rings sealing the 8-valve cylinder head to the barrel. American Morris alloy wheels were an option with dual Automotive Products Lockheed disc brakes upfront as standard; the fins of the black painted engine were polished although, like the Triumph TR65 Thunderbird, many alloy cycle parts that had in the past been bright–polished or chromed were now painted satin black. Mudguards were stainless steel; the high specification air-oil'Strada' rear suspension units were supplied by Italian firm Marzocchi. Like the Italian–sourced petrol tank, other OEM components were now from mainland Europe: French Veglia clocks, Italian Paioli petrol taps and German Bumm mirrors, Magura choke lever and ULO direction indicators. Unlike most Triumph models, no USA style with high handlebars and two-gallon tank was produced, all models coming with the Italian four-gallon tank and low handlebars as well as the newly introduced alloy'dog leg' clutch and front brake levers.

The actual version exported to the USA received a black paint scheme with gold-lined red'wings' along with newly shaped megaphone mufflers and German Bing carburettors. A one-off variant in line with the Triumph Bonneville T140EX Executive was produced for a London dealer, albeit again in gold-lined black, but with the Executive's standard Brealey-Smith'Sabre' fairing and luggage by Sigma. All TSS were shod with Avon Roadrunner tyres. Only 112 TSS bikes were exported by Triumph, as on 26 August 1983 the factory at Meriden went into voluntary liquidation, it is calculated. The TSS the engine, was well received by the British and international press although a long term test by Motor Cycle Weekly revealed early cylinder heads to be porous and wet weather braking failure. In an interview in US magazine, Meriden's Director of Engineering, Brian Jones revealed that the epoxy coating on the initial cylinder heads supplied by Weslake disguised the porosity problem from their factory testers. Fitting an eight-valve engine in an anti-vibration frame was first mooted by the factory at the 1981 Earls Court motorcycle show on the prototype super-tourer, TS8-1.

Now displayed at the London Motorcycle Museum, the TS8-1 had plastic bodywork by Ian Dyson of contracted stylists, Plastic Fantastic. For the unrealised 1984 range, the TSS was to have had Meriden's'Enforcer' anti-vibration frame as standard where the engine was rubber-mounted in a special anti-vibration frame. Styling changes included the adoption of parts from the Triumph T140 TSX model such as the abbreviated rear mudguard albeit in stainless steel and side panels with a TSX-styled TSS badge affixed; these replaced the original side panels, extended to cover the Bing carburettor linkages on the USA export models. A plastic'ducktail' seat unit was mounted above the shortened rear mudguard of the projected 1984 civilian model and rear set footrests and gear shift mechanisms fitted. Police TSS AV retained the standard footrest/control arrangement as well as conventional cycle parts over the ducktail and TSX parts. Due to the height clearance limitations caused by the engine jogging about its rubber mounts within the Enforcer frame, the shorter Amal Mk2 carburettors instead of Bings were fitted.

Only three examples of the TSS AV in police and civilian specification were made including one for the late Chris Buckle, proprietor of former Triumph dealers, Roebucks Motorcycles. Not quite to the envisaged 1984 specification, this was made on 27 June 1983 and is, according to the factory production records held by the Vintage Motor Cycle Club, the last complete Meriden Triumph; this is the pictured burgundy-coloured example now on display at the National Motorcycle Museum in Solihull, West Midlands close to the former factory site. It was factory -fitted with Koni rear suspension units and omitted the'ducktail' in favour of the conventional rear mudguard arrangement. Another prototype from the unrealised 1984 range, a TSS engine, with Bings, in Triumph T140 TSX cycle parts was to be marketed as the TSX8, the original four-valve version renamed as the TSX4. Wayne Moulton who designed the TSX, had done so with the 8-valve TSS engine in mind

FĂ©lix Debax

Félix Lucien Roger Debax was a French army officer and Olympic fencer. Born in Toulouse, Debax entered the army as an officer-candidate at the age of 18. After service with the infantry, he became attached to the army gymnastics school in 1889, he was transferred back to the infantry for two years before returning to the ecole. Debax remained a gymnastics teacher until 1901 during which time he competed as a fencer at the 1900 Summer Olympics in Paris. After Debax left the ecole he was transferred to the infantry once again, though he published books on the teaching of gymnastics and fighting with the bayonet, studied at the Stockholm Gymnastics Institute. Promoted to chef de bataillon Debax was killed on 25 August 1914, fighting the German forces at Saint-Maurice-sous-les-Côtes during the first month of the First World War. Debax was born in Toulouse on 28 September 1864 at 21:00, he was the son of Blanche Chemineau Debax. Debax joined the French Army in Toulouse on 24 October 1882, for an initial five-year commission, seven days became an officer cadet at the Ecole Spéciale Militaire de Saint-Cyr.

He was promoted to corporal-cadet on 3 November 1883 and was commissioned as a sub-lieutenant in the 83rd Infantry Regiment on 1 October 1884. Debax was promoted to lieutenant in the 57th Infantry regiment on 29 February 1888. Debax became an instructor at the army's Ecole Normale de Gymnastique on 17 January 1889 before he was promoted to captain and posted out to the 34th Infantry Regiment on 26 December 1893. Debax returned to the Ecole Normale on 26 October 1895, he was appointed an officer of the Danish Order of the Dannebrog on 19 March 1898 and an officer of the French Ordre des Palmes Académiques on 22 January the same year. Debax remained on secondment to the Ecole Normale for some years, though his nominal home regiment changed to the 124th Infantry Regiment, 150th Infantry Regiment, 7th Infantry Regiment and the 1st Regiment of Zouaves in this time, he became a knight of the Swedish Order of the Sword on 2 May 1900 and an officer of the Turkish Order of Osmanieh on 4 October the same year.

Debax competed in the individual foil fencing event at the 1900 Summer Olympics. He progressed from the first round and quarter-finals to finish fourth in the final pool in which he won four bouts and lost three. Debax transferred out of the Ecole Normale and into the 18th Infantry Regiment as a captain on 12 October 1901, he was appointed a knight of the Spanish Order of Isabella the Catholic and a first class member of the Order of Military Merit on 14 December 1901. Debax was granted permission to study at the Gymnastics Institute in Stockholm on 4 October 1902. In 1905 he published. On 20 June 1906, Debax received a letter of commendation from the Minister of War, Eugène Étienne, for his work at Stockholm. Debax returned to the 18th Infantry Regiment and became their adjutant on 18 September 1906. On 30 May 1907 he was appointed a chevalier of the Legion of Honour and received the French médaille militaire. Debax remained with the 19th Infantry Regiment until at least 1 June 1908, by which time he had been promoted to chef de bataillon, but by 1 December 1909 was serving with the 14th Infantry regiment.

He published the book Étude sur l'escrime de combat à la baïonnette in 1913 and gave his rank as commandant. By 1 June 1914 Debax was with the 40th Infantry Regiment. Upon the outbreak of the First World War he was chef de bataillon of the 240th Infantry Regiment, he was killed in action against German forces at Saint-Maurice-sous-les-Côtes, Meuse on 25 August 1914. His name is recorded on the war memorial at Falga near his birthplace; the Rue Félix Debax in Blagnac, near to Toulouse, is named after him. List of Olympians killed in World War I